무의식의 심리학/Part2

위키문헌 ― 우리 모두의 도서관.
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Before I enter upon the contents of this second part, it seems necessary to cast a backward glance over the sin- gular train of thought which the analysis of the poem " The Moth to the Sun " has produced. Although this poem is very different from the foregoing Hymn of Crea- tion, closer investigation of the " longing for the sun " has carried us into the realm of the fundamental ideas of religion and astral mythology, which ideas are closely related to those considered in the first poem. The crea- tive God of the first poem, whose dual nature, moral and physical, was shown especially clearly to us by Job, has in the second poem a new qualification of astral-mytho- logical, or, to express it better, of astrological character. The God becomes the sun, and in this finds an adequate natural expression quite apart from the moral division of the God idea into the heavenly father and the devil. iThe sun is, as Renan remarked, really the only rational representation of God, whether we take the point of view of the barbarians of other ages or that of the modern physical sciences. In both cases the sun is the parent God, mythologically predominantly the Father God, from whom all living things draw life; He is the fructifier and



creator of all that lives, the source of energy of our world. The discord into which the soul of man has fallen through the action of moral laws* can be resolved into complete harmony through the sun as the natural object which obeys no human moral law. The sun is not only beneficial, but also destructive; therefore the zodi- acal representation of the August heat is the herd-devour- ing lion whom the Jewish hero Samson * lulled in order to free the parched earth from this plague. Yet it is the harmonious and inherent nature of the sun to scorch, and its scorching power seems natural to men. It shines equally on the just and on the unjust, and allows useful living objects to flourish as well as harmful ones. There- fore, the sun is adapted as is nothing else to represent the visible God of this world. That is to say, that driving strength of our own soul, which we call libido, and whose nature it is to allow the useful and injurious, the good and the bad to proceed. That this comparison is no mere play of words is taught us by the mystics. When by looldng inwards (introversion) and going down into the depths of their own being they find " in their heart " the image of the Sun, they find their own love or libido, which with reason, I might say with physical reason, is called the Sun; for our source of energy and life is the Sun. Thus our life substance, as an energic process, is entirely Sun. Of what special sort this ** Sun energy " seen inwardly by the mystic is, is shown by an example taken from the Hindoo mythology.* From the explana- tion of Part III of the " Shvetashvataropanishad *' we take the following quotation, which relates to the Rudra : *


(2) "Yea, tbe one Rudra who all these worlds with ruling power doth rule, stands not for any second. Behind those that are bom he stands; at ending time ingathers all the worlds he hath evolved, protector (he).

(3) "He hath eyes on all sides, on all sides surely hath faces, arms surely on all sides, on all sides feet. With arms, with wings he tricks them out, creating heaven and earth, the only God.

(4) " Who of the gods is both the source and growth, the Lord of all, the Rudra. Mighty seer; who brought the shining germ of old into existence — ^may he with reason pure conjoin us." *

These attributes allow us clearly to discern the all- creator and in him the Sun, which has wings and with a thousand eyes scans the world."

The following passages confirm the text and join to it the idea most important for us, that God is also contained in the individual creature :

(7) "Beyond this (world) the Brahman beyond, the mighty one, in every creature hid according to its form, the one encircling Lord of all. Him having known, inmiortal they become.

(8) "I know this mighty man, Sun-like, beyond the darkness. Him (and him) only knowing, one crosseth over death; no other path (at all) is there to go.

(11) ". • . spread over the universe is He the Lord there- fore as all-pervader, He's benign."

tThe powerful God, the equal of the Sun, is In that one, and whoever knows him Is Immortal.^ Going on further with the text, we come upon a new attribute, which informs us in what form and manner Rudra lived in men.

(12) "The mighty monarch, He, the man, the one who doth the essence start towards that peace of perfect stainlessness, lordly, exhaustless lig^t


(13) "The Man, the size of a thumb, the inner self, sits ever in the heart of all that's bom, by mind, mind ruling in the heart, is He revealed. That they who know, inmiortal they be- come.

(14) "The Man of the thousands of heads (and) thousands of eyes (and) thousands of feet, covering the earth on all sides, He stands beyond, ten finger-breadths.

(15) " The Man is verily this all, (both) what has been and what will be. Lord (too) of deathlessness which far all else surpasses."

Important parallel quotations are to be found in the '* Kathopanishad," section 2, part 4.

(12) "The Man of the size of a thumb, resides in the midst within the self, of the past and the future, the Lord.

(13) " The Man of the size of a thumb like flame free from smoke, of past and of future the Lord, the same is to-day, to- morrow the same will He be."

Who this Tom-Thumb is can easily be divined — ^the phallic symbol of the libido. The phallus is this hero dwarf, who performs great deeds; he, this ugly god in homely form, who is the great doer of wonders, since he is the visible expression of the creative strength incarnate in man. This extraordinary contrast is also very striking in " Faust" (the mother scene) :


rU praise thee ere we separate: I see Thou knowest the devil thoroughly: Here take this key.


That litde thing!

Mephistopheles :

Take hold of it, not undervaluing!


Faust: It glows, it shines, increases in my hand I

Mephistopheles : How much it is worth, thou soon shalt understand, The key will scent the true place from all others I Follow it down! — 'twill lead thee to the Mothers! *

Here the devil again puts into Faust's hand the mar- vellous tool, a phallic symbol of the libido, as once before in the beginning the devil, in the form of the black dog, accompanied Faust, when he introduced himself with the words :

" Part of that power, not understood. Which always wills the bad and slwzys creates the good."

United to this strength, Faust succeeded in accomplish- ing his real life task, at first through evil adventure and then for the benefit of humanity, for without the evil there is no creative power. Here in the mysterious mother scene, where the poet unveils the last mystery of the creative power to the initiated, Faust has need of the phallic mag^c wand (in the magic strength of which he has at first no confidence), in order to perform the greatest of wonders, namely, the creation of Paris and Helen. With that Faust attains the divine power of working miracles, and, indeed, only by means of this smaU, insignificant instrument. This paradoxical impres- sion seems to be very ancient, for even the Upanishads could say the following of the dwarf god:

  • Bayard Taylor's translation of " Faust " is used throughout this book.



(19) ** Without hands, without feet, He moveth, He graspeth: Eyeless He seeth, (and) earless He heareth: He knoweth what is to be known, yet is there no knower of Him. Him call the first, mighty the Man.

(20) ** Smaller than small, (yet) greater than great in the heart of this creature the self doth repose • . . etc"

The phallus is the being, which moves without limbs, which sees without eyes, which knows the future ; and as symbolic representative of the universal creative power existent everywhere inmiortality is vindicated in it. It is always thought of as entirely independent, an idea cur- rent not only in antiquity, but also apparent in the porno- graphic drawings of our children and artists. It is a seer, an artist and a worker of wonders; therefore it should not surprise us when certain phallic characteristics are found again in the mythological seer, artist and sorcerer. Hephaestus, Wieland the smith, and Mani, the founder of Manicheism, whose followers were also famous, have crippled feet. The ancient seer Melampus possessed a suggestive name (Blackfoot),® and it seems also to be typical for seers to be blind. Dwarfed stature, ugliness and deformity have become especially typical for diose mysterious chthonian gods, the sons of Hephaestus, the Cabirl,® to whom great power to perform miracles was ascribed. The name signifies " powerful," and the Samo- thracian cult is most intimately united with that of the ithy- phallic Hermes, who, according to the account of Herodo- tus, was brought to Attica by the Pelasgians. They are also called ^xByaXot Oeoi, the great gods. Their near relations are the "Idaean dactyli" (finger or Idaean


thumb) ,** to whom the mother of the gods had taught the blacksmith's art. (*VThe key will scent the true place from all others 1 follow it down 1 — 't will lead thee to the Mothers ! ") They were the first leaders, the teachers of Orpheus, and invented the Epheslan magic formulas and the musical rhythms." The characteristic disparity which is shown above in the Upanishad text, and in

  • ^ Faust," is also found here, since the gigantic Hercules

passed as an Idaean dactyl.

The colossal Phrygians, the skilled servants of Rhea,** were also Dactyli. The Babylonian teacher of wisdom, Cannes,*^ was represented in a phallic fish form.** The two sun heroes, the Dioscuri, stand in relation to the Cabiri ; ** they also wear the remarkable pointed head- covering (Pileus) which is peculiar to these mysterious gods,** and which is perpetuated from that time on as a secret mark of identification. Attis (the elder brother of Christ) wears the pointed cap, just as does Mithra. It has also become traditional for our present-day chthonian infantile gods,*^ the brownies (Penates), and all the typical kind of dwarfs. Freud " has already called our at- tention to the phallic meaning of the hat in modern phan- tasies. A further significance is that probably the pointed cap represents the foreskin. In order not to go too far afield from my theme, I must be satisfied here merely to present the suggestion. But at a later opportunity I shall return to this point with detailed proof.

The dwarf form leads to the figure of the divine boy, the puer eternus, the young Dionysus, Jupiter Anxurus, Tages,*^ and so on. In the vase painting of Thebesi


already mentioned, a bearded Dionysus is represented as KABEIP02, together with a figure of a boy as Ilai^, followed by a caricatured boy's figure designated as nPAT0AA02 and then again a caricatured man, which is represented as MIT02.*^ Mlroi really means thread, but in orphic speech it stands for semen. It was con- jectured that this collection corresponded to a group of statuary in the sanctuary of a cult. This supposition is supported by the history of the cult as far as it is known; it is an original Phenician cult of father and son;'^ of an old and young Cabir who were more or less assimi- lated with the Grecian gods. The double figures of the adult and the child Dionysus lend themselves particularly to this assimilation. One might also call this the cult of the large and small man. Now, under various aspects, Dionysus is a phallic god in whose worship the phallus held an important place ; for example, in the cult of the Argivian Bull — Dionysus. Moreover, the phallic herme of the god has given occasion for a personification of the phallus of Dionysus, in the form of the god Phales, who is nothing else but a Priapus. He is called iratpoi: or (Tvyxoajioi Baxxov*.^^ Corresponding to this state of affairs, one cannot very well fail to recognize in the pre- viously mentioned Cabiric representation, and in the added boy's figure, the picture of man and his penis." The previously mentioned paradox in the Upanishad text of large and small, of g^ant and dwarf, is expressed more mildly here by man and boy, or father and son." The motive of deformity which is used constantly by the

  • Comrade — ^fellow-reyeller.


Cabiric cult is present also in the vase picture, while the parallel figures to Dionysus and Hats are the carica- tured Miroi and IlpatoXao^. Just as formerly the dif- ference in size gave occasion for division, so does the deformity here.*'

Without first bringing further proof to bear, I may remark that from this knowledge especially strong side- lights are thrown upon the original psycholo^c meaning of the religious heroes. Dionysus stands in an intimate relation with the psychology of the early Asiatic God who died and rose again from the dead and whose mani- fold manifestations have been brought together in the figure of Christ into a firm personality enduring for cen- turies. We gain from our premise the knowledge that these heroes, as well as their typical fates, are personi- fications of the human libido and its typical fates. They are imagery, like the figures of our nightly dreams — the actors and interpreters of our secret thoughts. And since we, in the present day, have the power to decipher the symbolism of dreams and thereby surmise the myste- rious psychologic history of development of the indi- vidual, so a way is here opened to the understanding of the secret springs of impulse beneath the psycholo^c development of races. Our previous trains of thought, which demonstrate the phallic side of the symbolism of the libido^ also show how thoroughly justified is the term "libido."*" Originally taken from the sexual sphere, this word has become the most frequent technical expres- sion of psychoanalysis, for the simple reason that its significance is wide enough to cover all the unknown and


countless manifestations of the Will in the sense of Scho- penhauer. It is sufficiently comprehensive and rich in meaning to characterize the real nature of the psychical entity which it includes. The exact classical sigmficance of the word libido qualifies it as an entirely appro- priate term. Libido is taken in a very wide sense in Cicero : ^^

"(Volunt ex duobus opinatis) bonis (nasci) Libidinem et Laetitiam; ut sit laetitia prassentium bonorum: libido futurorum. — Lsetitia autem et Libido in bonorum opinione versantur, cum Libido ad id, quod videtur bonum, illecta et inflammata rapiatur. — Natura enim omnes ea, quae bona videntur, sequuntur, fugi- untque contraria. Quamobrem simul objecta species cuiuqnam est, quod bonum videatur, ad id adipiscendum impellit ipsa natura. Id cum constanter prudenterque fit, ejusmodi appedtionem stoici /3ov\tj(Tiv appellant, nos appellamus voluntatem; eam illi putant in solo esse sapiente, quam sic definiunt; voluntas est quas quid cum ratione desiderat: quae autem ratione adversa incitata est vehementius, ea libido est, vel cupiditas effrenata, quae in omnibus stultis invcnitur." *

The meaning of libido here is to wish," and in the

stoical distinction of will, dissolute desire. Cicero '* used

" libido " in a corresponding sense :

  • From the good proceed desire and joy — ^joy having reference to

present good, and desire to some future one — but joy and desire depend upon the opinion of good ; as desire being inflamed and provoked it carried on eagerly toward what has the appearance of good, and joy is trans- ported and exults on obtaining what was desired: for we naturally pursue those things that have the appearance of good, and avoid the con- trary — ^wherefore as soon as anything that has the appearance of good presents itself, nature incites us to endeavor to obtain it Now where this strong desire is consistent and founded on prudence, it is by the stoics called Bulesis and the name which we give it is volition, and this they allow to none but their wise men, and define it thus; volition is a reason- able desire; but whatever is incited too violently in opposition to reason, that is a lust or an unbridled desire which is discoverable in all fools. — rA# Tuiculan Disputation, Cicero, page 40s*


" Agere rem aliquam libidine, non ratione." ♦ In the same sense Sallust says:

Iracundia pars est libidinis.

In another place in a milder and more general sense, which completely approaches the analytical use :

Magisque in decoris armis et militaribus equis, quam in scortis et conviviis libidincm habcbant." ♦


Quod si tibi bona libido fuerit patriae, etc."

The use of libido is so general that the phrase '* libido est scire merely had the significance of '^ I will, it pleases me." In the phrase " aliquam libido urinae lacessit " libido had the meaning of urgency. The significance of sexual desire is also present in the classics.

This general classical application of the conception agrees with the corresponding etymological context of the word, libido or lubido (with libet, more ancient luhet) , it pleases me, and libens or lubens = gladly, will- mgly. Sanskrit, lubhyati = to experience violent longing, lobhayati = excites longing, lubdha-h = eager, lobha-h = longing, eagerness. Gothic = liufs, and Old High Ger- man Hob = love. Moreover, in Gothic, lubains was rep- resented as hope ; and Old High German, lobon = to praise, /ofe = commendation, praise, glory; Old Bulga- rian, Ijubiti = to love, Ijuby = love ; Lithuanian, lidup-

  • Libido is used for arms and military horses rather than for dissipations

and banquets.


sinti = to praise.** It can be said that the conception of libido as developed in the new work of Freud and of his school has functionally the same significance in the biological territory as has the conception of energy since the time of Robert Mayer in the physical realm.** It may not be superfluous to say something more at this point concerning the conception of libido after we have followed the formation of its symbol to its highest ex- pression in the human form of the religious hero.




The chief source of the history of the analytic con- ception of libido is Freud's " Three Contributions to the Sexual Theory." There the term libido is conceived by him in the ori^nal narrow sense of sexual impulse, sexual need. Experience forces us to the assumption of a capacity for displacement of the libido, because functions or localizations of non-sexual force are undoubtedly capable of taking up a certain amount of libidinous sexual impetus, a libidinous afflux.^ Functions or objects could, therefore, obtain sexual value, which under normal cir- cumstances really have nothing to do with sexuality.' From this fact results the Freudian comparison of the libido with a stream, which is divisible, which can be danuned up, which overflows into branches, and so on.' Freud's ori^nal conception does not interpret " every- thing sexual," although this has been asserted by critics, but recognizes the existence of certain forces, the nature of which are not well known ; to which Freud, however, compelled by the notorious facts which are evident to any layman, grants the capacity to receive " affluxes of libido." The hypothetical idea at the basis is the symbol of the " Trlebbiindel " * (bundle of impulses), wherein the sexual impulse figures as a partial impulse of the whole


system, and Its encroachment into the other realms of impulse is a fact of experience. The theory of Freud, branching off from this interpretation, according to wluch the motor forces of a neurotic system correspond pre- cisely to their libidinous additions to other (non-sexual) functional impulses, has been sufficiently proven as cor- rect, it seems to me, by the work of Freud and his school/ Since the appearance of the "Three Contributions/' in 1905, a change has taken place ^ in the libido conception; its field of application has been widened. An extremely clear example of this amplification is this present work. However, I must state that Freud, as well as myself, saw the need of widening the conception of libido. It was paranoia, so closely related to dementia prxcox, which seemed to compel Freud to enlarge the earlier limits of the conception. The passage in question, which I will quote here, word for word, reads : ^

A third consideration which presents itself, in regard to the views developed here, starts the query as to whether we should accept as sufficiently effectual the universal receding of the libido from the outer world, in order to interpret from that, the end of the world: or whether in this case, the firmly rooted possession of the ' I ' must not suffice to uphold the rapport with the outer world. Then one must either let that which we call possession of the libido (interest from erotic sources) coincide with interest in general, or else take into consideration the possibility that great disturbance in the disposition of the libido can also induce a corre- sponding disturbance in the possession of the ' I.' Now, these are the problems, which we are still absolutely helpless and unfitted to answer. Things would be different could we proceed from a safe fund of knowledge of instinct. But the truth is, we have nothing of that kind at our disposal. We understand instinct as the resultant of the reaction of the somatic and the psychic.


We sec in it the psychical representation of organic forces and take the popular distinction between the ' I ' impulse and the sexual impulse, which appears to us to be in accord with the biological double role of the individual being who aspires to his own preservation as well as to the preservation of the species. But anything beyond this is a structure, which we set up, and also willingly let fall again in order to orient ourselves in the confusion of the dark processes of the soul ; we expect particularly, from the psychoanalytic investigations into diseased soul processes, to have certain decisions forced upon us in regard to questions of the theory of instinct. This expectation has not yet been fulfilled on account of the still immature and limited investigations in these fields. At present the possibility of the reaction of libido dis- turbance upon the possession of the ' I ' can be shown as little as the reverse; the secondary or induced disturbances of the libido processes through abnormal changes in the * I.' It is prob- able that processes of this sort form the distinctive character of the psychoses. The conclusions arising from this, in relation to paranoia, are at present uncertain. One cannot assert that the paranoiac has completely withdrawn his interest from the outer world, -nor withdrawn into the heights of repression, as one some- times sees in certain other forms of hallucinatory psychoses. He takes notice of the outer world, he takes account of its changes, he is stirred to explanations by their influence, and therefore I con- sider it highly probable that the changed relation to the world is to be explained, wholly or in great part, by the deficiency of the libido interest."

In this passage Freud plainly touches upon the ques- tion whether the well-known longing for reality of the paranoic dement (and the dementia praecox patients),® to whom I have especially called attention in my book, " The Psychology of Dementia Praecox," • is to be traced back to the withdrawal of the " libidinous affluxes " alone, or whether this coincides with the so-called ob- jective interest in general. It is hardly to be assumed


that the normal " fonction du reel " (Janet) ** is main- tained only through affluxes of libido or erotic interest. The fact is that in very many cases reality disappears entirely, so that not a trace of psychological adaptation or orientation can be recognized. Reality is repressed under these circumstances and replaced by the contents of the complex. One must of necessity say that not only the erotic interest but the interest in general has disap- peared, that is to say, the whole adaptation to reality has ceased. To this category belong the stuporose and cata- tonic automatons.

I have previously made use of the expression " psyduc energy " in my " Psychology of Dementia Praecox " be- cause I was unable to establish the theory of this psy- chosis upon the conception of the displacement of the affluxes of libido. My experience, at that time chiefly psychiatric, did not enable me to understand this theory. However, the correctness of this theory in regard to neuroses, strictly speaking the transference neuroses, was proven to me later after increased experience in the field of hysteria and compulsion neuroses. In the territory of these neuroses it is mainly a question whether any portion of the libido which is spared through the specific repression becomes introverted and regressive into earlier paths of transference; for example, the path of the parental transference." With that, however, the former non-sexual psychologic adaptation to the environ- ment remains preserved so far as it does not concern the erotic and its secondary positions (symptoms). The reality which is lacking to the patients is just that portion


of the libido to be found in the neurosis. In dementia praBCX)x, on the contrary, not merely that portion of libido which IS saved in the well-known specific sexual repression is lacking for reality, but much more than one could write down to the account of sexuality in a strict sense. The function of reality is lacking to such a degree that even the motive power must be encroached upon in the loss. The sexual character of this must be disputed absolutely,** for reality is not understood to be a sexual function. Moreover, if that were so, the introversion of the libido in the strict sense must have as a result a loss of reality in the neuroses, and, indeed, a loss which could be com- pared with that of dementia praecox. These facts have rendered it impossible for me to transfer Freud's theory of libido to dementia praecox, and, therefore, I am of the opinion that Abraham's investigation " is hardly ten- able theoretically, from the standpoint of the Freudian theory of libido. If Abraham believes that through the withdrawal of the libido from the outer world the para- noid system or the schizophrenic symptomatology results, then this assumption is not justified from the standpoint of the knowledge of that time, because a mere libido in- troversion and regression leads, speedily, as Freud has clearly shown, into the neuroses, and, strictly speaking, into the transference neuroses, and not into dementia praecox. Therefore, the transference of the libido theory to dementia praecox is impossible, because this illness produces a loss of reality which cannot be explained by the deficiency of the libido defined in this narrow sense. It affords me especial satisfaction that our teacher also,


when he laid his hand on the delicate material of the para- noic psychology, was forced to doubt the applicability of the conception of libido held by him at that time. The sexual definition of this did not permit me to understand those disurbances of function, which affect the vague ter- ritory of the hunger instinct just as much as that of the sexual instinct. For a long time the theory of libido seemed to me inapplicable to dementia precox. With increasing experience in analytical work, however, I be- came aware of a gradual change in my conception of libido. In place of the descriptive definition of the " Three Contributions " there gradually grew up a genetic definition of the libido, which rendered it possible for me to replace the expression " psychic energy '* by the term " libido." I was forced to ask myself whether indeed the function of reality to-day does not consist only in its smaller part of libido sexualis and in the greater part of other impulses? It is still a very important question whether phylogenetically the function of reality is not, at least in great part, of sexual origin. To answer this ques- tion directly in regard to the function of reality is not possible, but we shall attempt to come to an understand- ing indirectly.

A fleeting glance at the history of evolution is su£Bdent to teach us that countless complicated functions to which to-day must be denied any sexual character were orig- inally pure derivations from the general impulse of propagation. During the ascent through the animal king- dom an important displacement in the fundamentals of the procreative instinct has taken place. The mass of


the reproductive products with the uncertainty of fer- tilization has more and more been replaced by a controlled impregnation and an effective protection of the offspring. In this way part of the energy required in the production of eggs and sperma has been transposed into the creation of mechanisms for allurement and for protection of the young. Thus we discover the first instincts of art in ani- mals used in the service of the impulse of creation, and limited to the breeding season. The original sexual char- acter of these biological institutions became lost in their organic fixation and functional independence. Even if there can be no doubt about the sexual origin of music, still it would be a poor, unaesthetic generalization if one were to include music in the category of sexuality. A similar nomenclature would then lead us to classify the cathedral of Cologne as mineralogy because it is built of stones. It can be a surprise only to those to whom the history of evolution is unknown to find how few things there really are in human life which cannot be reduced in the last analysis to the instinct of procreation. It includes very nearly everything, I think, which is beloved and dear to us. We spoke just now of libido as the creative im- pulse and at the same time we allied ourselves with the conception which opposes libido to hunger in the same way that the instinct of the preservation of the spedes is opposed to the instinct of self-preservation. In nature, this artificial distinction does not exist. Here we see only a continuous life impulse, a will to live which will attain the creation of the whole species through the preservation of the individual. Thus far this conception coincides with


the idea of the Will in Schopenhauer, for we can conceive Will objectively, only as a manifestation of an internal desire. This throwing of psycholopcal perceptions into material reality is characterized philosophically as "in- trojection." (Ferenczi's conception of " introjection " denoted the reverse, that is, the taking of the outer world into the inner world.)" Naturally, the conception of the world was distorted by introjection. Freud's conception of the principle of desire is a voluntary formulation of the idea of introjection, while his once more voluntarily con- ceived principle of reality " corresponds functionally to that which I designate as " corrective of reality,*' and R. Avenarius " designates as " empiriokritische Prinzipial- koordination." The conception of power owes its exist- ence to this very introjection; this has already been said expressively by Galileo in his remark that its origin is to be sought in the subjective perception of the muscular power of the individual. Because we have already arrived at the daring assumption that the libido, which was em- ployed originally in the exclusive service of egg and seed production, now appears firmly organized in the function of nest-building, and can no longer be employed other- wise; similarly this conception forces us to relate it to every desire, including hunger. For now we can no longer make any essential distinction between the will to build a nest and the will to eat. This view brings us to a con- ception of libido, which extends over the boundaries of the physical sciences into a philosophical aspect — to a con- ception of the will in general. I must give this bit of psychological '^ Voluntarismus " into the hands of the


philosophers for them to manage. For the rest I refer to the words of Schopenhauer ^^ relating to this. In con- nection with the psychology of this conception (by which I understand neither metapsychology nor metaphysics) I am reminded here of the cosmogenic meaning of Eros in Plato and Hesiod/^ and also of the orphic figure of Phanes, the " shining one/' the first created, the " father of Eros." Phanes has also orphically the significance of Priapus; he is a god of love, bisexual and similar to the Theban Dionysus Lysios." The orphic meaning of Phanes is similar to that of the Indian Kama, the god of love, which is also the cosmogenic principle. To Plotinus, of the Neo-Platonic school, the world-soul is the energy of the intellect." Plotinus compares " The One," the crea- tive primal principle, with light in general; the intellect with the Sun ( 3 ) , the world-soul with the moon ( $ ) . In another comparison Plotinus compares " The One " with the Father, the intellect with the Son.'^ The " One " designated as Uranus is transcendent. The son as Kronos has dominion over the visible world. The world-soul (designated as Zeus) appears as subordinate to him. The

  • ' One," or the Usia of the whole existence is designated

by Plotinus as hypostatic, also as the three forms of ema- nation, also /i/ar ovffza iv rptfflv vnotsratsstsivj^ As Drews observed, this is also the formula of the Christian Trinity (God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost) as it was decided upon at the councils of Nicea and Constantinople." It may also be noticed that certain early Christian sectarians attributed a maternal signifi-

  • One substance 10 three forms.


cance to the Holy Ghost (world-soul, moon). (Sec what follows concerning Chi of Timaeus.) According to Plo- tinus, the world-soul has a tendency toward a divided existence and towards divisibility, the conditio sine qua non of all change, creation and procreation (also a ma- ternal quality). It is an unending all of life** and wholly energy; it is a living organism of ideas, whidi attain in it effectiveness and reality.** The intellect is its procreator, its father, which, having conceived it, brings it to development in thought.**

" What lies enclosed in the intellect, comes to development in the world-soul as logos, fills it with meaning and makes it as if intoxicated with nectar." **

Nectar is analogous to soma, the drink of fertility and of life, also to sperma. The soul is fructified by the intellect; as oversoul it is called heavenly Aphrodite, as the undersoul the earthly Aphrodite. " It knows the birth pangs," ** and so on. The bird of Aphrodite, the dove, is not without good cause the symbol of the Holy Ghost.

This fragment of the history of philosophy, which may easily be enlarged, shows the significance of the endo- psychic perception of the libido and of its symbolism in human thought.

In the diversity of natural phenomena we see the de- sire, the libido, in the most diverse applications and forms. We see the libido in the stage of childhood almost wholly occupied in the instinct of nutrition, which takes care of the upbuilding of the body. With the development of the body there are successively opened new spheres of appli-


cation for the libido. The last sphere of application, and surpassing all the others in its functional significance, is sexuality, which seems at first almost bound up with the function of nutrition. ( Compare with this the influence on procreation of the conditions of nutrition in lower ani- mals and plants. ) In the territory of sexuality, the libido wins that formation, the enormous importance of which has justified us in the use of the term libido in general. Here the libido appears very properly as an impulse of procreation, and almost in the form of an undifferentiated sexual primal libido, as an energy of growth, which clearly forces the individual towards division, budding, etc. (The clearest distinction between the two forms of libido is to be found among those animals in whom the stage of nutrition is separated from the sexual stage by a chrysalis stage.)

From that sexual primal libido which produced millions of eggs and seeds from one small creature derivatives have been developed with the great limitation of the fecundity; derivatives in which the functions are main- tained by a special differentiated libido. This differen- tiated libido is henceforth desexualized because it is dis- sociated from its original function of egg and sperma production ; nor is there any possibility of restoring it to its original function. Thus, in general, the process of development consists in an increasing transformation of the primal libido which only produced products of generation to the secondary functions of allurement and protection of the young. This now presupposes a very different and very complicated relation to reality, a true


function of reality, which, functionally inseparable, is bound up with the needs of procreation. Thus the altered mode of procreation carries with it as a correlate a cor- respondingly heightened adaptation to reality."

In this way we attain an insight into certain primitive conditions of the function of reality. It would be radically wrong to say that its compelling power is a sexual one. It was a sexual one to a large extent. The process of transformation of the primal libido into secondary im- pulses always took place in the form of affluxes of sexual libido, that is to say, sexuality became deflected from its original destination and a portion of it turned, little by little, increasing in amount, into the phylogenetic impulse of the mechanisms of allurement and of protection of the young. This diversion of the sexual libido from the sexual territory into associated functions is still taking place." Where this operation succeeds without injury to the adaptation of the individual it is called sublimation. Where the attempt does not succeed it is called repression.

The descriptive standpoint of psychology accepts the multiplicity of instincts, among which is the sexual instincti as a special phenomenon ; moreover, it recognizes certain affluxes of libido to non-sexual instincts.

Quite otherwise is the genetic standpoint. It regards the multiplicity of instincts as issuing from a relative unity, the primal libido ; *® it recognizes that definite amounts of the primal libido are split off, as it were, asso- ciated with the newly formed functions and finally merged in them. As a result of this it is impossible, from the genetic standpoint, to hold to the strictly limited conccp-


tion of libido of the descriptive standpoint; it leads in- evitably to a broadening of the conception. With this we come to the theory of libido that I have surreptitiously introduced into the first part of this work for the pur- pose of making this genetic conception familiar to the reader. The explanation of this harmless deceit I have saved until the second part.

For the first time, through this genetic idea of libido, which in every way surpasses the descriptive sexual, the transference was made possible of the Freudian libido theory into the psychology of mental disease. The pas- sage quoted above shows how the present Freudian con- ception of libido collides with the problem of the psychoses." Therefore, when I speak of libido, I asso- ciate with it the genetic conception which contains not only the immediate sexual but also an amount of desexual- ized primal libido. When I say a sick person takes his libido away from the outer world, in order to take pos- session of the inner world with it, I do not mean that he takes away merely the affluxes from the function of reality, but he takes energy away, according to my view, from those desexualized instincts which regularly and properly support the function of reality.

With this alteration in the libido conception, certain parts of our terminology need revision as well. As we know, Abraham has undertaken the experiment of trans- ferring the Freudian libido theory to dementia praecox and has conceived the characteristic lack of rapport and the cessation of the function of reality as autoerotism. This conception needs revision. Hysterical introversion


of the libido leads to autoerotism, since the patient's erotic afflux of libido designed for the function of adaptation is introverted, whereby his ego is occupied by the corre- sponding amount of erotic libido. The schizophrenic, however, shuns reality far more than merely the erotic afflux would account for; therefore, his inner condition is very different from that of the hysteric. He is more than autoerotic, he builds up an intra-psychic equivalent for reality, for which purpose he has necessarily to employ other dynamics than that afforded by the erotic afflux. Therefore, I must grant to Bleuler the right to reject the conception of autoerotism, taken from the study of hys- terical neuroses, and there legitimate, and to replace it by the conception of autismus.^® I am forced to say that this term is better fitted to facts than autoerotism. With this I acknowledge my earlier idea of the identity of autismus (Bleuler) and autoerotism (Freud) as unjusti- fied, and, therefore, retract it." This thorough revision of the conception of libido has compelled me to tlus.

From these considerations it follows necessarily that the descriptive psychologic conception of libido must be given up in order for the libido theory to be applied to dementia praecox. That it is there applicable is best shown in Freud's brilliant investigation of Schreber's phantasies. The question now is whether this genetic conception of libido proposed by me is suitable for the neuroses. I believe that this question may be answered affirmatively. " Natura non fecit saltum " — it is not merely to be expected but it is also probable that at least tem- porary functional disturbances of various degrees appear


in the neuroses, which transcend the boundaries of the Immediate sexual; in any case, this occurs in psychotic episodes. I consider the broadening of the conception of libido which has developed through the most recent an- alytic work as a real advance which will prove of especial advantage in the important field of the introversion psy- choses. Proofs of the correctness of my assumption are already at hand. It has become apparent through a series of researches of the Zurich School, which are now pub- lished in part," that the phantastic substitution products which take the place of the disturbed function of reality bear unmistakable traces of archaic thought. This con- firmation is parallel to the postulate asserted above, ac- cording to which reality is deprived, not merely of an immediate (individual) amount of libido, but also of an already differentiated or desexualized quantity of libido, which, among normal people, has belonged to the function of reality ever since prehistoric times. A dropping away of the last acquisition of the function of reality (or adapta- tion) must of necessity be replaced by an earlier mode of adaptation. We find this principle already in the doc- trines of the neuroses, that is, that a repression resulting from the failure of the recent transference is replaced by an old way of transference, namely, through a regressive revival of the parent imago. In the transference neurosis (hysterical), where merely a part of the immediate sexual libido is taken away from reality by the specific sexual repression, the substituted product is a phantasy of individual origin and significance, with only a trace of those archaic traits found in the phantasies of those


mental disorders in which a portion of the general human function of reality organized since antiquity has broken off. This portion can be replaced only by a generally valid archaic surrogate. We owe a simple and dear ex- ample of this proposition to the investigation of Honeg- ger.'* A paranoic of good intelligence who has a clear idea of the spherical form of the earth and its rotation around the sun replaces the modern astronomical views by a system worked out in great detail, which one must call archaic, in which the earth is a flat disc over wluch the sun travels.'^ (I am reminded of the sun-phallus mentioned in the first part of this book, for which we arc also indebted to Honegger. ) Spielrein has likewise fur- nished some very interesting examples of archaic defini- tions which be^n in certain illnesses to overlay the real meanings of the modern word. For example, Spielrein's patient had correctly discovered the mythological signifi- cance of alcohol, the intoxicating drink, to be an effusion of seed." •* She also had a symbolism of boiling which I must place parallel to the especially important alchemistic vision of Zosimos,^' who found people in boiling water within the cavity of the altar." This patient used earth in place of mother, and also water to express mother.*' I refrain from further examples because future work of the Zurich School will furnish abundant evidence of this sort.

My foregoing proposition of the replacement of the disturbed function of reality by an archaic surrogate is supported by an excellent paradox of Spielrein's. She says: *' I often had the illusion that these patients mig^t


be simply victims of a folk superstition." As a matter of fact, patients substitute phantasies for reality, phantasies similar to the actually incorrect mental products of the past, which, however, were once the view of reality. As the Zosimos vision shows, the old superstitions were sym- bols ^ which permitted transitions to the most remote territory. This must have been very expedient for cer- tain archaic periods, for by this means convenient bridges were offered to lead a partial amount of libido over into the mental realm. Evidently Spielrein thinks of a similar biological meaning of the symbols when she says : *®

" Thus a symbol seems to me to owe its origin in general to the tendency of a complex for dissolution in the common totality of thought. . . . The complex is robbed by that of the personal element. . . . This tendency towards dissolution (transforma- tion) of every individual complex is the motive for poetry, paint- ing, for every sort of art."

When here we replace the formal conception " com- plex " by the conception of the quantity of libido (the total effect of the complex) , which, from the standpoint of* the libido theory, is a justified measure, then does Spiel- rein's view easily agree with mine. When primitive man understands in general what an act of generation is, then, according to the principle of the path of least resistance, he never can arrive at the idea of replacing the generative organs by a sword-blade or a shuttle ; but this is the case with certain Indians, who explain the origin of mankind by the union of the two transference symbols. He then must be compelled to devise an analogous thing in order to bring a manifest sexual interest upon an asexual expres-


sion. The propelling motive of this transition of the immediate sexual libido to the non-sexual representation can, in my opinion, be found only in a resistance which opposes primitive sexuality.

It appears as if, by this means of phantastic analogy formation, more libido would gradually become desexual- ized, because increasingly more phantasy correlates were put in the place of the primitive achievement of the sexual libido. With this an enormous broadening of the world idea was gradually developed because new objects were always assimilated as sexual symbols. It is a question whether the human consciousness has not been brought to its present state entirely or in great part in this man- ner. It is evident, in any case, that an important signifi- cance in the development of the human mind is due to the impulse towards the discovery of analogy. We must agree thoroughly with Steinthal when he says that an absolutely overweening importance must be granted to the little phrase " Gleich wie " (even as) in the history > of the development of thought. It is easy to believe that the carryover of the libido to a phantastic correlate has led primitive man to a number of the most important discoveries.




In the following pages I will endeavor to picture a concrete example of the transition of the libido. I once treated a patient who suffered from a depressive cata- tonic condition. The case was one of only a slight intro- version psychosis; therefore, the existence of many hysterical features was not surprising. In the beginning of the analytic treatment, while telling of a very painful occurrence she fell into a hysterical-dreamy state, in which she showed all signs of sexual excitement. For obvious reasons she lost the knowledge of my presence during this condition. The excitement led to a masturbative act (frictio femorum). This act was accompanied by a peculiar gesture. She made a very violent rotary motion with the forefinger of the left hand on the left temple, as if she were boring a hole there. Afterwards there was complete amnesia for what had happened, and there was nothing to be learned about the queer gesture with her hand. Although this act can easily be likened to a boring into the mouth, nose or ear, now transferred to the temple, it belongs in the territory of infantile ludus sexu- alis ^ — to the preliminary exercise preparatory to sexual activity. Without really understanding it, this gesture,



nevertheless, seemed very important to me. Many weeks later I had an opportunity to speak to the patient's mother, and from her I learned that her daughter had been a very exceptional child. When only two years old she would sit with her back to an open cupboard door for hours and rhythmically beat her head against the door ' — to the distraction of the household. A little later, instead of playing as other children, she began to bore a hole with her finger in the plaster of the wall of the house. She did this with little turning and scraping movements, and kept herself busy at this occupation for hours. She was a complete puzzle to her parents. From her fourth year she practised onanism. It is evident that in this early infantile activity the preliminary stage of the later trouble may be found. The especially remarkable features in this case are, first, that the child did not carry out the action on its own body, and, secondly, the assiduity with wluch it carried on the action.' One is tempted to bring these two facts into a causal relationship and to say, because the child does not accomplish this action on her own body, perhaps that is the reason of the assiduity, for by boring into the wall she never arrives at the same satisfaction as if she executed the activity onanjstically on her own body. The very evident onanistic boring of the patient can be traced back to a very early stage of childhood, which is prior to the period of local onanism. That time is still psychologically very obscure, because individual reproduc- tions and memories are lacking to a great extent, the same as among animals. The race characteristics (manner of life) predominate during the entire life of the animalt


whereas among men the individual character asserts itself over the race type. Granting the correctness of this remark, we are struck with the apparently wholly incom- prehensible individual activity of this child at this early age. We learn from her later life history that her de- velopment, which is, as is always the case, intimately inter- woven with parallel external events, has led to that mental disturbance which is especially well known on account of its individuality and the originality of its productions, i. e. dementia praecox. The peculiarity of this disturbance, as we have pointed out above, depends upon the predomi- nance of the phantastic form of thought — of the infantile in general. From this type of thinking proceed all those numerous contacts with mythological products, and that which we consider as original and wholly individual crea- tions are very often creations which are comparable with nothing but those of antiquity. I believe that tlus com- parison can be applied to all formations of this remark- able illness, and perhaps also to this special symptom of boring. We have already seen that the onanistic boring of the patient dated from a very early stage of childhood, that is to say, it was reproduced from that period of the past. The sick woman fell back for the first time into the early onanism only after she had been married many years, and following the death of her child, with whom she had identified herself through an overindulgent love. When the child died the still healthy mother was over- come by early infantile symptoms in the form of scarcely concealed fits of masturbation, which were associated with this very act of boring. As already observed, the primary


boring appeared at a time which preceded the infantile onanism localized in the genitals. This fact is of signifi- cance in so far as this boring differs thereby from a similar later practice which appeared after the genital onanism. The later bad habits represent, as a rule, a substitution for repressed genital masturbation, or for an attempt in this direction. As such these habits (finger-sucking, biting the nails, picking at things, boring into the ears and nose^ etc. ) may persist far into adult life as regular symptoms of a repressed amount of libido.

As has already been shown above, the libido in youth- ful individuals at first manifests itself in the nutritional zone, when food is taken in the act of suckling with rhythmic movements and with every sign of satisfaction. With the growth of the individual and the development of his organs the libido creates for itself new avenues to supply its need of activity and satisfaction. The primary model of rhythmic activity, producing pleasure and satis- faction, must now be transferred to the zone of other functions, with sexuality as its final goal. A considerable part of the " hunger libido " is transferred into the sexual libido." This transition does not take place sud- denly at the time of puberty, as is generally supposed, but very gradually in the course of the greater part of child- hood. The libido can free itself only with difficulty and very slowly from that which is peculiar to the function of nutrition, in order to enter into the peculiarity of the sexual function. Two periods are to be distinguished in this state of transition, so far as I can judge — the epoch of suckling and the epoch of the displaced rhythmic activity.


Suckling still belongs to the function of nutrition, but passes beyond it, however, in that it is no longer the func- tion of nutrition, but rhythmic activity, with pleasure and satisfaction as a goal, without the taking of nourishment. Here the hand enters as an auxiliary organ. In the period of the displaced rhythmic activity the hand appears still more clearly as an auxiliary organ; the gaining of pleasure leaves the mouth zone and turns to other regions. The possibilities are now many. As a rule, other openings of the body become the objects of the libido interest; then the skin, and special portions of that. The activity expressed in these parts, which can appear as rubbing, boring, picking, and so on, follows a certain rhythm and serves to produce pleasure. After longer or shorter tarry- ings of the libido at these stations, it passes onward until it reaches the sexual zone, and there, for the first time, can be occasion for the beginning of onanistic attempts. In its migration the libido takes more than a little of the function of nutrition with it into the sexual zone, which readily accounts for the numerous and innate correla- tions between the functions of nutrition and sexuality. If, after the occupation of the sexual zone, an obstacle arises against the present form of application of the libido, then there occurs, according to the well-known laws, a regres- sion to the nearest station lying behind, to the two above- mentioned periods. It is now of special importance that the epoch of the displaced rhythmic activity coincides in a general way with the time of the development of the mind and of speech. I might designate the period from birth until the occupation of the sexual zone as the pre-


sexual stage of development. This generally occurs be- tween the third and fifth year, and is comparable to the chrysalis stage in butterflies. It is distinguished by the irregular commingling of the elements of nutrition and of sexual functions. Certain regressions follow directly back to the presexual stage, and, judging from my experience, this seems to be the rule in the regression of dementia praecox. I will give two brief examples. One case con- cerns a young girl who developed a catatonic state during her engagement. When she saw me for the first time, she came up suddenly, embraced me, and said, " Papa, give me something to eat." The other case concerns a young maidservant who complained that people pursued her with electricity and that this caused a queer feeling in her genitals, ** as if it ate and drank down there."

These regressive phenomena show that even from the distance of the modern mind those early stages^^of the libido can be regressively reached. One may assume, therefore, that in the earliest states of human develop- ment this road was much more easily travelled than it is to-day. It becomes then a matter of great interest to learn whether traces of this have been preserved in history.

We owe our knowledge of the ethnologic phantasy of boring to the valuable work of Abraham,* who also refers us to the writings of Adalbert Kuhn." Through this in- vestigation we learn that Prometheus, the fire-bringer, may be a brother of the Hindoo Pramantha, that is to say, of the masculine fire-rubbing piece of wood. The Hindoo fire-bringer is called Matarijvan, and the acti^ty


of the fire preparation is always designated in the hieratic text by the verb " manthami," • which means shaking, rubbinff, bringing forth by rubbing. Kuhn has put this verb in connection with the Greek pt^vOavoOj which means " to learn," and has explained this conceptual relation- ship/ The ** tertium comparationis " might lie in the rhythm, the movement to and fro in the mind. According to Kuhn, the root "manth" or "math" must be traced from ^avOdvoo {fxaOrffiay lidtOrfai?) to npo-^ijOio^ai to UfiOjArfiBv^y^ who is the Greek fire-robber. Through an unauthorized Sanskrit word " pramathyus," which comes by way of ** pramantha," and which possesses the double meaning of ** Rubber " and " Robber," the transition to Prometheus was effected. With that, however, the prefix ** pra " caused special difficulty, so that the whole derivation was doubted by a series of authors, and was held, in part, as erroneous. On the other hand, it was pointed out that as the Thuric Zeus bore the especially interesting cognomen npo-iiavOev^y thus Ilpo-pirfOevs might not be an original Indo-Germanic stem word that was related to the Sanskrit " pramantha," but might represent only a cognomen. This interpreta- tion is supported by a gloss of Hesychius, !Wa^: o rdov TiTavGov KtfpvS npopirfdBv^.\ Another gloss of Hesychius explains iOalvo^ai {ialvoo) as Bspfxalvopiai^ through which Wflf? attains the meaning of ** the flaming one," analogous to AtOoov or 0\€yva€^ The relation of Prometheus to

  • I learn (that which is learned, knowledfi^e; the act of learning), to

take thought beforehand, to Prometheus (forethought), t Prometheus, the herald of the Titans.


pramantha could scarcely be so direct as Kuhn conjec- tures. The question of an indirect relation is not decided with that. Above all, IIpojiTfOevs is of great significance as a surname for 'l$ds, since the " flaming one " is the

    • fore-thinker." (Pramati = precaution is also an attri-

bute of Agni, although pramati is of another derivation.) Prometheus, however, belongs to the line of Phlegians which was placed by Kuhn in uncontested relationship to the Indian priest family of Bhrgu.^ The Bhrgu are like Matarigvan (the "one swelling in the mother"), also fire-bringers. Kuhn quotes a passage, according to which Bhrgu also arises from the flame like Agni. (" In the flame Bhrgu originated. Bhrgu roasted, but did not bum.") This view leads to a root related to Bhrgu, that is to say, to the Sanskrit bhray = to light, Latin fiilgeo and Greek (pXiyoo (Sanskrit ^A^ir^^j = splendor, Latin fulgur) . Bhrgu appears, therefore, as " the shin- ing one." 9\syva^ means a certain species of eagle, on account of its burnished gold color. The connection with (pKiyeiv, which signifies " to burn," is clear. The Phlegians are also the fire eagles.^® Prometheus also be- longs to the Phlegians. The path from Pramantha to Prometheus passes not through the word, but through the idea, and, therefore, we should adopt this same meaning for Prometheus as that which Pramantha attains from the Hindoo fire symbolism."

The Pramantha, as the tool of Manthana (the fire sacrifice), is considered purely sexual in the Hindoo; the Pramantha as phallus, or man; the bored wood under- neath as vulva, or woman." The resulting fire is the


child, the divine son Agni. The two pieces of wood are called in the cult Pururavas and Urva^T, and were thought of personified as man and woman. The fire was born from the genitals of the woman." An especially inter- esting representation of fire production, as a religious ceremony (manthana), is given by Weber: "

"A certain sacrificial fire was lit by the rubbing together of two sticks; one piece of wood is taken up with the words: ' Thou art the birthplace of the fire/ and two blades of grass are placed upon It; 'Ye are the two testicles/ to the ' adhararani ' (the underlying wood) : * Thou art Urvagi *; then the utararani (that which is placed on top) is anointed with butter. ' Thou art Power.' This is then placed on the adhararani. * Thou art Pururavas ' and both are rubbed three times. * I rub thee with the Gayatrimetrum : I rub thee with the Trishtubhmetrum : I rub thee with the Jagatimetrum.'

> »

The sexual sjrmbolism of this fire production is unmis- takable. We see here also the rhythm, the metre in its original place as sexual rhythm, rising above the mating call into music. A song of the Rigveda " conveys the same interpretation and symbolism :

" Here is the gear for function, here tinder made ready for the

spark. Bring thou the matron : ^^ we will rub Agni in ancient fashion

forth. In the two fire-sticks Jatavedas lieth, even as the well-formed

germ in pregnant women; Agni who day by day must be exalted by men who watch and

worship with oblations; Lay this with care on that which lies extended: straight hath

she borne the steer when made prolific


With his red pillar — radiant in his splendor — in our skilled task is born the son of Ila." ^^ — Book III. xxix: 1-3.

Side by side with the unequivocal coitus symbolism we see that the Pramantha is also Agni, the created son. The Phallus is the son, or the son is the Phallus. There- fore, Agni in the Vedic mythology has the threefold char- acter. With this we arc once more connected with the above-mentioned Cabiric Father-Son-Cult. In the modern German language we have preserved echoes of the prinu- tive symbols. A boy is designated as "bcngel" (short, thick piece of wood). In Hessian as "stift" or "bol- zen " (arrow," wooden peg or stump). The Artemisia Abrotanum, which is called in German *' Stabwurz " (stick root), is called in English " Boy's Love." (The vulgar designation of the penis as ** boy " was remarked even by Grimm and others.) The ceremonial production of fire was retained in Europe as late as the nineteenth century as a superstitious custom. Kuhn mentions such a case even in the year 1828, which occurred in Germany. The solemn, magic ceremony was called the " Nodfyr " — ** The fire of need " ^* — and the charm was chiefly used against cattle epidemics. Kuhn cites from the chronicle of Lanercost of the year 1268 an especially noteworthy case of the " Nodfyr," ^^ the ceremonies of which plainly reveal the fundamental phallic meaning:

" Pro fidei divina; integritate servanda recolat lector, quod cum hoc anno in Laodonia pestis grassaretur in pecudes armenti, quam vocant usetati Lungcssouht, quidam bestiales, habitu claustralcs non animo, docebant idiotas patriae ignem confrictione de lignis educere et simulacrum Priapi statuere, et per ha.ec b^tiU succur-i


rere. Quod cum unus laicus Cisterciensis apud Fentone fecisset ante atrium aulas, ac intinctis testiculis canis in aquam benedictam super animalis sparsisset, etc." *

These examples, which allow us to recognize a clear sexual symbolism in the generation of fire, prove, there- fore, since they originate from different times and differ- ent peoples, the existence of a universal tendency to credit to fire production not only a magical but also a sexual significance. This ceremonial or magic repetition of this very ancient, long-outlived observance shows how insist- ently the human mind clings to the old forms, and how deeply rooted is this very ancient reminiscence of fire boring. One might almost be inclined to see in the sexual symbolism of fire production a relatively late addition to the priestly lore. This may, indeed, be true for the cere- monial elaboration of the fire mysteries, but whether originally the generation of fire was in general a sexual action, that is to say, a '* coitus-play," is still a ques- tion. That similar things occur among very primitive people we learn from the Australian tribe of the Wat- schandies,*^ who in the spring perform the following magic ceremonies of fertilization: They dig a hole in the ground, so formed and surrounded with bushes as to

  • Instead of preserving the divine faith in its purity, the reader will

call to mind the fact that in this year when the plague, usually called Lung sickness, attacked the herds of cattle in Laodonia, certain bestial men, monks in dress but not in spirit, taught the ignorant people of their country to make fire by rubbing wood together and to set up a statue of Priapus, and by that method to succor the cattle. After a Cistercian lay brother had done this near Fentone, in front of the entrance of the '* G>urt, he sprinkled the animals with holy water and with the preserved testicles of a dog, etc


counterfeit a woman's genitals. They dance the night long around this hole; in connection with this they hold spears in front of themselves in a manner to recall the penis in erection. They dance around the hole and thrust their spears into the ditch, while they cry to it, " Pulli nira, pulli nira, watakal'* (non fossa, non fossa, sed cunnus I) Such obscene dances appear among other primi- tive races as well."

In this spring incantation are contained the elements of the coitus play." This play is nothing but a coitus game, that is to say, originally this play was simply a coitus in the form of sacramental mating, which for a long time was a mysterious element among certain cultSi and reappeared in sects.^* In the ceremonies of Zinzen- dorf's followers echoes of the coitus sacrament may be recognized; also in other sects.

One can easily think that just as the above-mentioned Australian bushmen perform the coitus play in this man- ner the same performance could be enacted in another manner, and, indeed, in the form of fire production. In- stead of through two selected human beings, the coitus was represented by two substitutes, by Pururavas and Urva^i, by Phallus and Vulva, by borer and opening. Just as the primitive thought behind other customs is really the sacramental coition so here the primal tendency is really the act itself. For the act of fertilization is the climax — the true festival of life, and well worthy to be- come the nucleus of a religious mystery. If we are justi- fied in concluding that the symbolism of the hole in the earth used by the Watschandies for the fertilization of



the earth takes the place of the coitus, then the genera- tion of fire could be considered in the same way as a substitute for coitus ; and, indeed, it might be further con- cluded as a consequence of this reasoning that the inven- tion of fire-making is also due to the need of supplying a symbol for the sexual act.^°

Let us return, for a moment, to the infantile sjrmptom of boring. Let us imagine a strong adult man carrying on the boring with two pieces of wood with the same per- severance and the energy corresponding to that of this child. He may very easily create fire by this play. But of greatest significance in this work is the rhythm.*' This hypothesis seems to me psychologically possible, although it should not be said with this that only in this way could the discovery of fire occur. It can result just as well by the striking together of flints. It is scarcely possible that fire was created in only one way. All I want to establish here is merely the psychologic process, the symbolic indi- cations of which point to the possibility that in such a way was fire invented or prepared.

The existence of the primitive coitus play or rite seems to me sufficiently proven. The only thing that is obscure is the energy and emphasis of the ritual play. It is well known that those primitive rites were often of very bloody seriousness, and were performed with an extraordinary display of energy, which appears as a great contrast to the well-known indolence of primitive humanity. There- fore, the ritual activity entirely loses the character of play, and wins that of purposeful effort. If certain Negro races can dance the whole night long to three tones in


the most monotonous manner, then, according to our idea, there is in this an absolute lack of the character of play pastime; it approaches nearer to exercise. There seems to exist a sort of compulsion to transfer the libido into such ritual activity. If the basis of the ritual activity is the sexual act, we may assume that it is really the under- lying thought and object of the exercise. Under these circumstances, the question arises why the primitive man endeavors to represent the sexual act symbolically and with effort, or, if this wording appears to be too hypo- thetical, why does he exert energy to such a degree only to accomplish practically useless things, which apparently do not especially amuse him ? " It may be assumed that the sexual act is more desirable to primitive man than such absurd and, moreover, fatiguing exercises. It is hardly possible but that a certain compulsion conducts the energy away from the original object and real purpose, inducing the production of surrogates. The existence of a phallic or orgiastic cult does not indicate eo ipso a par- ticularly lascivious life any more than the ascetic sym- bolism of Christianity means an especially moral life. One honors that which one does not possess or that which one is not. This compulsion, to speak in the nomenclature formulated above, removes a certain amount of libido from the real sexual activity, and creates a symbolic and practically valid substitute for what is lost. This psy- chology is confirmed by the above-mentioned Watschandie ceremony; during the entire ceremony none of the men may look at a woman. This detail again informs us from whence the libido is to be diverted. But this gives


rise to the pressing question, Whence comes this compul- sion? We have already suggested above that the primi- tive sexuality encounters a resistance which leads to a side-tracking of the libido on to substitution actions ( analogy, symbolism, etc. ) . It is unthinkable that it is a question of any outer opposition whatsoever, or of a real obstacle, since it occurs to no savage to catch his elusive quarry with ritual charms; but it is a question of an in- ternal resistance ; will opposes will ; libido opposes libido, since a psychologic resistance as an energic phenomenon corresponds to a certain amount of libido. The psycho- logic compulsion for the transformation of the libido is based on an original division of the will. I will return to this primal splitting of the libido in another place. Here let us concern ourselves only with the problem of the transition of the libido. The transition takes place, as has been repeatedly suggested by means of shifting to an analogy. The libido is taken away from its proper place and transferred to another substratum.

The resistance against sexuality aims, therefore, at preventing the sexual act ; it also seeks to crowd the libido away from the sexual function. We see, for example, in hysteria, how the specific repression blocks the real path of transference; therefore, the libido is obliged to take another path, and that an earlier one, namely, the in- cestuous road which ultimately leads to the parents. Let us speak, however, of the incest prohibition, which hin- dered the very first sexual transference. Then the situa- tion changes in so far that no earlier way of transference is left, except that of the presexual stage of development,


where the libido was still partly in the function of nutri- tion. By a regression to the presexual material the libido becomes quasi-desexualized. But as the incest prohibition signifies only a temporary and conditional restriction of the sexuality, thus only that part of the libido which is best designated as the incestuous component is now pushed back to the presexual stage. The repression, therefore, concerns only that part of the sexual libido which wishes to fix itself permanently upon the parents. The sexual libido is only withdrawn from the incestuous component, repressed upon the presexual stage, and there, if the operation is successful, desexualized, by which this amount of libido is prepared for an asexual application. However, it is to be assumed that this opera- tion is accomplished only with difficulty, because the incestuous libido, so to speak, must be artificially sepa- rated from the sexual libido, with which, for ages, through the whole animal kingdom, it was indistinguishably united. The regression of the incestuous component must, there- fore, take place, not only with great difficulty, but also carry with it into the presexual stage a considerable sexual character. The consequence of this is that the re- sulting phenomena, although stamped with the character of the sexual act, are, nevertheless, not really sexual acts de facto; they are derived from the presexual stage, and are maintained by the repressed sexual libido, therefore possess a double significance. [Thus the fire boring is a coitus (and, to be sure, an incestuous one), but a desexu- alized one, which has lost its immediate sexual worth, and is, therefore, indirectly useful to the propagation of the


species. The presexual stage is characterized by count- less possibilities of application, because the libido has not yet formed definite localizations. It therefore appears intelligible that an amount of libido which reaches this stage through regression is confronted with manifold pos- sibilities of application. Above all, it is met with the possibility of a purely onanistic activity. But as the mat- ter in question in the regressive component of libido is sexual libido, the ultimate object of which is propagation, therefore it goes to the external object (Parents) ; it will also introvert with this destination as its essential char- acter. The result, therefore, is that the purely onanistic activity turns out to be insufficient, and another object must be sought for, which takes the place of the incest object. The nurturing mother earth represents the ideal example of such an object. The psychology of the pre- sexual stage contributes the nutrition component; the sexual libido the coitus idea. From this the ancient sym- bols of agriculture arise. In the work of agriculture hunger and incest intermingle. The ancient cults of mother earth and all the superstitions founded thereon saw in the cultivation of the earth the fertilization of the mother. The aim of the action is desexualized, however, for it is the fruit of the field and the nourishment con- tained therein. The regression resulting from the incest prohibition leads, in this case, to the new valuation of the mother; this time, however, not as a sexual object, but as a nourisher.

The discovery of fire seems to be due to a very similar regression to the pre-sexual stage, more particularly to the


nearest stage of the displaced rhythmic manifestation. The libido, introverted from the incest prohibition (with the more detailed designation of the motor components of coitus), when it reaches the presexual stage, meets the related infantile boring, to which it now gives, in ac- cordance with its realistic destination, an actual material. (Therefore the material is fittingly called ** materia,'* as the object is the mother as above.) As I sought to show above, the action of the infantile boring requires only the strength and perseverance of an adult man and suitable ** material *' in order to generate fire. If this is so, it may be expected that analogous to our foregoing case of onanistic boring the generation of fire originally occurred as such an act of quasi-onanistic activity, ob- jectively expressed. The demonstration of this can never be actually furnished, but it is thinkable that somewhere traces of this original onanistic preliminary exercise of fire production have been preserved. I have succeeded in finding a passage in a very old monument of Hindoo literature which contains this transition of the sexual libido through the onanistic phase in the preparation of fire. This passage is found in Brihadaranyaka-Upani- shad : "

" In truth, he (Atman)^* was as large as a woman and a man, when they embrace each other. This, his own self, he divided into two parts, out of which husband and wife were formed.*^ With her, he copulated; from this humanity sprang. She, how- ever, pondered : ' How may he unite with me after he has created me from himself? Now I shall hide! ' Then she became a cow; he, however, became a bull and mated with her. From that sprang the horned cattle. Then she became a mare ; he, however.


became a stallion; she became a she-ass; he, an ass, and mated with her. From these sprang the whole-hoofed animals. She became a goat; he became a buck; she became an ewe; he became a ram, and mated with her. Thus were created goats and sheep. Thus it happened that all that mates, even down to the ants, he created — then he perceived : ' Truly I myself am Creation, for I have created the whole world! ' Thereupon he rubbed his hands (held before the mouth) so that he brought forth fire from his mouth, as from the mother womb, and from his hands."

We meet here a peculiar myth of creation which re- quires a psychologic interpretation. In the beginning the libido was undifferentiated and bisexual ; '^ this was fol- lowed by differentiation into a male and a female com- ponent. From then on man knows what he is. Now follows a gap in the coherence of the thought where belongs that very resistance which we have postulated above for the explanation of the urge for sublimation. Next follows the onanistic act of rubbing or boring (here finger-sucking) transferred from the sexual zone, from which proceeds the production of fire." The libido here leaves its characteristic manifestation as sexual function and regresses to the presexual stage, where, in conformity with the above explanation, it occupies one of the pre- liminary stages of sexuality, thereby producing, in the view expressed in the Upanishad, the first human art, and from there, as suggested by Kuhn's idea of the root " manth," perhaps the higher intellectual activity in gen- eral. This course of development is not strange to the psychiatrist, for it is a well-known psychopathological fact that onanism and excessive activity of phantasy are very closely related. (The sexualizing-autonomizing of the


mind through autoerotism is so familiar a fact that examples of that are superfluous.) The course of the libido, as we may conclude from these studies, originally proceeded in a similar manner as in the child, only in a reversed sequence. The sexual act was pushed out of its proper zone and was transferred into the analogous mouth zone '* — the mouth receiving the significance of the female genitals ; the hand and the fingers, respectively, re- ceiving the phallic meaning."** In this manner the regress- ively reoccupied activity of the presexual stage is invested with the sexual significance, which, indeed, it already possessed, in part, before, but in a wholly different sense. Certain functions of the presexual stage are found to be permanently suitable, and, therefore, are retained later on as sexual functions. Thus, for example, the mouth zone is retained as of erotic importance, meaning that its valuation is permanently fixed. Concerning the mouth, we know that it also has a sexual meaning among animals, inasmuch as, for example, stallions bite mares in the sexual act; also, cats, cocks, etc. A second significance of the mouth is as an instrument of speech, it serves essentially in the production of the mating call, which mostly repre- sents the developed tones of the animal kingdom. As to the hand, we know that it has the important significance of the contrectation organ (for example, among frogs). The frequent erotic use of the hand among monkeys is well known. If there exists a resistance against the real sexuality, then the accumulated libido is most likely to cause a hyperfunction of those collaterals which are most adapted to compensate for the resistance, that is to say,


the nearest functions which serve for the introduction of the act;** on one side the function of the hand, on the other that of the mouth. The sexual act, however, against which the opposition is directed is replaced by a similar act of the presexual stage, the classic case being either finger-sucking or boring. Just as among apes the foot can on occasions take the place of the hand, so the child Is often uncertain in the choice of the object to suck, and puts the big toe in the mouth instead of the finger. This last movement belongs to a Hindoo rite, only the big toe was not put in the mouth, but held against the eye.*^ Through the sexual significance of the hand and mouth these organs, which in the presexual stage served to ob- tain pleasure, are invested with a procreating power which is identical with the above-mentioned destination, which aims at the external object, because it concerns the sexual or creating libido. When, through the actual preparation of fire, the sexual character of the libido cm- ployed in that is fulfilled, then the mouth zone remains without adequate expression; only the hand has now reached its real, purely human goal in its first art.

The mouth has, as we saw, a further important func- tion, which has just as much sexual relation to the object as the hand, that is to say, the production of the mating call. In opening up the autoerotic ring (hand-mouth)," where the phallic hand became the fire-producing tool, the libido which was directed to the mouth zone was obliged to seek another path of functioning, which natu- rally was found in the already existing love call. The excess of libido entering here must have had the usual


results, namely, the stimulation of the newly possessed function ; hence an elaboration of the mating call.

We know that from the primitive sounds human speech has developed. Corresponding to the psychological situa- tion, it might be assumed that language owes its real origin to this moment, when the impulse, repressed into the presexual stage, turns to the external in order to find an equivalent object there. The real thought as a con- scious activity is, as we saw in the first part of this book, a thinking with positive determination towards the ex- ternal world, that is to say, a " speech thinking." This sort of thinking seems to have originated at that moment. It is very remarkable that this view, which was won by the path of reasoning, is again supported by old tradition and other mythological fragments.

In Aitareyopanishad ^^ the following quotation is to be found in the doctrine of the development of man: " Being brooded-o'er, his mouth hatched out, like as an egg; from out his mouth (came) speech, from speech, the fire." In Part II, where it is depicted how the newly created objects entered man, it reads : '* Fire, speech be- coming, entered in the mouth." These quotations allow us to plainly recognize the intimate connection between fire and speech.*® In Brihadaranyaka-Upanishad is to be found this passage :

" * Yaynavalkya/ thus he spake, * when after the death of this man his speech entereth the fire, his breath into the wind, his eye into the sun, etc.* "

A further quotation from the Brihadaranyaka-Upani- shad reads:


" But when the sun is set, O Yaynavalkya, and the moon has set, and the fire is extinguished, what then serves man as light? Then speech serves him as light; then, by the light of speech he sits, and moves, he carries on his work, and he returns home. But when the sun is set, O Yaynavalkya, and the moon is set, and the fire extinguished, and the voice is dumb, what then serves man as light? Then he serves himself (Atman) as light; then, by the light of himself, he sits and moves, carries on his work and returns home."

In this passage we notice that fire again stands in the closest relation to speech. Speech itself is called a " light," which, in its turn, is reduced to the " light " of the Atman, the creating psychic force, the libido. Thus the Hindoo ntietapsychology conceives speech and fire as emanations of the inner light from which we know that it is libido. Speech and fire are its forms of mani- festation, the first human arts, which have resulted from its transformation. This common psychologic origin seems also to be indicated by certain results of philology. The Indo-Germanic root bhd designates the idea of " to lighten, to shine." This root is found in Greek, q^dco, ipairoo, g)dos ♦,• in old Icelandic ban = white, in New High German bohnen = to make shining. The same root bhd also designates '* to speak " ; it is found in Sanskrit bhan = to speak, Armenian ban = word, in New High German bann = to banish, Greek (pa-^{, iipar, <parii.\ Latin fd-ri, fdnum.

The root bhelso, with the meanings " to ring, to bark," is found in Sanskrit bhas = to bark and bhds = to talky

  • To ahine; to show forth; reveal; — light

tl said; they said; a saying; an oracle.


to speak; Lithuanian balsas = voice, tone. Really hheUso = to be bright or luminous. Connipare Greek ipakoi = bright, Lithuanian bdlti = to become white. Middle High German blasz = pale.

The root Id, with the meaning of "to make sound, to bark," is found in Sanskrit las, lasati = to resound; and las, lasati = to radiate, to shine.

The related root lesS, with the meaning " desire,*' is also found in Sanskrit las, lasati = to play ; lash, Idshati = to desire. Greek X d (xr av pos = lustfulj Gothic lusttis, New High German Lust, Latin lascivus.

A further related root, Idso = to shine, to radiatCi is found in las, Idsati = to radiate, to shine.

This group unites, as is evident, the meanings of " to desire, to play, to radiate, and to sound." A similar archaic confluence of meanings in the primal libido sym- bolism (as we are perhaps justified in calling it) is found in that class of Egyptian words which are derived from the closely related roots ben and bel and the reduplication benben and belbel. The original significance of these roots is ** to burst forth, to emerge, to extrude, to well out," with the associated idea of bubbling, boiling and roundness. Belbel, accompanied by the sign of the obe- lisk, of originally phallic nature, means source of light- The obelisk itself had besides the names of techenu and men also the name benben, more rarely berber and belbel.^^ The libido symbolism makes clear this connec- tion, it seems to me.

The Indo-Germanic root vel, with the meaning " to wave, to undulate" (fire), is found in Sanskrit ulunka


= burning, Greek dXia, Attic aXia = warmth of the sun, Gothic vulan = to undulate, Old High German and Middle High German walm = heat, glow.

The related Indo-Germanic root velko, with the mean- ing of " to lighten, to glow," is found in Sanskrit ulkS = firebrand, Greek FeXxdtvos = Vulcan. This same root vel means also ** to sound " ; in Sanskrit vdni = tone, song, music. Tschech volati = to call.

The root sveno = to sound, to ring, is found in San- skrit svan, svdnati = to rustle, to sound ; Zend qanaht, Latin sondre, Old Iranian senm, Cambrian sain, Latin sonus, Anglo-Saxon svinsian = to resound. The related root svenos = noise, sound, is found in Vedic svdnas = noise, Latin sonor, sonorus. A further related root is svonos = tone, noise ; in Old Iranian son = word.

The root sve (n), locative sveni, dative sunei, means sun ; in Zend qeng = sun. ( Compare above sveno, Zend qanaht); Gothic sun-na, sunno.*^ Here Goethe has pre- ceded us :

" The sun orb sings in emulation, 'Mid brother-spheres, his ancient round: His path predestined through Creation, He ends with step of thunder sound."

— Ffltf J/. Part I.

Hearken! Hark! the hours careering 1 Sounding loud to spirit-hearing, See the new-born Day appearing! Rocky portals jarring shatter, • Phoebus' wheels in rolling clatter, With a crash the Light draws near! Pealing rays and trumpet-blazes, Eye is blinded, ear amazes;


The Unheard can no one hearl Slip within each blossom-bell, Deeper, deeper, there to dwell,— In the rocks, beneath the leaf 1 If it strikes you, you are deaf."

—Faust. Part II.

We also must not forget the beautiful verse of Hdl- derlin :

" Where art thou? Drunken, my soul dreams Of all thy rapture. Yet even now I hearken As full of golden tones the radiant sun youth Upon his heavenly lyre plays his even song To the echoing woods and hills."

Just as in archaic speech fire and the speech sounds (the ntiating call, music) appear as forms of emanation of the libido, thus light and sound entering the psyche be- come one : libido.

Manilius expresses it in his beautiful verses :

" Quid mirum noscere mundum Si possunt homines, quibus est et mundus in ipsis Exemplumque dei quisque est in imagine parva? An quoquam genitos nisi caelo credere fas est Esse homines?

Stetit unus in arcem Erectus capitis victorque ad sidera mittit sidereos oculos.*

The idea of the Sanskrit tejas suggests the fundamental significance of the libido for the conception of the world in general. I am indebted to Dr. Abegg, in Zurich, a

  • Why is it wonderful to understand the universe, if men are able ? i.e.,

men in whose very being the universe exists and each one (of whom) is a representative of God in miniature? Or is it right to believe that men have sprung in any way except from heaven — He alone stands in the midst of the citadel, a conqueror, his head erect and his shining eyes fixed on the stars.

The transformation of the libido 183

thorough Sanskrit scholar, for the compilation of the eight meanings of this word.

Tejas signifies :

1. Sharpness, cutting edge.

2. Fire, splendor, light, glow, heat.

3. Healthy appearance, beauty.

4. The fiery and color-producing power of the human organism (thought to be in the bile).

5. Power, energy, vital force.

6. Passionate nature.

7. Mental, also magic, strength; influence, positiooi dignity.

8. Sperma.

This gives us a dim idea of how, for primitive thought, the so-called objective world was, and had to be, a subjective image. To this thought must be applied the words of the " Chorus Mysticus " :

    • All that is perishable

Is only an allegory."

The Sanskrit word for fire is agnis (.the Latin ignis) ; *• the fire personified is the god Agni, the divine mediator,** whose symbol has certain points of contact with that of Christ. In Avesta and in the Vedas the fire is the mes- senger of the gods. In the Christian mythology certain parts are closely related with the myth of Agni. Daniel speaks of the three men in the fiery furnace :

    • Then Nebuchadnezar, the King, was astonished, and rose

up in haste and spake, and said unto his counsellors: 'Did not we cast three men bound into the midst of the firei '


" They answered and said: ' True, O King! *

" He answered and said : * Lo, I see four men loose, walking in the midst of the fire, and they have no hurt; and the form of the fourth is like the Son of God.' "

In regard to that the " Biblia pauperum " observes (according to an old Gerntian incunabulum of 1471) :

"One reads in the third chapter of the prophet Daniel that Nebuchadnezar, the King, caused three men to be placed in a glowing furnace and that the king often went there, looked in, and that he saw with the three, a fourth, who was like the Son of God. The three signify for us, the Holy Trinity and the fourth, the unity of the being. Christ, too, in His explanation designated the person of the Trinity and the unity of the being."

According to this mystic interpretation, the legend of the three ntien in the fiery furnace appears as a mag^c fire cerenniony by means of which the Son of God reveals himself. The Trinity is brought together with the unity, or, in other words, through coitus a child is produced. The glowing furnace (like the glowing tripod in "Faust") is a mother symbol, where the children are produced.** The fourth in the fiery furnace appears as Christ, the Son of God, who has become a visible God in the fire. The mystic trinity and unity are sexual sym- bols. ( Compare with that the many references in Inman : "Ancient Pagan and Modern Christian Symbolism.") It is said of the Saviour of Israel (the Messiah) and of his enemies, Isaiah x: 17:

" And the light of Israel shall be for a fire, and his Holy One for a flame."

In a hymn of the Syrian Ephrem it is said of Christ: " Thou who art all fire, have mercy upon me."


Agni is the sacrificial flame, the sacrificer, and the sac* rificed, as Christ himself. Just as Christ left behind his redeeming blood, tpapiiaxov ddarafflaf,* in the stimu- lating wine, so Agni is the Soma, the holy drink of in- spiration, the mead of immortality/* Soma and Fire are entirely identical in Hindoo literature, so that in Soma we easily rediscover the libido symbol, through which a series of apparently paradoxical qualities of the Soma are inmiediately explained. As the old Hindoos recognized in Are an emanation of the inner libido fire, so too they recognized, in the intoxicating drink (Fire- water, Soma-Agni, as rain and fire), an emanation of libido. The Vedic definition of Soma as seminal fluid confirms this interpretation.*^ The Soma significance of fire, similar to the significance of the body of Christ in the Last Supper (compare the Passover lamb of the Jews, baked in the form of a cross), is explained by the psy- chology of the presexual stage, where the libido was still in part the function of nutrition. The "Soma" is the '* nourishing drink," the mythological characterization of which runs parallel to Are in its origin ; therefore, both are united in Agni. The drink of immortality was stirred by the Hindoo gods like Are. Through the retreat of the libido into the presexual stage it becomes clear why so many gods were either defined "Sexually or were devoured.

As was shown by our discussion of Are preparation, the Are tool did not receive its sexual signiAcance as a later addition, but the sexual libido was the motor power which led to its discovery, so that the later teachings of the

  • A potion of immo]


priests were nothing but confirmations of its actual origin. Other primitive discoveries probably have acquired their sexual symbolism in the same manner, being also derived from the sexual libido.

In the previous statements, which were based on the Pramantha of the Agni sacrifice, we have concerned our- selves only with one significance of the word manthami or mathnami, that is to say, with that which expresses the movement of rubbing. As Kuhn shows, however, this word also possesses the meaning of tearing of!, taldng away by violence, robbing.*® As Kuhn points out, this significance is already extant in the Vedic text. The legend of its discovery always expresses the production of fire as a robbery. (In this far it belongs to the motive widely spread over the earth of the treasure difficult to attain.) The fact that in many places and not alone in India the preparation of fire is represented as haidng its origin in robbery, seems to point to a widely spread thought, according to which the preparation of fire was something forbidden, something usurped or criminal, which could be obtained only through stratagem or deeds of violence (mostly through stratagem).** When onan- ism confronts the physician as a symptom it does so fre- quently under the symbol of secret pilfering, or crafty imposition, which always signifies the concealed fulfil- ment of a forbidden wish.**® Historically, this train of thought probably implies that the ritual preparation of fire was employed with a magic purpose, and, therefore, was pursued by official religions; then it became a ritual jnystery,^^ guarded by the priests and surrounded with


secrecy. The ritual laws of the Hindoos threaten with severe punishment him who prepares fire in an incorrect manner. The fact alone that something is mysterious means the same as something done in concealment; that which must remain secret, which one may not see nor do ; also something which is surrounded by severe punish- ment of body and soul ; therefore, presumably, something forbidden which has received a license as a religious rite. After all has been said about the genesis of the prepara- tion of fire, it is no longer difficult to guess what is the forbidden thing; it is onanism. When I stated before that it might be lack of satisfaction which breaks up the autoerotic ring of the displaced sexual activity transferred to the body itself, and thus opens wider fields of culture, I did not mention that this loosely closed ring of the dis- placed onanistic activity could be much more firmly closed, when man makes the other great discovery, that of true onanism." With that the activity is started in the proper place, and this, under certain circumstances, may mean a satisfaction sufficient for a long time, but at the expense of cheating sexuality of its real purpose. It is a fraud upon the natural development of things, because all the dynamic forces which can and should serve the develop- ment of culture are withdrawn from it through onanism, since, instead of the displacement, a regression to the local sexual takes place, which is precisely the opposite of that which is desirable. Psychologically, however, onanism is a discovery of a significance not to be undervalued. One is protected from fate, since no sexual need then has the power to give one up to life. For with onanism one has


the greatest magic in one's hands; one needs only to phantasy, and with that to masturbate, then one possesses all the pleasure of the world, and is no longer compelled to conquer the world of one's desires through hard labor and wrestling with reality." Aladdin rubs his lamp and the obedient genii stand at his bidding; thus the fairy tale expresses the great psychologic advantage of the easy re- gression to the local sexual satisfaction. Aladdin's sym- bol subtly confirms the ambiguity of the magic fire preparation.

The close relation of the generation of fire to the onan- istic act is illustrated by a case, the knowledge of which I owe to Dr. Schmid, in Cery, that of an imbecile peasant youth who set many incendiary fires. At one of these conflagrations he drew suspicion to himself by his be- havior. He stood with his hands in his trouser pockets in the door of an opposite house and gazed with apparent delight at the fire. Under examination in the insane asylum, he described the fire in great detail, and made suspicious movements in his ^trouser pockets with his hands. The physical examination undertaken at once showed that he had masturbated. Later he confessed that he had masturbated at the time when he had enjoyed the fire which he had enkindled himself.

The preparation of fire in itself is a perfectly ordinary useful custom, employed everywhere for many centuries, which in itself involved nothing more mysterious than eating and drinking. However, there was always a tend- ency from time to time to prepare fire in a ceremonious and mysterious manner (exactly as with ritual eating and


drinking) , which was to be carried out in an exactly pre- scribed way and from which no one dared differ. This mysterious tendency associated with the technique is the second path in the onanistic regression, always present by the side of culture. The strict rules applied to it, the zeal of the ceremonial preparations and the religious awe of the mysteries next originate from this source; the ceremdnial, although apparently irrational, is an ex- tremely ingenious institution from the psychologic stand- point, for it represents a substitute for the possibility of onanistic regression accurately circumscribed by law. The law cannot apply to the content of the ceremony, for it is really quite indifferent for the ritual act, whether it is carried out in this way or in that way. On the con- trary, it is very essential whether the restrained libido is discharged through a sterile onanism or transposed into the path of sublimation. These severe measures of pro- tection apply primarily to onanism."*

I am indebted to Freud for a further important refer- ence to the onanistic nature of the fire theft, or rather the motive of the treasure difficult of attainment (to which fire theft belongs). Mythology contains repeated formulas which read approximately as follows: The treasure must be plucked or torn off from a taboo tree (Paradise tree, Hesperides) ; this is a forbidden and dan- gerous act. The clearest example of this is the old bar- baric custom in the service of Diana of Aricia : only he can become a priest of the goddess who, in her sacred grove, dares to tear off ( abzureissen ") a bough. The tearing off has been retained in vulgar speech (besides


" abreiben," rubbing) as a symbol of the act of onanism. Thus " reiben," to rub, is like " reissen," to break off, both of which are contained in manthami and united apparently only through the myth of the fire theft bound up in the act of onanism in a deeper stratum wherein

    • reiben," properly speaking, " reissen," is employed, but

in a transferred sense. Therefore, it might perhaps be anticipated that in the deepest stratum, namely, the in«  cestuous, which precedes the autoerotic stage,"' the two meanings coincide, which, through lack of mythological tradition, can perhaps be traced through etymology only.



Prepared by the previous chapters, we approach the personification of the libido in the form of a conqueror, a hero or a demon. With this, symbolism leaves the im- personal and neuter realm, which characterizes the astral and meteorologic symbol, and takes human form: the figure of a being changing from sorrow to joy, from joy to sorrow, and which, like the sun, sometimes stands in its zenith, sometimes Is plunged in darkest night, and arises from this very night to new splendor.^ Just as the sun, guided by its own internal laws, ascends from morn till noon, and passing beyond the noon descends towards evening, leaving behind its splendor, and then sinks com- pletely into the all-enveloping night, thus, too, does man- kind follow his course according to inunutable laws, and also sinks, after his course is completed, into night, in order to rise again in the morning to a new cycle m his children. The symbolic transition from sun to man is easy and practicable. The third and last creation of Miss Miller's also takes this course. She calls this piece " Chiwantopel," a " hypnagogic poem." She gives us the following information about the circumstances surround- ing the origin of this phantasy :

"After an evening of care and anxiety, I lay down to sleep

at about half past eleven. I felt excited and unable to sleep,



although I was very tired. There was no light in the room. I closed my eyes, and then I had the feeling that something was about to happen. The sensation of a general relaxation came over me, and I remained as passive as possible. Lines appeared before my eyes, — sparks and shining spirals, followed by a kaleido- scopic review of recent trivial occurrences."

The reader will regret with me that we cannot know the reason for her cares and anxieties. It would have been of great importance for what follows to have infor- mation on this point. This gap in our knowledge is the more to be deplored because, between the first poem in 1898 and the time of the phantasy here discussed (1902), four whole years have passed. All information is lacking regarding this period, during which the great problem surely survived in the unconscious. Perhaps this lack has its advantages in that our interest is not diverted from the universal applicability of the phantasy here produced by sympathy in regard to the personal fate of the author. Therefore, something is obviated which often prevents the analyst in his daily task from looking away from the tedious toil of detail to that wider relation which reveals each neurotic conflict to be involved with human fate as a whole.

The condition depicted by the author here corresponds to such a one as usually precedes an intentional somnam- bulism ^ often described by spiritualistic mediums. A cer- tain inclination to listen to these low nocturnal voices must be assumed; otherwise such fine and hardly per- ceptible inner experiences pass unnoticed. We recognize in this listening a current of the libido leading inward


and beginning to flow towards a still invisible, mysterious goal. It seems that the libido has suddenly discovered an object in the depths of the unconscious which powerfully attracts it. The life of man, turned wholly to the external by nature, does not ordinarily permit such introversion; there must, therefore, be surmised a certain exceptional condition, that is to say, a lack of external objects, which compels the individual to seek a substitute for them in his own soul. It is, however, difficult to imagine that this rich world has become too poor to offer an object for the love of human atoms; nor can the world and its objects be held accountable for this lack. It offers bound- less opportunities for every one. It is rather the inca- pacity to love which robs mankind of his possibilities. This world is empty to him alone who does not under- stand how to direct his libido towards objects, and to render them alive and beautiful for himself, for Beauty does not indeed lie in things, but in the feeling that we give to them. That which compels us to create a sub- stitute for ourselves is not the external lack of objects, but our incapacity to lovingly include a thing outside of ourselves. Certainly the difficulties of the conditions of life and the adversities of the struggle for existence may oppress us, yet even adverse external situations would not hinder the giving out of the libido ; on the contrary, they may spur us on to the greatest exertions, whereby we bring our whole libido into reality. Real difficulties alone will never be able to force the libido back permanently to such a degree as to give rise, for example, to a neu- rosis. The conflict, which is the condition of every neu"


rosis, is lacking. The resistance, which opposes its un- willingness to the will, alone has the power to produce that pathogenic introversion which is the starting point of every psychogenic disturbance. The resistance against loving produces the inability to love. Just as the normal libido is comparable to a steady stream which pours its waters broadly into the world of reality, so the resistance, dynamically considered, is comparable, not so much to a rock rearing up in the river bed which is flooded over or surrounded by the stream, as to a backward flow towards the source. A part of the soul desires the outer object; another part, however, harks back to the sub- jective world, where the airy and fragile palaces of phantasy beckon. One can assume the dualism of the human will for which Bleuler, from the psychiatric point of view, has coined the word " ambitendency" ' as some- thing generally present, bearing in mind that even- the most primitive motor impulse is in opposition; as, for example, in the act of extension, the flexor muscles also become innervated. This normal ambitendency, however, never leads to an inhibition or prevention of the intended act, but is the indispensable preliminary require- ment for its perfection and coordination. For a resist- ance disturbing to this act to arise from this harmony of finely attuned opposition an abnormal plus or minus would be needed on one or the other side. The resist- ance originates from this added third.* This applies also to the duality of the will, from which so many difficulties arise for mankind. The abnormal third frees the pair of opposites, which are normally most intimately unitedi


and causes their manifestation in the form of separate tendencies; it is only thus that they become willingness and unwillingness, which interfere with each other. The Bhagavad-Gita says, '* Be thou free of the pairs of opposites." ^ The harmony thus becomes disharmony. It cannot be my task here to investigate whence the un- known third arises, and what it is. Taken at the roots in the case of our patients, the " nuclear complex ** (Freud) reveals itself as the incest problem. The sexual libido regressing to the parents appears as the incest tend- ency. The reason this path is so easily travelled is due to the enormous indolence of mankind, which will relin- quish no object of the past, but will hold it fast forever. The " sacrilegious backward grasp " of which Nietzsche speaks reveals itself, stripped of its incest covering, as an original passive arrest of the libido in its first object of childhood. This indolence is also a passion, as La Rochefoucauld* has brilliantly expressed it:

"Of all passions, that which is least known to ourselves is indolence: it is the most ardent and malignant of them all, al- though its violence may be insensible, and the injuries it causes may be hidden ; if we will consider its power attentively, we will see that it makes itself, upon all occasions, mistress of our senti- ments, of our interests, and of our pleasures; it is the anchor, which has the power to arrest the largest vessek; it is a calm more dangerous to the most important a£Fairs than rocks and the worst tempest. The repose of indolence is a secret charm of the soul which suddenly stops the most ardent pursuits and the firmest resolutions; finally to give the true idea of this passion, one must say that indolence is like a beatitude of the soul which consoles it for all its losses and takes the place of all its posses- sions."


This dangerous passion, belonging above all others to primitive man, appears under the hazardous mask of the incest symbol, from which the incest fear must drive us away, and which must be conquered, in the first place, under the image of the " terrible mother." ^ It is the mother of innumerable evils, not the least of which are neurotic troubles. For, especially from the fogs of the arrested remnants of the libido, arise the harmful phan- tasmagoria which so veil reality that adaptation becomes almost impossible. However, we will not investigate any further in this place the foundations of the incest phan- tasies. The preliminary suggestion of my purely psycho- logic conception of the incest problem may suffice. We are here only concerned with the question whether resist- ance which leads to introversion in our author signifies a conscious external difficulty or not. If it were an ex- ternal difficulty, then, indeed, the libido would be violently dammed back, and would produce a flood of phantasies, which can best be designated as schemes, that is to say, plans as to how the pbstacles could be overcome. They would be very concrete ideas of reality which seek to pave the way for solutions. It would be a strenuous medita- tion, indeed, which would be more likely to lead to any- thing rather than to a hypnagogic poem. The passive condition depicted above in no way fits in with a real ex- ternal obstacle, but, precisely through its passive submis- sion, it indicates a tendency which doubtless scorns real solutions and prefers phantastic substitutes. Ultimately and essentially we are, therefore, dealing with an internal conflict, perhaps after the manner of those earlier con-


flicts which led to the two first unconscious creations. We, therefore, are forced to conclude that the external object cannot be loved, because a predominant amount of libido prefers a phantastic object, which must be brought up from the depths of the unconscious as a com- pensation for the missing reality.

The visionary phenomena, produced in the first stages of introversion, are grouped among the well-known phe- nomena ® of hypnagogic vision. They form, as I ex- plained in an earlier paper, the foundation of the true visions of the symbolic autorevelations of the libido, as we may now express it.

Miss Miller continues:

" Then I had the impression that some communication was immediately impending. It seemed to me as if there were re- echoed in me the words, * Speak, O Lord, for Thy servant listens; open Thou mine ears! * "

This passage very clearly describes the intention; the expression '* communication " is even a current term in spiritualistic circles. The Biblical words contain a dear invocation or " prayer," that is to say, a wish (libido) directed towards divinity (the unconscious complex). The prayer refers to Samuel, i: 3, where Samuel at night was three times called by God, but believed that it was Eli calling, until the latter informed him that it was God himself who spoke, and that he must answer if his name was called again — ** Speak, O Lord, for Thy Servant hears 1 " The dreamer uses these words really in an in- verse sense, namely, in order to produce God with them.


With that she directs her desires, her libido, into the depths of her unconscious.

We know that, although individuals are widely sepa- rated by the differences in the contents of their conscious- ness, they are closely alike in their unconscious psy- chology. It is a significant impression for one working in practical psychoanalysis when he realizes how uniform are the typical unconscious complexes. Difference first arises from individualization. This fact gives to an es- sential portion of the Schopenhauer and Hartmann philosophies a deep psychologic justification.* The very evident uniformity of the unconscious mechanism serves as a psychologic foundation for these philosophic views. The unconscious contains the differentiated renmants of the earlier psychologic functions overcome by the indi- vidual differentiation. The reaction and products of the animal psyche are of a generally diffused uniformity and solidity, which, among men, may be discovered appar- ently only in traces. Man appears as something extraordi- narily individual in contrast with animals.

This might be a tremendous delusion, because we have the appropriate tendency always to recognize only the difference of things. This is demanded by the psycho- logic adaptation which, without the most minute differ- entiation of the impressions, would be absolutely impos- sible. In opposition to this tendency we have ever the greatest difficulty in recognizing in their common rela- tions the things with which we are occupied in every- day life. This recognition becomes much easier with things which are more remote from us. For examplei it


is almost impossible for a European to differentiate the faces in a Chinese throng, although the Chinese have just as individual facial formations as the Europeans, but the similarity of their strange facial expression is much more evident to the remote onlooker than their individual dif- ferences. But when we live among the Chinese then the impression of their uniformity disappears more and more, and finally the Chinese become individuals also. Individuality belongs to those conditional actualities which are greatly overrated theoretically on account of their practical significance. It does not belong to those over- whelmingly clear and therefore universally obtrusive gen- eral facts upon which a science must primarily be founded. The individual content of consciousness is, therefore, the most unfavorable object imaginable for psychology, be- cause it has veiled the universally valid until it has become unrecognizable. The essence of consciousness is the process of adaptation which takes place in the most minute details. On the other hand, the unconscious is the generally diffused, which not only binds the individuals among themselves to the race, but also unites them back- wards with the peoples of the past and their psychology. Thus the unconscious, surpassing the individual in its generality, is, in the first place, the object of a true psy- chology, which claims not to be psychophysical.

Man as an individual is a suspicious phenomenon, the right of whose existence from a natural biological stand- point could be seriously contested, because, from this point of view, the individual is only a race atom, and has a significance only as a mass constituent. The ethical


standpoint, however, gives to the human being an indi- vidual tendency separating him from the mass, which, in the course of centuries, led to the development of per- sonality, hand in hand with which developed the hero cult, and has led to the modern individualistic cult of personages. The attempts of rationalistic theology to keep hold of the personal Jesus as the last and most precious remnant of the divinity which has vanished be- yond the power of the imagination corresponds to this tendency. In this respect the Roman Catholic Church was more practical, because she met the general need of the visible, or at least historically believed hero, through the fact that she placed upon the throne of worship a small but clearly perceptible god of the world, namely, the Roman Pope, the Pater patrum, and at the same time the Pontifex Maximus of the invisible upper or inner God. The sensuous demonstrability of God naturally supports the religious process of introversion, because the human figure essentially facilitates the transference, for it is not easy to imagine something lovable or venerable in a spir- itual being. This tendency, everywhere present, has been secretly preserved in the rationalistic theology with its Jesus historically insisted upon. This does not mean that men loved the visible God; they love him, not as he is, for he is merely a man, and when the pious wished to love humanity they could go to their neighbors and their enemies to love them. Mankind wishes to love in God only their ideas, that is to say, the ideas which they pro- ject into God. By that they wish to love their unconscious, that is, that remnant of ancient humanity and the cen*


turies-old past in all people, namely, the common property left behind from all development which is given to all men, like the sunshine and the air. But in loving this inheritance they love that which is common to all. Thus they turn back to the mother of humanity, that is to say, to the spirit of the race, and regain in this way some- thing of that connection and of that mysterious and irre- sistible power which is imparted by the feeling of belong- ing to the herd. It is the problem of Antaeus, who preserves his gigantic strength only through contact with mother earth. This temporary withdrawal into one's self, which, as we have already seen, signifies a regression to the childish bond to the parent, seems to act favorably, within certain limits, in its effect upon the psychologic condition of the individual. It is in general to be ex- pected that the two fundamental mechanisms of the psy- choses, transference and introversion, are to a wide extent extremely appropriate methods of normal reaction against complexes; transference as a means of escaping from the complex into reality ; introversion as a means of detaching one's self from reality through the complex.

After we have informed ourselves about the general purposes of prayer, we are prepared to hear more about the vision of our dreamer. After the prayer, " the head of a sphinx with an Egyptian headdress " appeared, only to vanish quickly. Here the author was disturbed, so that for a moment she awoke. This vision recalls the previously mentioned phantasy of the Egyptian statue, whose rigid gesture is entirely in place here as a phe- nomenon of the so-called functional category. The light


stages of the hypnosis are designated technically as

    • Engourdissement " (stiffening). The word Sphinx in

the whole civilized world signifies the same as riddle: a puzzling creature who proposes riddles, like the Sphinx of Oedipus, standing at the portal of his fate like a symbolic proclamation of the inevitable. The Sphinx is a semi-theriomorphic representation of that "mother image " which may be designated as the ** terrible mother," of whom many traces are found in mythology. This interpretation is correct for Oedipus. Here the question is opened. The objection will be raised that nothing except the word ** Sphinx " justifies the allusion to the Sphinx of Oedipus. On account of the lack of subjective materials, which in the Miller text are wholly lacking in regard to this vision, an individual inter- pretation would also be excluded. The suggestion of an ** Egyptian " phantasy (Part I, Chapter II) is entirely insufficient to be employed here. Therefore we are compelled, if we wish to venture at all upon an understanding of this vision, to direct ourselves — perhaps in all too daring a manner — ^to the available ethnographic material under the assumption that the unconscious of the present-day man coins its symbols as was done in the most remote past. The Sphinx, in its traditional form, is a half- human, half-animal creature, which we must, in part, interpret in the way that is applicable to sudi phantastic products. The reader is directed to the deductions in the first part of this volume where the theriomorphic rep- resentations of the libido were discussed. This manner of representation is very familiar to the analyst, througU


the dreams and phantasies of neurotics (and of normal men). The impulse is readily represented as an animal, as a bull, horse, dog, etc. One of my patients, who had questionable relations with women, and who began the treatment with the fear, so to speak, that I would surely forbid him his sexual adventures, dreamed that I (his physician) very skilfully speared to the wall a strange animal, half pig, half crocodile. Dreams swarm with such theriomorphic representations of the libido. Mixed beings, such as are in this dream, are not rare. A series of very beautiful illustrations, where especially the lower half of the animal was represented theriomorphically, has been furnished by Bertschinger.*® The libido which was represented theriomorphically is the " animal " sex- uality which is in a repressed state. The history of re- pression, as we have seen, goes back to the incest problem, where the first motives for moral resistance against sexu- ality display themselves. The objects of the repressed libido are, in the last degree, the images of father and mother; therefore the theriomorphic symbols, in so far as they do not symbolize merely the libido in general, have a tendency to present father and mother (for ex- ample, father represented by a bull, mother by a cow). From these roots, as we pointed out earlier, might prob- ably arise the theriomorphic attributes of the Divinity. In as far as the repressed libido manifests itself under certain conditions, as anxiety, these animals are generally of a horrible nature. In consciousness we are attached by all sacred bonds to the mother; in the dream she pur- sues us as a terrible animal. The Sphinx, mythologically


considered, is actually a fear animal, which reveals dis«  tinct traits of a mother derivate. In the Oedipus legend the Sphinx is sent by Hera, who hates Thebes on account of the birth of Bacchus; because Oedipus conquers the Sphinx, which is nothing but fear of the mother, he must marry Jocasta, his mother, for the throne and the hand of the widowed queen of Thebes belonged to him who freed the land from the plague of the Sphinx. The genealogy of the Sphinx is rich in allusions to the problem touched upon here. She is a daughter of Echnida, a mixed being; a beautiful maiden above, a hideous serpent below. This double creature corresponds to the picture of the mother; above, the human, lovely and attractive half; below, the horrible animal half, converted into a fear animal through the incest prohibition. Echnida is de- rived from the All-mother, the mother Earth, Gaea, who, with Tartaros, the personified underworld (the place of horrors), brought her forth. Echnida herself is the mother of all terrors, of the Chimaera, Scylla, Gorgo, of the horrible Cerberus, of the Nemean Lion, and of the eagle who devoured the liver of Prometheus; besides this she gave birth to a number of dragons. One of her sons is Orthrus, the dog of the monstrous Geryon, who was killed by Hercules. With this dog, her son, Echnida, in incestuous intercourse, produced the Sphinx. These ma- terials will suffice to characterize that amount of libido which led to the Sphinx symbol. If, in spite of the lack of subjective material, we may venture to draw an infer- ence from the Sphinx symbol of our author, we must say that the Sphinx represents an original incestuous amount


of libido detached from the bond to the mother. Per- haps it is better to postpone this conclusion until we have examined the following visions.

After Miss Miller had concentrated herself again, the vision developed further :

Suddenly an Aztec appeared, absolutely clear in every detail ; the hands spread open, with large fingers, the head in profile, armored, headdress similar to the feather ornaments of the Amer- ican Indian. The whole was somewhat suggestive of Mexican sculpture."

The ancient Egyptian character of the Sphinx is re- placed here by American antiquity — ^by the Aztec. The essential idea is neither Egypt nor Mexico, for the two could not be interchanged; but it is the subjective factor which the dreamer produces from her own past. I have frequently observed in the analysis of Americans that certain unconscious complexes, i.e. repressed sexuality, are represented by the symbol of a Negro or an Indian ; for example, when a European tells in his dream, " Then came a ragged, dirty individual," for Americans and for those who live in the tropics it is a Negro. When with Europeans it is a vagabond or a criminal, with Americans it is a Negro or an Indian which represents the indi- vidual's own repressed sexual personality, and the one considered inferior. It is also desirable to go into the particulars of this vision, as there are various things worthy of notice. The feather cap, which naturally had to consist of eagles' feathers, is a sort of magic charm. The hero assumes at the same time something of the sun- like character of this bird when he adorns himself with


its feathers, just as the courage and strength of the enemy are appropriated in swallowing his heart or taking his scalp. At the same time, the feather crest is a crown which is equivalent to the rays of the sun. The historical importance of the Sun identification has been seen in the first part."

Especial interest attaches to the hand, which is de- scribed as ** open," and the fingers, which are described as ** large." It is significant that it is the hand upon which the distinct emphasis falls. One might rather have ex- pected a description of the facial expression. It is well known that the gesture of the hand is significant; unfor- tunately, we know nothing about that here. Nevertheless, a parallel phantasy might be mentioned, which also puts the emphasis upon hands. A patient in a. hypnagogic condition saw his mother painted on a wall, like a painting in a Byzantine church. She held one hand up, open wide, with fingers spread apart. The fingers were very large, swollen into knobs on the ends, and each surrounded by a small halo. The immediate association with this pic- ture was the fingers of a frog with sucking discs at the ends. Then the similarity to the penis. The ancient set- ting of this mother picture is also of importance. Evi- dently the hand had, in this phantasy, a phallic meaning. This interpretation was confirmed by a further very remarkable phantasy of the same patient. He saw some- thing like a ** sky-rocket " ascending from his mother's hand, which at a closer survey becomes a shining bird with golden wings, a golden pheasant, as it then occurs to his mind. We have seen in the previous chapter that


the hand has actually a phallic, generative meaning, and that this meaning plays a great part in the production of fire. In connection with this phantasy, there is but one observation to make : fire was bored with the hand; there- fore it comes from the hand; Agni, the fire, was wor- shipped as a golden-winged bird/^ It is extremely sig- nificant that it is the mother's hand. I must deny myself the temptation to enter more deeply into this. Let it be sufficient to have pointed out the possible significance of the hand of the Aztec by means of these parallel hand phantasies. We have mentioned the mother suggestively with the Sphinx. The Aztec taking the place of the Sphinx points, through his suggestive hand, to parallel phantasies in which the phallic hand really belongs to the mother. Likewise we encounter an antique setting in parallel phantasies. The significance of the antique, which experience has shown to be the symbol for " infan- tile," is confirmed by Miss Miller in this connection in the annotation to her phantasies, for she says :

" In my childhood, I took a special interest in the Aztec frag- ments and in the history of Peru and of the Incas."

Through the two analyses of children which have been published we have attained an insight into the child's small world, and have seen what burning interests and questions secretly surround the parents, and that the par- ents are, for a long time, the objects of the greatest in- terests^ We are, therefore, justified in suspecting that the antique setting applies to the '* ancients," that is to say, the parents, and that consequently this Aztec has


something of the father or mother in himself. Up to this time indirect hints point only to the mother, which is nothing remarkable in an American girl, because Ameri- cans, as a result of the extreme detachment from the father, are characterized by a most enormous mother complex, which again is connected with the espedal sodal position of woman in the United States. This position brings about a special masculinity among capable womeiii which easily makes possible the symbolizing into a mas- culine figure."

After this vision. Miss Miller felt that a name formed itself " bit by bit," which seemed to belong to this Aztec — " the son of an Inca of Peru." The name is " Chi-wan- to-pel." As the author intimated, something similar to this belonged to her childish reminiscences. The act of naming is, like baptism, something exceedingly important for the creation of a personality, because, since olden times, a magic power has been attributed to the name, with which, for example, the spirit of the dead can be conjured. To know the name of any one means, in mythology, to have power over that one. As a well-known example I mention the fairy tale of " Rumpelstilzchen/' In an Egyptian myth, Isis robs the Sun god Re perma- nently of his power by compelling him to tell her his real name. Therefore, to give a name means to give power, invest with a definite personality." The author observed, in regard to the name itself, that it reminded her very much of the impressive name Popocatepetl, a name which belongs to unforgettable school memories, and, to the greatest indignation of the patient, very often emerges


in an analysis in a dream or phantasy and brings with it that same old joke which one heard in school, told one- self and later again forgot. Although one might hesitate to consider this unhallowed joke as of psychologic im- portance, still one must inquire for the reason of its being. One must also put, as a counter question. Why is it always Popocatepetl and not the neighboring Iztaccihuatl, or the even higher and just as clear Orizaba ? Tlie last has certainly the more beautiful and more easily pronounced name. Popocatepetl is impressive because of its onoma- topoetic name. In English the word is " to pop *' (pop- gun), which is here considered as onomatopoesy ; in Ger- man the words are Hinterpommern, Pumpernickel; Bombe; Petarde (le pet = flatus) . The frequent German word Popo (Podex) does not indeed exist in English, but flatus is designated as '^ to poop '* in childish speech. The act of defecation is often designated as " to pop.*' A joking name for the posterior part is "the bum.'* (Poop also means the rear end of a ship.) In Frenchi pouf! is onomatopoetic ; poufer = platzen (to explode) , la poupe = rear end of ship, le poupard = the baby in arms, la poupee = doll. Poupon is a pet name for a chubby-faced child. In Dutch pop, German Puppe and Latin puppis = doll ; in Plautus, however, it is also used jokingly for the posterior part of the body; pupus means child ; pupula = girl, little dollie. The Greek word TtoTrnvSico designates a cracking, snapping or blowing sound. It is used of kissing; by Theocritus also of the as- sociated noise of flute blowing. The etymologic parallels show a remarkable relationship between the part of the


body in question and the child. This relationship we will mention here, only to let it drop at once, as this question will claim our attention later.

One of my patients in his childhood had always con- nected the act of defecation with a phantasy that his pos- terior was a volcano and a violent eruption took place, explosion of gases and gushings forth of lava. The terms for the elemental occurrences of nature are originally not at all poetical; one thinks, for example, of the beautiful phenomenon of the meteor, which the Ger- man language most unpoetically calls ^' Sternschnuppe *' (the smouldering wick of a star). Certain South Ameri- can Indians call the shooting star the urine of the stars/' According to the principle of the least resistance, expres- sions are taken from the nearest source available. (For example, the transference of the metonymic expression of urination as Schiffens, " to rain.")

Now it seems to be very obscure why the mystical figure of Chiwantopel, whom Miss Miller, in a note, compares to the control spirit of the spiritualistic mc- dium,^^ is found in such a disreputable neighborhood that his nature (name) was brought into relation with this particular part of the body. In order to understand this possibility, we must realize that when we produce from the unconscious the first to be brought forth is the infan- tile material long lost in memory. One must, therefore, take the point of view of that time in which this infantile material was still on the surface. If now a much-honored object is related in the unconsdous to the anus, then one must conclude that something of a high valuation was


expressed thereby. The question is only whether this corresponds to the psychology of the child. Before we enter upon this question, it must be stated that the anal region is very closely connected with veneration. One thinks of the traditional faeces of the Great Mogul. An Oriental tale has the same to say of Christian knights, who anointed themselves with the excrement of the pope and cardinals in order to make themselves formidable. A patient who is characterized by a special veneration for her father had a phantasy that she saw her father sitting upon the toilet in a dignified manner, and people going past greeted him effusively." The association of the anal relations by no means excludes high valuation or esteem, as is shown by these examples, and as is easily seen from the intimate connection of faeces and gold.^' Here the most worthless comes into the closest relation with the most valuable. This also happens in religious valuations. I discovered (at that time to my great aston- ishment) that a young patient, very religiously trainedi represented in a dx eam the Crucified on the bottom of a blue-flowered chamber pot, namely, in the form of excre- ments. The contrast is so enormous that one must assume that the valuations of childhood must indeed be very different from ours. This is actually the truth. Children bring to the act of defecation and the products of this an esteem and interest ^® which later on is possible only to the hypochondriac. We do not comprehend this in- terest until we learn that the child very early connects with it a theory of propagation.*^ The libido afflux prob- ably accounts for the enormous interest in this act. The


child sees that this is the way in which something is pro- duced, in which something comes out. The same child whom I reported in the little brochure " tJber Konflicte der kindlichen Seele/' and who had a well-developed anal theory of birth, like little Hans, whom Freud made known to us, later contracted a habit of staying a long time on the toilet. Once the father grew impatient, went to the toilet and called, '^ Do come out of there; what are you making?" Whereupon the answer came from within, " A little wagon and two ponies." The child was making a little wagon and two ponies, that is to say, things which at that time she especially wished for. In this way one can make what one wishes, and the thing made is the thing wished for. The child wishes earnestly for a doll or, at heart, for a real child. (That is, the child prac- tised for his future biological task, and in the way in which everything in general is produced he made the dolP^ himself as representative of the child or of the thing wished for in general.") From a patient I have learned a parallel phantasy of her childhood. In the toilet there was a crevice in the wall. She phantasied that from this crevice a fairy would come out and present her with everything for which she wished. The " locus *' is known to be the place of dreams where much was wished for and created which later would no longer be suspected of having this place of origin. A pathological phantasy in place here is told us by Lombroso,** concern- ing two insane artists. Each of them considered himself God and the ruler of the world. They created or pro- duced the world by making it come forth from the rectum,


just as the egg of birds originates in the egg canal. Ohc of these two artists was endowed with a true artistic sense. He painted a picture in which he was just in the act of creation ; the world came forth from his anus ; the membrum was in full erection; he was naked, surrounded by women, and with all insignia of his power. The excre- ment is in a certain sense the thing wished for, and on that account it receives the corresponding valuation. When I first understood this connection, an observation made long ago, and which disturbed me greatly because I never rightly understood it, became clear to me. It concerned an educated patient who, under very tragic circumstances, had to be separated from her husband and child, and was brought into the insane asylum. She exhibited a typical apathy and slovenliness which was considered as affective mental deterioration. Even at that time I doubted this deterioration, and was inclined to regard it as a secondary adjustment. I took especial pains to ascertain how I could discover the existence of the affect in this case. Finally, after more than three hours* hard work, I succeeded in finding a train of thought which sud- denly brought the patient into a completely adequate and therefore strongly emotional state. At this moment the affective connection with her was completely reestab- lished. That happened in the forenoon. When I re- turned at the appointed time in the evening to the ward to see her she had, for my reception, smeared herself from head to foot with excrement, and cried laughingly, " Do I please you so? " She had never done that before; it was plainly destined for me. The impression which I received


was one of a personal affront and, as a result of this, I was convinced for years after of the affective de- terioration of such cases. Now we understand this act as an infantile ceremony of welcome or a declaration of love.

The origin of Chiwantopel, that is to say, an uncon- scious personality, therefore means, in the sense of the previous explanation, " I make, produce, invent him my- self." It is a sort of human creation or birth by the anal route. The first people were made from excrement, pot- ter's earth, or clay. The Latin lutum, which really means " moistened earth," also has the transferred meaning of dirt. In Plautus it is even a term of abuse, something like " You scum." The birth from the anus also reminds us of the motive of " throwing behind oneself." A well- known example is the oracular command, which Deu** calion and Pyrrha, who were the only survivors from the great flood, received. They were to throw behind them the bones of the great mother. They then threw behind them stones, from which mankind sprang. According to a tradition, the Dactyli in a similar manner sprang from dust, which the nymph Anchiale threw behind her. There is also humorous significance attached to the anal prod- ucts. The excrements are often considered in popular humor as a monument or memorial (which plays a spedal part in regard to the criminal in the form of grumus merda); every one knows the humorous story of the man who, led by the spirit through labyrinthian passages to a hidden treasure, after he had shed all his pieces of cloth- ing, deposited excrement as a last guide post on his road.


In a more distant past a sign of this kind possessed as great a significance as the dung of animals to indicate the direction taken. Simple monuments ('Mittle stone figures ") have taken the place of this perishable mark.

It is noteworthy that Miss Miller quotes another case, where a name suddenly obtruded itself, parallel to the emerging into consciousness of Chiwantopel, namely, A-ha- ma-ra-ma, with the feeling that it dealt with something Assyrian.^* As a possible source of this, there occurred to her " Asurabama, who made cuneiform bricks," " those imperishable documents made from clay : the monu- ments of the most ancient history. If it were not empha- sized that the bricks are " cuneiform," then it might mean ambiguously " wedged-shaped bricks," which is more suggestive of our interpretation than that of the author.

Miss Miller remarks that besides the name " Asura- bama " she also thought of " Ahasuerus " or " Ahasve- rus." This phantasy leads to a very different aspect of the problem of the unconscious personality. While the previous materials betrayed to us something of the infan- tile theory of creation, this phantasy opens up a vista into the dynamics of the unconscious creation of personality. Ahasver is, as is well known, the Wandering Jew; he is characterized by endless and restless wanderings until the end of the world. The fact that the author has thought of this particular name justifies us in following this trail. The legend of Ahasver, the first literary traces of which belong to the thirteenth century, seiems to be of Ocddental origin, and belongs to those ideas which possess inde-


structlble vital energy. The figure of the Wandering Jew has undergone more literary elaboration than the figure of Faust, and nearly all of this work belongs to the last century. If the figure is not called Ahasver, still it is there under another name, perhaps as Count of St. Germain, the mysterious Rosicrucian, whose immortality was as- sured, and whose temporary residence (the land) was equally known. ^' Although the stories about Ahasver cannot be traced back any earlier than the thirteenth cen- tury, the oral tradition can reach back considerably further, and it is not an impossibility that a bridge to the Orient exists. There is the parallel figure of Chidr, or " al Chadir," the " ever-youthful Chidher " celebrated in song by Rueckert. The legend is purely Islamitic. The peculiar feature, however, is that Chidher is not only a saint, but in Sufic circles ^^ rises even to divine significance. In view of the severe monotheism of Islam, one is in- clined to think of Chidher as a pre-Islamitic Arabian divinity who would hardly be officially recognized by the new religion, but might have been tolerated on political grounds. But there is nothing to prove that. The first traces of Chidher are found in the commentaries of the Koran, Buchari and Tabare and in a commentary to a noteworthy passage of the eighteenth sura of the Koran. The eighteenth sura is entitled ** the cave,'* that is, after the cave of the seven sleepers, who, according to the legend, slept there for 309 years, and thus escaped perse- cution, and awoke in a new era. Their legend is re- counted in the eighteenth sura, and divers reflections were associated with it. The wish-fulfilment idea of the legend


is very clear. The mystic material for it is the immutable model of the Sun's course. The Sun sets periodically, but does not die. It hides in the womb of the sea or in a subterranean cave,*® and in the morning is " born again/* complete. The language in which this astronomic occur- rence is clothed is one of clear symbolism; the Sun returns into the mother's womb, and after some time is again born. Of course, this event is properly an incestuous act, of which, in mythology, clear traces are still re- tained, not the least of which is the circumstance that the dying and resurrected gods are the lovers of their own mothers or have generated themselves through their own mothers. Christ as the *' God becoming flesh " has gen- erated himself through Mary; Mithra has done the same. These Gods are unmistakable Sun-gods, for the Sun also does this, in order to again renew himself. Naturally, it is not to be assumed that astronomy came first and these conceptions of gods afterwards; the process was, as always, inverted, and it is even true that primitive magic charms of rebirth, baptism, superstitious usages of all sorts, concerning the cure of the sick, etc., were projected into the heavens. These youths were born from the cave (the womb of mother earth), like the Sun- gods, in a new era, and this was the way they vanquished death. In this far they were immortal. It is now inter- esting to see how the Koran comes, after long ethical contemplations in the course of the same sura, to the fol- lowing passage, which is of especial significance for the origin of the Chidher myth. For this reason I quote the Koran literally :


" Remember when Moses said to his servant, ' I will not stop till I reach the confluence of the two seas, or for eighty years will I journey on.'

    • But when they reached their confluence they forgot their

fish, and it took its way in the sea at will.

"And when they had passed on, Moses said to his servant, ' Bring us our morning meal, for now we have incurred weariness from this our journey.'

"He said, 'What thinkest thou? When we repaired to the rock for rest, then verily I forgot the fish; and none but Satan made me forget it, so as not to mention it; and it hath taken its way in the sea in a wondrous sort.'

" He said, ' It is this we were in quest of.' So they both went back retracing their footsteps.

" Then found they one of our servants to whom we had vouch- safed our mercy, and whom we had instructed with our knowl- edge;"

" Moses said to him, ' Shall I follow thee that thou teach mtf for guidance of that which thou hast been taught? '

" He said, ' Verily, thou canst by no means have patience with me ; and how canst thou be patient in matters whose meaning thou comprehendest not?'" — ^Trans. Rod well, page i88.

Moses now accompanies the mysterious servant of God, who does divers things which Moses cannot comprehend; finally, the Unknown takes leave of Moses, and speaks to him as follows :

"They will ask thee of Dhoulkamein (the two-homed). '* Say: * I will recite to you an account of him.'

" Verily, we established his power upon the earth and we gave him a means to accomplish every end, so he followed his way;

" Until when he reached the setting of the sun, he found it to set in a miry forest; and hard by, he found a people. . . ."

Now follows a moral reflection ; then the narrative con< tinues :


" Then he followed his course further until he came to the plaoo where the sun rises. . • ."

If now we wish to know who is the unknown servant of God, we are told in this passage he is Dhulqarnein, Alexander, the Sun; he goes to the place of setting and he goes to the place of rising. The passage about the unknown servant of God is explained by the conunentaries in a well-defined legend. The servant is Chidheti " the verdant one," the never-tiring wanderer, who roams for hundreds and thousands of years over lands and seas, the teacher and counsellor of pious men; the one wise in divine knowledge — the immortal.** The authority of the Tabari associates Chidher with Dhulqarnein; Chidher is said to have reached the " stream of life " as a follower of Alexander, and both unwittingly had drunk of it, so that they became immortal. Moreover, Chidher is iden^ tified by the old commentators with Elias, who also did not die, but who was taken to Heaven in a fiery chariot. Elias is Helios.^^ It is to be observed that Ahasver also owes his existence to an obscure place in the holy Christian scriptures. This place is to be found in Matthew xvi: 28. First comes the scene where Christ appoints Peter as the rock of his church, and nominates him the governor of his power.'^ After that follows the prophecy of his death, and then comes the passage :

" Verily, I say unto you, there be some standing here, which shall not taste of death till they see the Son of Man coming in his kingdom.

Here follows the scene of the transfiguration:


"And was transfigured before them: and his face did shine as the sun, and his raiment was white as the light

" And behold there appeared unto them Moses and Elias talk- ing with him.

" Then answered Peter and said unto Jesus, ' Lord, it is good for us to be here; if thou wilt, let us make here three tabemades; one for thee and one for Moses and one for Elias.' " •*

From these passages it appears that Christ stands on the same plane as Ellas, without being identified with him,^^ although the people consider him as Elias. The ascension places Christ as identical with Elias. The prophecy of Christ shows that there exist aside from himself one or more immortals who shall not die until Parousai. According to John xxi :22nd verse, the boy John was considered as one of these immortals, and in the legend he is, in fact, not dead but merely sleeping in the ground until Parousai, and breathes so that the dust swirls round his grave.'* As is evident, there are passable bridges from Christ by way of Elias to Chidher and Ahasuerus. It is said in an account of this legend '^ that Dhulqarnein led his friend Chidher to the " source of life " in order to have him drink of immortality.** Alexander also bathed in the stream of life and per- formed the ritual ablutions. As I previously mentioned in a footnote, according to Matthew xvii: 12th verse, John the Baptist is Elias, therefore primarily identical with Chidher. Now, however, it is to be noted that in the Arabian legend Chidher appears rather as a companion or accompanied (Chidher with Dhulqarnein or with Elias, " like unto them " ; or identified with them ") . There are therefore, two similar figures who resemble each other,


but who, nevertheless, are distinct. The analogous situ- ation in the Christian legend is found in the scene by the Jordan where John leads Christ to the " source of life." Christ is there, the subordinate, John the superior, similar to Dhulqarnein and Chidher, or Chidher and Moses, also Elias. The latter relation especially is such that VoUers compares Chidher and Elias, on the one side, with Gilgamesh and his mortal brother Eabani; on the other side, with the Dioscuri, one of whom is im- mortal, the other mortal. This relation is also found in Christ and John the Baptist,*® on the one hand, and Christ and Peter, on the other. The last-named parallel only finds its explanation through comparison with the Mith- raic mysteries, where the esoteric contents are revealed to us through monuments. Upon the Mithraic marble relief of Klagenfurt** it is represented how with a halo Mithra crowns Helios, who either kneels before him or else floats up to him from below. Mithra is represented on a Mithraic monument of Osterburken as holding in his right hand the shoulder of the mystic ox above Heliosi who stands bowed down before him, the left hand rest- ing on a sword hilt. A crown lies between them on the ground. Cumont observes about this scene that it prob- ably represents the divine prototype of the ceremony of the initiation into the degree of Miles, in which a sword and a crown were conferred upon the mystic. Helios is, therefore, appointed the Miles of Mithra. In a general way, Mithra seems to occupy the role of patron to Helios, which reminds us of the boldness of Hercules towards Helios. Upon his journey towards Geryon, Helios burns


too hotly; Hercules, full of anger, threatens him with his never-failing arrows. Therefore, Helios is compelled to yield, and lends to the hero his Sun ship, with which he was accustomed to journey across the sea. Thus Hercules returns to Erythia, to the cattle herds of Geryon." On the monument at Klagenfurt, Mithra is furthermore rep- resented pressing Helioses hand, either in farewell or as a ratification. In a further scene Mithra mounts the Chariot of Helios, either for the ascension or the '* Sea Journey." *' Cumont is of the opinion that Mithra gives to Helios a sort of ceremonious investiture and conse- crates him with his divine power by crowning him with his own hands. This relation corresponds to that of Christ to Peter. Peter, through his symbol, the cock, has the character of a sun-god. After the ascension (or sea journey) of Christ, he is the visible pontiff of the divinity; he suffers, therefore, the same death (cruci- fixion) as Christ, and becomes the great Roman deity {Sol invictus), the conquering, triumphant Church itself, embodied in the Pope. In the scene of Malchus he is always shown as the miles of Christ, to whom the sword is granted, and as the rock upon which the Church is founded. The crown ** is also given to him who pos- sesses the power to bind and to set free. Thus, Christ, like the Sun, is the visible God, whereas the Pope, like the heir of the Roman Cassars, is solis invicti comes. The setting sun appoints a successor whom he invests with the power of the sun." Dhulqarnein gives Chidher eternal life. Chidher communicates his wisdom to Moses.*' There even exists a report according to which


the forgetful servant of Joshua drinks from the well of life, whereupon he becomes immortal, and is placed in a ship by Chidher and Moses, as a punishment, and is cast out to sea, once more a fragment of a sun m]rth, the motive of the " sea journey." *^

The primitive symbol, which designates that portion of the Zodiac in which the Sun, with the Winter Solstice, again enters upon the yearly course, is the goat, fish sign, the aiycjxipoo^. The Sun mounts like a goat to the highest mountain, and later goes into the water as a fish. The fish is the symbol of the child,*® for the child before his birth lives in the water like a fish, and the Sun, because it plunges into the sea, becomes equally child and fish. The fish, however, is also a phallic symbol,** also a sym- bol for the woman/^ Briefly stated, the fish is a libido symbol, and, indeed, as it seems predominately for the renewal of the libido.

The journey of Moses with his servant is a life-journey (eighty years). They grow old and lose their life force (libido), that is, they lose the fish which ^'pursues its course in a marvellous manner to the sea," which means the setting of the sun. When the two notice their loss, they discover at the place where the " source of life " is found (where the dead fish revived and sprang into the sea) Chidher wrapped in his mantle,"^ sitting on the ground. According to another version, he sat on an island in the sea, or ^^ in the wettest place on earth," that is, he was just born from the maternal depths. Where the fish vanished Chidher, " the verdant one," was bom as a son of the deep waters," his head veiled, a Cabir,


a proclaimer of divine wisdom; the old Babylonian Gannes-Ea, who was represented in the form of a fish, and daily came from the sea as a fish to teach the people wisdom/^ His name was brought into connection with John's. With the rising of the renewed sun all that lived in darkness, as water-animal or fish, surrounded by all terrors of night and death,'^ became as the shining fiery firmament of the day. Thus the words of John the Bap- tist ^^ gain especial meaning:

" I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance, but he that Cometh after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear; he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with fire."

With VoUers we may also compare Chidher and Elias (Moses and his servant Joshua) with Gilgamesh and his brother Eabani. Gilgamesh wandered through the world, driven by anxiety and longing, to find immortality. His path led him across the seas to the wise Utnaplshtim (Noah), who knew how to cross the waters of death. There Gilgamesh had to dive down to the bottom of the sea for the magical herb which was to lead him back to the land of men. When he had come again to his native land a serpent stole the magic plant from him (the fish again slid into the sea). But on the return from the land of the blessed an immortal mariner accompanied him, who, banished by a curse of Utnapishtim, was for- bidden to return to the land of the blessed. Gilgamesh's journey had lost its purpose on account of the loss of the magic herb; instead he is accompanied by an immortal, whose fate, indeed, we cannot learn from the fragments


of the epic. This banished immortal is the model for Ahasver, as Jensen ^^ aptly remarked.

Again we encounter the motive of the Dioscuri, mortal and immortal, setting and rising sun. This motive is also represented as if projected from the hero.

The Sacrificium Mithriacum (the sacrifice of the bull) is in its religious representation very often flanked by the two Dadophores, Cautes and Cautopates, one with a raised and the other with a lowered torch. They repre- sent brothers who reveal their character through the sym- bolic position of the torch. Cumont connects them, not without meaning, with the sepulchral '^ erotes " who as genii with the reversed torches have traditional meaning. The one is supposed to stand for death and the other for life. I cannot refrain from mentioning the similarity be- tween the Sacrificium Mithriacum (where the sacrificed bull in the centre is flanked on both sides by Dadophores) to the Christian sacrifice of the lamb (ram). The Crucified is also traditionally flanked by the two thieves, one of whom ascends to Paradise, while the other de- scends to Hell."® The idea of the mortal and the im- mortal seems to have passed also into the Christian worship. Semitic gods are often represented as flanked by two Paredroi; for example, Baal of Edessa, accom- panied by Aziz and Monimoz (Baal as the Sun, accom- panied by Mars and Mercury, as expressed in astro- nomical teachings). According to the Chaldean view, the gods are grouped into triads. In this circle of ideas belongs also the Trinity, the idea of the triune God, in which Christ must be considered in his unity with the


Father and the Holy Ghost. So, too, do the two tlueves belong inwardly to Christ. The two Dadophores are, as Cumont points out, nothing but offshoots '^ from the chief figure of Mithra, to whom belongs a mysterious three- fold character. According to an account of Dionysus Areopagita, the magicians celebrated a festival, ^^tov rpinXacfiov Midpov.'^ * ^^ An observation likewise refer- ring to the Trinity is made by Plutarch concerning Or- muzd : rpU iavrov avSv^a^ aniatrfaB rov i/A/ov.f The Trinity, as three different states of the unity, is also a Christian thought. In the very first place this suggests a sun myth. An observation by Macrobius i : i8 seems to lend support to this idea :

'* Hae autem aetatum diversitates ad solem refenintur, ut par- vulus videatur hiemali solstitio, qualem Aegyptii proferunt ex adyto die certa, . . . sequinoctio vernali figura iuvenis omatur. Postea statuitur aetas ejus plenissima effigie barbae solstitio aestivo . . . exunde per diminutiones veluti senescenti quarta forma deus figuratur." % "

As Cumont observes, Cautes and Cautapates occasion- ally carry in their hands the head of a bull, and a scor- pion.®^ Taurus and Scorpio are equinoctial signs, which clearly indicate that the sacrificial scene refers primarily to the Sun cycle ; the rising Sun, which sacrifices itself at

  • 0f the threefold Mithra.

t Having expanded himself threefold, he departed from the sun.

X Now these differences in the seasons refer to the Sun, which seems at the winter solstice an infant, such as the Egyptians on a certain day bring out of their sanctuaries; at the vernal equinox it is represented as a 3routh. Later, at the summer solstice, its age is represented by a fuU growth of beard, while at the last, the god is represented by the gradually diminith- ing form of an old man.


the summer solstice, and the setting Sun. In the sacri- ficial scene the symbol of the rising and setting Sun was not easily represented; therefore, this idea was removed from the sacrificial image.

We have pointed out above that the Dioscuri represent a similar idea, although in a somewhat different form; the one sun is always mortal, the other inunortal. As this entire sun mythology is merely a psychologic pro- jection to the heavens, the fundamental thesis probably is as follows ; just as man consists of a mortal and immortal part, so the sun is a pair of brothers,*^ one being mortal, the other immortal. This thought lies at the basis of all theology in general. Man is, indeed, mortal, but there are some who are immortal, or there is something in us which is immortal. Thus the gods, " a Chidher or a St. Germain," are our immortal part, which, though incom- prehensible, dwells among us somewhere.

Comparison with the sun teaches us over and over again that the gods are libido. It is that part of us which is immortal, since it represents that bond through which we feel that in the race we are never extinguished." It is life from the life of mankind. Its springs, which well up from the depths of the unconscious, come, as does our life in general, from the root of the whole of humanity, since we are indeed only a twig broken off from the mother and transplanted.

Since the divine in us is the libido,** we must not won- der that we have taken along with us in our theology ancient representations from olden times, which give the triune figure to the God. We have taken this tptTrXatriov


Oeov* from the phallic symbolism, the originality of which may well be uncontested.** The male genitals are the basis for this Trinity. It is an anatomical fact that one testicle is generally placed somewhat higher than the other, and it is also a very old, but, neverthelesSi still surviving, superstition that one testicle generates a boy and the other a girl.*** A late Babylonian bas-relief from Lajard's "® collection seems to be in accordance with this view. In the middle of the image stands an androgy- nous god (masculine and feminine face*^); upon the right, male side, is found a serpent, with a sun halo round its head; upon the left, female side, there is also a ser- pent, with the moon above its head. Above the head of the god there are three stars. This ensemble would seem to confirm the Trinity*® of the representation. The Sun serpent at the right side is male; the serpent at the left side is female (signified by the moon). This image pos- sesses a symbolic sexual suffix, which makes the sexual significance of the whole obtrusive. Upon the male side a rhomb is found — a favorite symbol of the female geni- tals; upon the female side there is a wheel or felly. A wheel always refers to the Sun, but the spokes are thick- ened and enlarged at the ends, which suggests phallic symbolism. It seems to be a phallic wheel, which was not unknown in antiquity. There are obscene bas-reliefs where Cupid turns a wheel of nothing but phalli.'* It is not only the serpent which suggests the phallic significance of the Sun; I quote one especially marked case, from an abundance of proof. In the antique collection at Verona

•Threefold God.


I discovered a late Roman mystic inscription in which are the following representations :


These symbols are easily read : Sun — Phallus, Moon — Vagina (Uterus). This interpretation is confirmed by another figure of the same collection. There the same representation is found, only the vessel ^* is replaced by the figure of a woman. The impressions on coins, where in the middle a palm is seen encoiled by a snake, flanked by two stones (testicles), or else in the middle a stone encircled by a snake; to the right a palm, to the left a shell (female genitals ^^), should be interpreted in a^ similar manner. In Lajard's " Researches " (" The Cult of Venus ") there is a coin of Perga, where Artemis of Perga is represented by a conical stone (phallic) flanked by a man (claimed to be Men) and by a female figure (claimed to be Artemis). Men (the so-called Lunus) is found upon an Attic bas-relief apparently with the spear but fundamentally a sceptre with a phallic significance, flanked by Pan with a club (phallus) and a female figure.^ The traditional representation of the Crucified flanked by John and Mary is closely associated with this circle of ideas, precisely as is the Crucified with the thieves. From this we see how, beside the Sun, there emerges again and again the much more primitive com-


parlson of the libido with the phallus. An especial trace still deserves mention here. The Dadophor Cautapates, who represents Mithra, is also represented with the cock ^* and the pineapple. But these are the attributes of the Phrygian god Men, whose cult was widely diffused. Men was represented with Pileus/* the pineapple and the cock, also in the form of a boy, just as the Dadophores are boyish figures. (This last-named property relates them with Men to the Cabiri.) Men has a very close connec- tion with Attis, the son and lover of Cybele. In the time of the Roman Caesars, Men and Attis were entirely iden- tified, as stated above. Attis also wears the Pileus like Men, Mithra and the Dadophores. As the son and lover of his mother he again leads us to the source of this religion-creating incest libido, namely, to the mother. Incest leads logically to ceremonial castration in the Attic-Cybele cult, for the Hero, driven insane by his mother, mutilates himself." I must at present forego entering more deeply into this matter, because the incest problem is to be discussed at the close. Let this sugges- tion suffice — that from different directions the analysis of the libido symbolism always leads back again to the mother incest. Therefore, we may surmise that the long- ing of the libido raised to God (repressed into the un- conscious) is a primitive, incestuous one which concerns the mother. Through renouncing the virility to the first beloved, the mother, the feminine element becomes ex- tremely predominant; hence the strongly androgynous character of the dying and resurrected Redeemer. That these heroes are nearly always wanderers ^* is a psycho-


logically clear symbolism. The wandering is a repre- sentation of longing," of the ever-restless desire, which nowhere finds its object, for, unknown to itself, it seeks the lost mother. The wandering association renders the Sun comparison easily intelligible ; also, under this aspect, the heroes always resemble the wandering Sun, which seems to justify the fact that the myth of the hero is a sun myth. But the myth of the hero, however, is, as it appears to me, the myth of our own suffering uncon- scious, which has an unquenchable longing for all the deepest sources of our own being; for the body of the mother, and through it for communion with infinite life in the countless forms of existence. Here I must intro- duce the words of the Master who has divined the deep- est roots of Faustian longings :

" Unwilling, I reveal a loftier mystery. — In solitude are throned the Goddesses, No Space around them, Place and Time still less: Only to speak of them embarrasses. They are THE MOTHERS!

" Goddesses unknown to ye, The Mortals, — named by us unwillingly. Delve in the deepest depths must thou to reach them: 'TIS thine own fault that we for help beseech them.

" Where is the way?

" No way ! To the Unreachable, Ne'er to be trodden ! A way to the Unbeseechable, Never to be besought! Art thou prepared? There are no locks, no latches to be lifted! Through endless solitudes shalt thou be drifted! Hast thou through solitudes and deserts dared?


And hadst thou swum to farthest verge of ocean And there the boundless space beheld, Still hadst thou seen wave after wave in motion, Even though impending doom thy fear compelled. Thou hadst seen something — in the beryl dim Of peace-lulled seas, the sportive dolphins swim ; Hadst seen the flying clouds, sun, moon and star; Nought shalt thou see in endless Void afar— Not hear thy footstep fall, nor meet A stable spot to rest thy feet.

" Here, take this key! The Key will scent the true place from all others; Follow it down I 'Twill lead thee to the Mothers.

" Descend then! I could also say: Ascend I

  • Twere all the same. Escape from the Created

To shapeless forms in liberated spaces! Enjoy what long ere this was dissipated! There whirls the press, like clouds on clouds unfolding; Then with stretched arm swing high the key thou'rt holding I

" At last a blazing tripod,^^ tells thee this. That there the utterly deepest bottom is. Its light to thee will then the Mothers show, Some in their seats, the others stand or go, At their own will: Formation, Transformation, The Eternal Mind's eternal recreation. Forms of all Creatures, — there are floating free. They'll see thee not! for only wraiths they sec. So pluck up heart, — the danger then is great. Go to the tripod ere thou hesitate, And touch it with the key."




The vision following the creation of the hero is de- scribed by Miss Miller as a ** throng of people." This representation is known to us from dream interpretation as being, above all, the symbol of mystery/ Freud thinks that this choice of symbol is determined on ac- count of its possibility of representing the idea. The bearer of the mystery is placed in opposition to the multi- tude of the ignorant. The possession ofjhe mystery cuts one of from intercourse with the rest of mankind. For a very complete and smooth rapport with the surround- ings is of great importance for the management of the libido and the possession of a subjectively important secret generally creates a great disturbance. It may be said that the whole art of life shrinks to the one problem of how the libido may be freed in the most hamdess way possible. Therefore, the neurotic derives special benefit in treatment when he can at last rid himself of his various secrets. The symbol of the crowd of people, chiefly the streaming and moving mass, is, as I have often seen, substituted for the great excitement in the unconscious,

especially in persons who are outwardly calm.



The vision of the "throng" develops further; horses emerge ; a battle is fought. With Silberer, I might accept the significance of this vision as belonging, first of all, in the " functional category," because, fundamentally, the conception of the intermingling crowds is nothing but the symbol of the present onrush of the mass of thought; likewise the battle, and possibly the horses, which illus- trate the movement. The deeper significance of the ap- pearance of the horses will be seen for the first time in the further course of our treatment of the mother sym- bolism. The following vision has a more definite and significantly important character. Miss Miller sees a City of Dreams ("Cite de Reves"). The picture is similar to one she saw a short time before on the coyer of a magazine. Unfortunately, we learn nothing further about it. One can easily imagine under this " Cite de Reves " a fulfilled wish dream, that is to say, something very beautiful and greatly longed for; a sort of heavenly Jerusalem, as the poet of the Apocalypse has dreamed it. The city is a maternal symbol, a woman who fosters the inhabitants as children. It is, therefore, intelligible that the two mother goddesses, Rhea and Cybele, both wear the wall crown. The Old Testament treats the cities of Jerusalem, Babel, etc., as women (Isaiah xlvii: 1-5) :

" Come down and sit in the dust, O virgin daughter of Babylon, sit on the ground: there is no throne, O daughter of the Chal- deans ; for thou shalt no more be called tender and delicate. Take the millstones and grind meal; uncover thy locks, make bare the leg, uncover the thigh, pass over the rivers. That thy nakedness


shall be uncovered, yea, thy shame shall be seen; sit thou silent, and get thee into darkness, O daughter of the Chaldeans; for thou shalt no more be called the lady of the kingdoms."

Jeremiah says of Babel (1: 12) :

" Your mother shall be sore confounded ; she that bare you shall be ashamed."

Strong, unconquered cities are virgins; colonies are sons and daughters. Cities are also whores. Isaiah says of Tyre (xxiii: 16) :

Take an harp, go about the city, thou harlot; thou hast been forgotten."


" How does it come to pass that the virtuous city has become an harlot?"

We come across a similar symbolism in the myth of Ogyges, the mythical king who rules in Egyptian Thebes and whose wife was appropriately named Thebe. The Boeotian Thebes founded by Cadmus received on that account a surname, *' Ogygian." This surname was also given to the great flood, as it was called " Ogygian " be- cause it occurred under Ogyges. This coincidence will be found later on to be hardly accidental. The fact that the city and the wife of Ogyges bear the same name indi- cates that somewhere a relation must exist between the city and the woman, which Is not difficult to understand, for the city is identical with the woman. We meet a similar idea in Hindoo lore where Indra appears as the


husband of Urvara, but Urvara means- " the fertile land." In a similar way the occupancy of a country by the king was understood as marriage with the ploughed land. Similar representations must have prevailed in Europe as well. Princes had to guarantee, for example, a good harvest at their accession. The Swedish King Domaldi was actually killed on account of the failure of the harvest (Ynglinga saga i8). In the Rama saga the hero Rama marries Sita, the furrow of the field.* To the same group of ideas belongs the Chinese custom of the Emperor ploughing a furrow at his ascension to the throne. This idea of the soil being feminine also em- braces the idea of continual companionship with the woman, a physical communication. Shiva, the Phallic God, is, like Mahadeva and Parwati, male and female. He has even given one-half of his body to his consort Parwati as a dwelling place.^ Inman * gives us a drawing of a Pundite of Ardanari-Iswara ; one-half of the god is masculine, the other half feminine, and the genitals are in continuous cohabitation. The motive of continu- ous cohabitation is expressed in a well-known lingam symbol, which is to be found everywhere in Indian temples; the base is a female symbol, and within that is the phallus.* The symbol approaches very closely the Grecian mystic phallic basket and chests. (Compare with this the Eleusinian mysteries.) The chest or box is here a female symbol, that is, the mother's womb. This is a very well-known conception in the old mythologies.' The chest, basket or little basket, with its precious contents, was thought of as floating on the water; a remarkable


inversion of the natural fact that the child floats in the amniotic fluid and that this is in the uterus.

This inversion brings about a great advantage for sub- limation, for it creates enormous possibilities of appli- cation for the myth-weaving phantasy, that is to say, for the annexation to the sun cycle. The Sun floats over the sea like an immortal god, which every evening is im- mersed in the maternal water and is born again renewed in the morning. Frobenius says:

    • Perhaps in connection with the blood-red sunrise, the idea

occurs that here a birth takes place, the birth of a young son ; the question then arises inevitably, whence comes the paternity? How has the woman become pregnant? And since this woman sym- bolizes the same idea as the fish, which means the sea, (because we proceed from the assumption that the Sun descends into the sea as well as arises from it) thus the curious primitive answer is that this sea has previously swallowed the old Sun. Conse- quendy the resulting myth is, that the woman (sea) has formerly devoured the Sun and now brings a new Sun into the world, and thus she has become pregnant."

All these sea-going gods aro sun symbols. They are enclosed in a chest or an ark for the '^ night journey on the sea" (Frobenius), often together with a woman (again an inversion of the actual situation, but in sup- port of the motive of continuous cohabitation, which we have met above). During the night journey on the sea the Sun-god is enclosed in the mother's womb, often- times threatened by dangers of all kinds. Instead of many individual examples, I will content myself with re-


producing the scheme which Frobenius has constructed

from numberless myths of this sort :

(Heat-hair To slip out To open To land

^J^^^ement— (sea journey)

Frobenius gives the following legend to illustrate this :

"A hero is devoured by a water monster in the West (to devour). The animal carries him within him to the East (sea journey). Meanwhile, he kindles a fire in the belly of the monster (to set on fire) and since he feels hungry he cuts ofiE a piece of the hanging heart (to cut off the heart). Soon after he notices that the fish glides upon the dry land (to land) ; he immediately begins to cut open the animal from within outwards (to Ojpea) then he slides out (to slip out). In the fish's belly, it had been so hot, that all his hair had fallen out (heat-hair). The hero frequently frees all who were previously devoured (to devour all) and all now slide out (slip out)."

A very close parallel is Noah's journey during the flood, in which all living creatures die ; only he and the life guarded by him are brought to a new birth. In a Mcla- polynesian legend (Frobenius) it is told that the hero in the belly of the King Fish took his weapon and cut open the fish's belly. " He slid out and saw a splendor, and he sat down and reflected. * I wonder where I am,' he said. Then the sun rose with a bound and turned from


one side to the other." The Sun has again slipped out. Frobenius mentions from the Ramayana the myth of the ape Hanuman, who represents the Sun-hero. The sun in which Hanuman hurries through the air throws a shadow upon the sea. The sea monster notices this and through this draws Hanuman toward itself ; when the latter sees that the monster is about to devour him, he stretches out his figure immeasurably; the monster assumes the same gigantic proportions. As he does that Hanuman becomes as small as a thumb, slips into the great body of the monster and comes out on the other side. In an- other part of the poem it is said that he came out from the right ear of the monster (like Rabelais' Gargantua, who also was born from the mother's ear). ** Hanuman thereupon resumes his flight, and finds a new obstacle in another sea monster, which is the mother of Rahus, the sun-devouring demon. The latter draws Hanuman's shadow ^ to her in the same way. Hanuman again has recourse to the earlier stratagem, becomes small and slips into her body, but hardly is he there than he grows to a gigantic mass, swells up, tears her, kills her, and in that way makes his escape."

Thus we understand why the Indian fire-bringer Ma- tarigvan is called ** the one swelling in the mother "; the ark (little box, chest, cask, vessel, etc.) is a symbol of the womb, just as is the sea, into which the Sun sinks for rebirth. From this circle of ideas we understand the mythologic statements about Ogyges; he it is who pos- sesses the mother, the City, who is united with the mother; therefore under him came the great flood, for it is a


typical fragment of the sun myth that the hero, when united with the woman attained with difficulty, is exposed in a cask and thrown into the sea, and then lands for a new life on a distant shore. The middle part, the ** night journey on the sea " in the ark, is lacking in the tradition of Ogyges.® But the rule in mythology is that the typical parts of a myth can be united in all conceivable varia- tions, which adds greatly to the extraordinary difficulty of the interpretation of a particular myth without knowl- edge of all the others. The meaning of this cyde of myths mentioned here is clear; it is the longing to attain rebirth through the return to the mothe/s womb, that is to say, to become as immortal as the sun. This longing for the mother is frequently expressed in our holy scrip- tures.® I recall, particularly the place in the epistle to the Galatians, where it is said (iv: 26) :

(26) " But Jerusalem which is above is free, which is the mother of us all.

(27) " For it is written, Rejoice, thou barren that bearetfa not: break forth and cry, thou that travailest not: for the desolate hath many more children than she which hath an husband.

(28) " Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are the children of promise.

(29) But as he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the spirit, even so it is now.

(30) " Nevertheless, what sayeth the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son; for the son of a bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of a freewoman.

(31) ** So, then, brethren, we are not children of the bond- woman, but of the free."

Chapter v :


( 1 ) " Stand fast therefore in the liberty wherewith Christ has made us free."

The Christians are the children of the City Above, a symbol of the mother, not sons of the earthly city-mother, who is to be cast out; for those born after the flesh are opposed to those born after the spirit, who are not born from the mother in the flesh, but from a symbol for the mother. One must again think of the Indians at this point, who say the first people proceeded from the sword- hilt and a shuttle. The religious thought is bound up with the compulsion to call the mother no longer mother, but City, Source, Sea, etc. This compulsion can be derived from the need to manifest an amount of libido bound up with the mother, but in such a way that the mother is represented by or concealed in a symbol. The symbolism of the city we find well-developed in the revelations of John, where two cities play a great part, one of which is insulted and cursed by him, the other greatly desired. We read in Revelation (xvii: i) :

(i) ** Come hither: I will shew unto thee the judgment of the great whore that sitteth on many waters.

(2) " With whom the kings of the earth have committed forni- cation and the inhabitants of the earth have been made drunk with the wine of her fornication.

(3) " So he carried me away in the spirit into the wilderness: and I saw a woman sit on a scarlet colored beast, full of the names of blasphemy, and having seven heads and ten homs.

(4) " And the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet colors, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup ^^ in her hand full of abominations and filthiness of her fornication.

(5) "And upon her forehead was a name written: Mystery.


Babylon the great. The Mother of Harlots and Abominations of the Earth.

(6) ** And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of saintSi and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus: and when I saw her I wondered with a great admiration."

Here follows an interpretation of the vision unintel- ligible to us, from which we can only emphasize the point that the seven heads ** of the dragon means the seven hills upon which the woman sits. This is probably a dis- tinct allusion to Rome, the city whose temporal power oppressed the world at the time of the Revelation. The waters upon which the woman " the mother " sits are " peoples and throngs and nations and tongues." This also seems to refer to Rome, for she is the mother of peoples and possessed all lands. Just as in common speech, for example, colonies are called daughters, so the people subject to Rome are like members of a family subject to the mother. In another version of the picture, the kings of the people, namely, the fathers, conmiit fornication with this mother. Revelation continues (xviii: 2) :

(2) " And he cried mightily with a strong voice, saying, Baby- lon the Great is fallen, is fallen, and is become the habitation of devils, and the hold of every foul spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird.

(3) For all nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her fornication."

Thus this mother does not only become the mother of all abominations, but also in truth the receptacle of all that is wicked and unclean. The birds are images of


souls; ^^ therefore, this means all souls of the condemned and evil spirits. Thus the mother becomes Hecate, the underworld, the City of the damned itself. We recog- nize easily in the ancient idea of the woman on the dragon," the above-mentioned representation of Echnida, the mother of the infernal horrors. Babylon is the idea of the " terrible " mother, who seduces all people to whoredom with devilish temptation, and makes them drunk with her wine. The intoxicating drink stands in the closest relation to fornication, for it is also a libido symbol, as we have already seen in the parallel of fire and sun. After the fall and curse of Babylon, we find in Revelation (xix:6-7) the hymn which leads from the under half to the upper half of the mother, where now everything is possible which would be impossible without the repression of incest:

(6) "Alleluia, the Lord God omnipotent reigneth.

(7) " Let us be glad and rejoice, and give honor to him: for the marriage of the Lamb is come,^^ and his wife hath made herself ready.

(8) "And to her was granted that she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white : for the fine linen is the righteousness of saints.

(9) " And he saith unto me, * Write, Blessed are they which are called unto the marriage supper of the Lamb.' "

The Lamb is the son of man who celebrates his mar- riage with the " woman.'* Who the ** woman " is re- mains obscure at first. But Revelation (xxi: 9) shows us which ** woman " is the bride, the Lamb's wife:

(9) " Come hither, I will show thee the bride, the Lamb's



( lo) ** And he carried me away in the spirit to a great and high mountain, and showed me that great city, the holy Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God, having the glory of God."

It is evident from this quotation, after all that goes be- fore, that the City, the heavenly bride, who is here promised to the Son, is the mother/* In Babylon the impure maid was cast out, according to the Epistle to the Galatians, so that here in heavenly Jerusalem the mother- bride may be attained the more surely. It bears witness to the most delicate psychologic perception that the fathers of the church who formulated the canons pre- served this bit of the symbolic significance of the Christ mystery. It is a treasure house for the phantasies and myth materials which underlie primitive Christianity.*^ The further attributes which were heaped upon the heav- enly Jerusalem make its significance as mother over- whelmingly clear :

( 1 ) " And he shewed me a pure river of water of life, dear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb.

(2) *' In the midst of the street of it, and on either side of the river, was there the tree of life, which bare twelve manner of fruits, and yielded her fruit every month, and the leaves of the tree were for the healing of nations.

(3) " And there shall be no more curse."

In this quotation we come upon the symbol of the waters, which we found in the mention of Ogyges in con- nection with the city. The maternal significance of water belongs to the clearest symbolism in the realm of my- thology,^® so that the ancients could say: i^ OaKaaaa — riji y€yi(X€cos avfifioXov.^ From water comes life;**

  • The sea is the symbol of birth.


therefore, of the two gods which here interest us the most, Christ and Mithra, the latter was born beside a river, according to representations, while Christ experienced his new birth in the Jordan; moreover, he is born from the nrjYV}^^ the " sempiterni fons amoris," the mother of God, who by the heathen-Christian legend was made a nymph of the Spring. The " Spring " is also found in Mithracism. A Pannonian dedication reads, ** Fonti perenni." An inscription in Apulia is dedicated to the

    • Fons Aeterni." In Persia, Ardvigura is the well of the

water of life. Ardvigura-Anahita is a goddess of water and love (just as Aphrodite is born from foam). The neo-Persians designate the Planet Venus and a nubile girl by the name " Nahid." In the temples of Anaitis there existed prostitute Hierodules (harlots). In the Sakaeen (in honor of Anaitis) there occurred ritual combats as in the festival of the Egyptian Ares and his mother. In the Vedas the waters are called Matritamah — the most maternal.^® All that is living rises as does the sun, from the water, and at evening plunges into the water. Bom from the springs, the rivers, the seas, at death man arrives at the waters of the Styx in order to enter upon the " night journey on the sea." The wish is that the black water of death might be the water of life; that death, with its cold embrace, might be the mother's womb, just as the sea devours the sun, but brings it forth again out of the maternal womb (Jonah motive"). Life believes not in death.

" In the flood of life, in the torrent of deeds, I toss up and down,


I am blown to and fro I

Cradle and grave,

An eternal sea;

A changing web,

A glowing life." ^^oethe: Faust.

That SvXov ^corfiy the wood of life, or the tree of life, is a maternal symbol would seem to follow from the pre- vious deductions. The etymologic connection of voa, vXrfy vioiy in the Indo-Germanic root suggests the blend- ing of the meanings in the underlying symbolism of mother and of generation. The tree of life is probably, first of all, a fruit-bearing genealogical tree, that is, a mother-image. Countless myths prove the derivation of man from trees; many myths show how the hero is en- closed in the maternal tree — thus dead Osiris in the column, Adonis in the myrtle, etc. Numerous female divinities were worshipped as trees, from which resulted the cult of the holy groves and trees. It is of transparent significance when Attis castrates himself under a pine tree, i. e. he does it because of the mother. Goddesses were often worshipped in the form of a tree or of a wood. Thus Juno of Thespiae was a branch of a tree, Juno of Samos was a board. Juno of Argos was a column. The Carian Diana was an uncut piece of wood. Athene of Lindus was a polished column. TertuUian calls Ceres of Pharos '^ rudis palus et informe lignum sine efSgie." Athenaeus remarks of Latona at Dalos that she is £v\ivoy apiopq)ov, a shapeless piece of wood." TertuUian calls an Attic Pallas ** crucis stipes," a wooden pale or mast. The wooden pale is phallic, as the name


suggests, (paXtfij Pallus. The (paXKoi is a pale, a cere- monial lingam carved out of figwood, as are all Roman statues of Priapus. <l>aXoi means a projection or centre- piece on the helmet, later called xdvo^f just as ava- qfaX-avriaffti signifies baldheadedness on the forepart of the head, and tpaXaxpos signifits baldheadedness in re- gard to the (paXo^'Hoovos of the helmet; a semi-phallic meaning is given to the upper part of the head as well." taXXr^voi has, besides (paXXoS, the significance of " wooden " ; g)aX'dyyQi)/4ay^^ cylinder " iqfaXayS^ " a round beam." The Macedonian battle array, distinguished by its powerful impetus, is called tpaXayS^ moreover, the finger- joint ** is called qfaXayS. q)aXXaiva or tpaXatva is a whale. Now <paX6s appears with the meaning

    • shining, brilliant." The Indo-Germanic root is bhale

= to bulge, to swell.^" Who does not think of Faust?

  • ' It grows, it shines, increases in my hand I "

That is primitive libido symbolism, which shows how immediate is the connection between phallic libido and light. The same relations are found in the Rigveda in Rudra's utterances.

Rigveda I, 114, 3:

    • May we obtain your favor, thou man ruling, Oh urinating


I refer here to the previously mentioned phallic sym- bolism of Rudra in the Upanishads :

(4) "We call for help below to the flaming Rudra, to the one bringing the sacrifice; him who encircles and wanders (wan- dering in the vault of Heaven) to the seer."


2, 33, 5:

    • He who opens up the sweet, who listens to our calls, the

ruddy one, with the beautiful helmet, may he not give us over

to the powers of jealousy.

(6) "I have been rejoiced by the bull connected with Marut, the supplicating one with strong force of life.

(8) Sound the powerful song of praise to the ruddy bull to the white shining one; worship the flaming one with honor, we sing of the shining being Rudra.

'* May Rudra's missile (arrow) not be used on us, may the great displeasure of the shining one pass us by: Unbend the firm (bow or hard arrow?) for the princes, thou who blessest with the waters of thy body (generative strength), be gracious to our children and grandchildren." *•

In this way we pass from the realm of mother sym- bolism imperceptibly into the realm of male phallic symbolism. This element also lies in the tree, even in the family tree, as is distinctly shown by the mediaeval family trees. From the first ancestor there grows up- ward, in the place of the ** membrum virile," the trunk of the great tree. The bisexual symbolic character of the tree is intimated by the fact that in Latin trees have a masculine termination and a feminine gender.*^ The feminine (especially the maternal) meaning of the forest and the phallic significance of trees in dreams is well known. I mention an example.

It concerns a woman who had always been nervous, and who, after many years of marriage, became ill as a result of the typical retention of the libido. She had the following dream after she had learned to know a young man of many engaging free opinions who was very pleas- ing to her: She found herself in a garden where stood


a remarkable exotic tree with strange red fleshy flowers or fruits. She picked them and ate them. Then, to her horror, she felt that she was poisoned. This dream idea may easily be understood by means of the antique or poetic symbolism, so I can spare information as to the analytic material.

The double significance of the tree is readily explained by the fact that such symbols are not to be understood "anatomically" but psychologically as libido symbols; therefore, it is not permissible to interpret the tree on account of its similar form as directly phallic; it can also be called a woman or the uterus of the mother. The uniformity of the significance lies alone in the similarity to the libido.*® One loses one's way in one " cul de sac " after another by saying that this is the symbol substituted for the mother and that for the penis. In this realm there is no fixed significance of things. The only reality here is the libido, for which " all that is perishable is merely a symbol." It is not the physical actual mother, but the libido of the son, the object of which was once the mother. We take mythologic symbols much too con- cretely and wonder at every step about the endless con- tradictions. These contradictions arise only because wc constantly forget that in the realm of phantasy " feeling is all." Whenever we read, therefore, " his mother was a wicked sorcerer," the translation is as follows: The son is in love with her, namely, he is unable to detach Ids libido from the mother-imago ; he therefore suffers from incestuous resistance.

The symbolism of water and trees, which are met


as further attributes in the symbol of the City, also refer to that amount of libido which unconsciously is fastened to the mother-imago. In certain parts of Revelation the unconscious psychology of religious longing is re- vealed, namely, the longing for the mother*^ The ex- pectation of Revelation ends in the mother: xal nav xaradepLa ovh iljrat sru (** and there shall be no more curse "). There shall be no more sins, no repression, no disharmony with one's self, no guilt, no fear of death and no pain of separation more !

Thus Revelation echoes that same radiant mystical harmony which was caught again 2,000 years later and expressed poetically in the last prayer of Dr. Marianus:

" Penitents, look up, elate, Where she beams salvation; Gratefully to blessed fate Grow, in recreation! Be our souls, as they have been, Dedicate to thee! Virgin Holy, Mother, Queen, Goddess, gracious be! " — Goethe: Faust.

One principal question arises at the sight of this beauty and greatness of feeling, that is, whether the primary tendency compensated by religion is not too narrowly understood as incestuous. I have previously observed in regard to this that I consider the '^ resistance opposed to libido " as in a general way coincident with the incest pro- hibition. I must leave open for the present the definition of the psychological incest conception. However, I will here emphasize the point that it is most esi)eciall]r the


totality of the sun myth which proves to us that the fundamental basis of the '^ incestuous " desire does not aim at cohabitation, but at the special thought of becom- ing a child again, of turning back to the parent's protec- tion, of coming into the mother once more in order to be born again. But incest stands in the path to this goal, that is to say, the necessity of in some way again gaining entrance into the mother's womb. One of the simplest ways would be to impregnate the mother, and to repro- duce one's self identically. But here the incest prohibition interferes; therefore, the myths of the sun or of rebirth teem with all possible proposals as to how incest can be evaded. A very simple method of avoidance is to trans- form the mother into another being or to rejuvenate " her after birth has occurred, to have her. disappear again or have her change back. It is not incestuous cohabita- tion which is desired, but the rebirth, which now is at- tained most readily through cohabitation. But this is not the only way, although perhaps the original one. The resistance to the incest prohibition makes the phantasy inventive; for example, it was attempted to impregnate the mother by means of a magic charm of fertility (to wish for a child). Attempts in this respect remain in the stage of mythical phantasies; but they have one re- sult, and that is the exercise of the phantasy which gradually produces paths through the creation of phan- tastic possibilities, in which the libido, taking an active part, can flow off. Thus the libido becomes spiritualized in an imperceptible manner. The power ** which always wishes evil " thus creates a spiritual life. Therefore, in


religions, this course is now raised to a system. On that account it is exceedingly instructive to see how reli^on takes pains to further these symbolic transferences.'^ The New Testament furnishes us with an excellent ex- ample in regard to this. Nicodemus, in the speech re- garding rebirth, cannot forbear understanding the matter very realistically.

John iii : 4 :

(4) How can a man be born when he is old? Can he enter a second time into his mother's womb, and be born?"

But Jesus endeavors to raise into purity the sensuous view of Nicodemus's mind moulded in materialistic heaviness, and announces to him — really the same— and yet not the same :

(5) " Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born of water and of the spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.

(6) " That which is born of the flesh is flesh: and that which is born of the spirit is spirit.

(7) "Marvel not that I said unto thee, Ye must be bom again.

(8) " The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the

sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh and whither

it goeth ; so is everyone that is bom of the spirit."

To be born of water means simply to be born from the mother's womb. To be born of the spirit means to be born from the fructifying breath of the wind; this we learn from the Greek text (where spirit and wind are ex- pressed by the same word, nvevpia) ro yeyivvfjpiiyor in TTfS (TapHoS (JapS icfriv^ nal to yeycvvTf^ivov in row


nvevpiaros nvev^id iariv, — To nviv^a onov Oi\Bi Tcvet,* etc.

This symbolism rose from the same need as that whicE produced the Egyptian legend of the vultures, the mother symbol. They were only females and were fertilized by the wind. One recognizes very clearly the ethical de- mand as the foundation of these mythologic assertions: thou must say of the mother that she was not impreg^ nated by a mortal in the ordinary way, but by a spiritual being in an unusual manner. This demand stands in strict opposition to the real truth; therefore, the myth is a fitting solution. One can say it was a hero who died and was born again in a remarkable manner, and in this way attained immortality. The need which this demand asserts is evidently a prohibition against a definite phan- tasy concerning the mother. A son may naturally think that a father has generated him In a carnal way, but not that he himself impregnated the mother and so caused himself to be born again into renewed youth. This in- cestuous phantasy which for some reason possesses an extraordinary strength," and, therefore, appears as a compulsory wish, is repressed and, conforming to the above demand, under certain conditions, expresses itself again, symbolically, concerning the problem of birth, or rather concerning individual rebirth from the mother. In Jesus's challenge to Nicodemus we clearly recognize this tendency: ** Think not carnally or thou art carnal, but think symbolically, then art thou spirit." It is evident

  • That which is born of the flesh is flesh and that which it born of

the spirit it spirit ; the spirit bloweth where it liiteth.


how extremely educative and developing this compulsion . toward symbolism can be. Nicodemus would remain fixed in low commonplaces if he did not succeed in raising him- self through symbols above this repressed incestuous desire. As a righteous philistine of culture, he probably was not very anxious for this effort, because men seem really to remain satisfied in repressing the incestuous libido, and at best to express it by some modest religious exercises. Yet it seems to be important, on the other side, that man should not merely renounce and repress and thereby remain firmly fixed in the incestuous bond, but that he should redeem those dynamic forces which lie bound up in incest, in order to fulfil himself. For man needs his whole libido, to fill out the boundaries of his personality, and then, for the first time, he is in a condi- tion to do his best. The paths by which man may mani- fest his incestuously fixed libido seem to have been pointed out by the religious mythologic symbols. On this account Jesus teaches Nicodemus: "Thou thinkest of thy incestuous wish for rebirth, but thou must think that thou art born from the water and that thou art generated by the breath of the wind,^' and in this way thou shalt share in eternal life."

Thus the libido which lies inactive in the incestuous bond repressed and in fear of the law and the avenging Father God can be led over into sublimation through the symbol of baptism (birth from water) and of generation (spiritual birth) through the symbol of the descent of the Holy Ghost. Thus man becomes a child ^* again and is born into a circle of brothers and sisters; but his mother


is the " communion of the saints," the church, and his circle of brothers and sisters is humanity, with whom he is united anew in the common inheritance of the primitive symbol.

It seems that at the time in which Christianity had its origin this process was especially necessary; for that period, as the result of the incredible contrast between slavery and the freedom of the citizens and masters, had entirely lost the consciousness of the common bond of mankind. One of the next and most essential reasons for the energetic regression to the infantile in Christianity, which goes hand in hand with the revival of the incest problem, was probably to be found in the far-reaching depreciation of women. At that time sexuality was so easily attainable that the result could only be a very ex- cessive depreciation of the sexual object. The existence of personal values was first discovered by Christianity, and there are many people who have not discovered it even in the present day. However, the depreciation of the sexual object hinders the outflow of that libido which cannot be satisfied by sexual activity, because it belongs to an already desexualized higher order. (If it were not so, a Don Juan could never be neurotic; but the con- trary is the case.) For how might those higher valua- tions be given to a worthless, despised object? There- fore, the libido, after having seen a " Helen in every woman " for so long a time, sets out on a search for the diflScult to obtain, the worshipped, but perhaps unattain- able, goal, and which in the unconscious is the mother. Therefore the symbolic needs, based on the incest resist-


ance, arise again in an increased degree, which promptly transforms the beautiful, sinful world of the Olympian Gods into incomprehensible, dreamlike, dark mysterieSi which, with their accessions of symbols and obscure mean- ingful texts, remove us very far from the reli^ous feelings of that Roman-Graeco world. When we see how much trouble Jesus took to make acceptable to Nico- demus the symbolic perception of things, that is to say, really a repression and veiling over of the actual facts, and how important it was for the history of civilization in general, that people thought and still think in this way, then we understand the revolt which is raised every- where against the psychologic discovery of the true back- ground of the neurotic or normal symbolism. Always and everywhere we encounter the odious realm of sexual- ity, which represents to all righteous people of to-day something defiled. However, less than 2,000 years have passed since the religious cult of sexuality was more or less openly in full bloom. To be sure, they were heathen and did not know better, but the nature of religious power does not change from cycle to cycle. If one has once re- ceived an effectual impression of the sexual contents of the ancient cults, and if one realizes oneself that the re- ligious experience, that is, the union ^'^ with the God of antiquity, was understood by antiquity as a more or less concrete coitus, then truly one can no longer fancy that the motor forces of a religion have suddenly become wholly different since the birth of Christ. Exactly the same thing has occurred as with the hysteric who at first indulges in some quite unbeautiful, infantile sexual mani-


festatlons and afterwards develops a hyperaesthetic nega- tion in order to convince every one of his special purity. Christianity, with its repression of the manifest sexual, is the negative of the ancient sexual cult. The original cult has changed its tokens.^* One only needs to realize how much of the gay paganism, even to the inclusion of un- seemly Gods, has been taken into the Christian church. Thus the old indecent Priapus celebrated a gay festival of resurrection in St. Tychon." Also partly in the physicians Sts. Kosma and Damien, who graciously condescended to accept the " membra virilia " in wax at their festival.** St. Phallus of old memories emerges again to be wor- shipped in country chapels, to say nothing of the rest of the paganism!

There are those who have not yet learned to recognize sexuality as a function equivalent to hunger and who, therefore, consider it as disgraceful that certain taboo institutions which were considered as asexual refuges are now recognized as overflowing with sexual symbolism. Those people are doomed to the painful realization that such is still the case, in spite of their great revolt One must learn to understand that, opposed to the customary habit of thought, psychoanalytic thinking reduces and resolves those symbolic structures which have become more and more complicated through countless elabora- tion. This means a course of reduction which would be an intellectual enjoyment if the object were different But here it becomes distressing, not only aesthetically, but apparently also ethically, because the repressions which are to be overcome have been brought about by our best


intentions. We must commence to overcome our virtu- ousness with the certain fear of falling into baseness on the other side. This is certainly true, for virtuousness is always inwardly compensated by a great tendency towards baseness; and how many profligates are there who in- wardly preserve a mawkish virtue and moral megalo- mania? Both categories of men turn out to be snobs when they come in contact with analytic psychology, be- cause the moral man has imagined an objective and cheap verdict on sexuality and the unmoral man is entirely un- aware of the vulgarity of his sexuality and of his inca- pacity for an unselfish love. One completely forgets that one can most miserably be carried away, not only by a vice, but also by a virtue. There is a fanatic orgastic self-righteousness which is just as base and which entails just as much injustice and violence as a vice.

At this time, when a large part of mankind is begin- ning to discard Christianity, it is worth while to under- stand clearly why it was originally accepted. It was ac- cepted in order to escape at last from the brutality of antiquity. As soon as we discard it, licentiousness re- turns, as impressively exemplified by life in our large modern cities. This step is not a forward step, but a backward one. It is as with individuals who have laid aside one form of transference and have no new one. Without fail they will occupy regressively the old path of transference, to their great detriment, because the world around them has since then essentially changed. He who is repelled by the historical and philosophical weakness of the Christian dogmatism and the religious


emptiness of an historical Jesus, of whose person we know nothing and whose religious value is partly TalmudiCi partly Hellenic wisdom, and discards Christianity, and therewith Christian morality, is certainly confronted with the ancient problem of licentiousness. Today the indi- vidual still feels himself restrained by the public hypo- critical opinion, and, therefore, prefers to lead a secret, separate life, but publicly to represent morality. It might be different if men in general all at once found the moral mask too dull, and if they realized how danger- ously their beasts lie in wait for each other, and then truly a frenzy of demoralization might sweep over hu- manity. This is the dream, the wish dream, of the morally limited man of today; he forgets necessity, which strangles men and robs them of their breath, and which with a stern hand interrupts every passion.

It must not be imputed to me that I am wishing to refer the libido back by analytical reduction to the primi- tive, almost conquered, stages, entirely forgetting the fear- ful misery this would entail for humanity. Indeed, some individuals would let themselves be transported by the old-time frenzy of sexuality, from which the burden of guilt has been removed, to their own greatest detriment.

But these are the ones who under other circumstances would have prematurely perished in some other way. However, I well know the most effectual and most inex- orable regulator of human sexuality. This is necessity. With this leaden weight human lust will never fly too high.

To-day there are countless neurotics who are so simply


because they do not know how to seek happiness in their own manner. They do not even realize where the lack lies. And besides these neurotics there are many more normal people — and precisely people of the higher type — who feel restricted and discontented. For all these re- duction to the sexual elements should be undertaken, in order that they may be reinstated into the possession of their primitive self, and thereby learn to know and value its relation to the entire personality. In this way alone can certain requirements be fulfilled and others be re- pudiated as unfit because of their infantile character. In this way the individual will come to realize that certain things are to be sacrificed, although they are accom- plished, but in another sphere. We imagine that we have long renounced, sacrificed and cut off our incest wish, and that nothing of it is left. But it does not occur to us that this is not true, but that we unconsciously commit incest in another territory. In religious symbols, for example, we come across incest.'* We consider the in- cestuous wish vanished and lost, and then rediscover it in full force in religion. This process or transformation has taken place unconsciously in secular development Just as in Part I it is shown that a similar unconscious transformation of the libido is an ethically worthless pose, and with which I compared the Christianity of early Roman antiquity, where evidently licentiousness and bru- tality were strongly resisted, so here I must remark in regard to the sublimation of the incestuous libido, that the belief in the religious symbol has ceased to be an ethical Ideal; but it is an unconscious transformation of


the incest wish into symbolic acts and symbolic concepts which cheat men, as it were, so that heaven appears to them as a father and earth as a mother and the people upon it children and brothers and sisters. Thus man can remain a child for all time and satisfy his incest wish all unawares. This state would doubtless be ideal ^® if it were not infantile and, therefore, merely a one-sided wish, which maintains a childish attitude. The reverse is anxiety. Much is said of pious people who remain unshaken in their trust in God and wander unswervingly safe and blessed through the world. I have never seen this Chid- her yet. It is probably a wish figure. The rule is great uncertainty among believers, which they drown with fanatical cries among themselves or among others ; more- over, they have religious doubts, moral uncertainty, doubts of their own personality, feelings of guilt and, deepest of all, great fear of the opposite aspect of reality, against which the most highly intelligent people struggle with all their force. This other side is the devil, the adversary or, expressed in modem terms, the corrective of reality, of the infantile world picture, which has been made acceptable through the predominating pleasure principle.^^ But the world is not a garden of God, of the Father, but a place of terrors. Not only is heaven no father and earth no mother and the people not brothers nor sisters, but they represent hostile, destroy- ing powers, to which we are abandoned the more surely, the more childishly and thoughtlessly we have entrusted ourselves to the so-called Fatherly hand of God. One should never forget the harsh speech of the first Na-


poleon, that the good God is always on the side of the heaviest artillery.

.The religious myth meets us here as one of the greatest and most significant human institutions which, despite misleading symbols, nevertheless gives man assurance and strength, so that he may not be overwhelmed by the monsters of the universe. The symbol, considered from the standpoint of actual truth, is misleading, indeed, but it is psychologically true,^^ because it was and is the bridge to all the greatest achievements of humanity.

But this does not mean to say that this unconscious way of transformation of the incest wish into religious exercises is the only one or the only possible one. There is also a conscious recognition and understanding with which we can take possession of this libido which is bound up in incest and transformed into religious exer- cises so that we no longer need the stage of reli^ous symbolism for this end. It is thinkable that instead of doing good to our fellow-men, for " the love of Christ," we do it from the knowledge that humanity, even as our- selves, could not exist if, among the herd, the one could not sacrifice himself for the other. This would be the course of moral autonomy, of perfect freedom, when man could without compulsion wish that which he must do, and this from knowledge, without delusion through be" lief in the religious symbols.

It is a positive creed which keeps us infantile and, therefore, ethically inferior. Although of the greatest significance from the cultural point of view and of im- perishable beauty from the aesthetic standgointi


delusion can no longer ethically suffice humanity striving after moral autonomy.

The infantile and moral danger lies in belief in the symbol because through that we guide the libido to an imaginary reality. The simple negation of the symbol changes nothing, for the entire mental disposition re- mains the same ; we merely remove the dangerous object. But the object is not dangerous; the danger is our own infantile mental state, for love of which we have lost something very beautiful and ingenious through the simple abandonment of the religious symbol I tlunk belief should be replaced by understanding; then we would keep the beauty of the symbol, but still remain free from the depressing results of submission to belief. This would be the psychoanalytic cure for belief and dis- belief.

The vision following upon that of the dty is that of a

  • ' strange fir tree with gnarled branches." This vision

does not seem extraordinary to us after all that we have learned of the tree of life and its associations with the dty and the waters of life. This espedal tree seems simply to continue the category of the mother sjrmbols. The attribute strange " probably signifies, as in dreams, a special emphasis, that is, a special underl^g complex material. Unfortunately, the author gives us no indi- vidual material for this. As the tree already suggested in the symbolism of the city is particularly emphasized through the further development of Miss Miller's visions


here, I find it necessary to discuss at some length the his- tory of the symbolism of the tree.

It is well known that trees have played a large part in the cult myth from the remotest times. The typical myth tree is the tree of paradise or of life which we discover abundantly used in Babylonian and also in Jewish lore; and in prechristian times, the pine tree of Attis, the tree or trees of Mithra; in Germanic mythology, Ygdrasil and so on. The hanging of the Attis image on the pine tree; the hanging of Marsyas, which became a celebrated artistic motive; the hanging of Odin; the Germanic hang- ing sacrifices — indeed, the whole series of hanged gods — teaches us that the hanging of Christ on the cross is not a unique occurrence in religious mythology, but belongs to the same circle of ideas as others. In this world of imagery the cross of Christ is the tree of life, and equally the wood of death. This contrast is not astounding. Just as the origin of man from trees was a legendary idea, so there were also burial customs, in which people were buried in hollow trees. From that the German language retains even now the expression ** Totenbaum " (tree of death) for a coffin. Keeping in mind the fact that the tree is predominantly a mother symbol, then the mystic significance of this manner of burial can be in no way incomprehensible to us. The dead are delivered hack to the mother for rebirth. We encounter this symbol in the Osiris myth, handed down by Plutarch,** which is, in general, typical in various aspects. Rhea is pregnant with Osiris; at the same time also with Isis; Osiris and Isis mate even in the mother's womb (motive of the night


journey on the sea with incest). Their son is Aniens, later called Horus. It is said of Isis that she was bom

    • in absolute humidity " {reTaprij 6i rifv liffiv iv narv-

Ypot^ yivi(T$ai ♦). It is said of Osiris that a certain Pa- myles in Thebes heard a voice from the temple of Zeus while drawing water, which commanded him to proclaim that Osiris was horn p^yai flaiXtXev^ ivipyirtf^ " OiTtpti.] In honor of this the Pamylion were celebrated. They were similar to the phallophorion. Pamyles is a phallic demon, similar to the original Dionysus. The myth re- duced reads : Osiris and Isis were generated by phallus from the water (mother womb) in the ordinary manner. (Kronos had made Rhea pregnant, the relation was secret, and Rhea was his sister. Helios, however, ob- served it and cursed the relation.) Osiris was killed in a crafty manner by the god of the underworld, Typhon, who locked him in a chest. He was thrown into the Nile, and so carried out to sea. Osiris, however, mated in the underworld with his second sister, Nephthys (motive of the night journey to the sea with incest) . One sees here how the symbolism is developed. In the mother womb, before the outward existence, Osiris conunits incest; in death, the second intrauterine existence, Osiris again com- mits incest. Both times with a sister who is simply sub- stituted for the mother as a legal, uncensured symbol, since the marriage with a sister in early antiquity was not merely tolerated, but was really commended. Zara- thustra also recommended the marriage of kindred. This

  • In the fourth place Isis was born In absolute humidity.

fThe great beneficent king, Oiirit.


form of myth would be impossible to-day, because co- habitation with the sister, being incestuous, would be repressed. The wicked Typhon entices Osiris craftily into a box or chest; this distortion of the true state of affairs is transparent. The " original sin " caused men to wish to go back into the mother again, that is, the in- cestuous desire for the mother, condemned by law, is the ruse supposedly invented by Typhon. The fact is, the ruse is very significant. Man tries to sneak into rebirth through subterfuge in order to become a child again. An early Egyptian hymn *^ even raises an accusation against the mother Isis because she destroys the sun-god Re by treachery. It was interpreted as the ill-will of the mother towards her son that she banished and betrayed him. The hymn describes how Isis fashioned a snake, put it in the path of Re, and how the snake wounded the sun-god with a poisonous bite, from which wound he never recovered, so that finally he had to retire on the back of the heavenly cow. But this cow is the cow- headed goddess, just as Osiris is the bull Apis. The mother is accused as if she were the cause of man flying to the mother in order to be cured of the wound which she had herself inflicted. This wound is the prohibition of incest." Man is thus cut off from the hopeful cer- tainty of childhood and early youth, from all the uncon- scious, instinctive happenings which permit the child to live as an appendage of his parents, unconscious of him- self. There must be contained in this many sensitive memories of the animal age, where there was not any '* thou shalt and thou shalt not," but all was jus^


simple occurrence. Even yet a deep animosity seems to live in man because a brutal law has separated him from the instinctive yielding to his desires and from the great beauty of the harmony of the animal nature. This sepa- ration manifested itself, among other things, in the incest prohibition and its correlates (laws of marriage, etc) ; therefore pain and anger relate to the mother, as if she were responsible for the domestication of the sons of men. In order not to become conscious of his incest wish (his backward harking to the animal nature), the son throws all the burden of the guilt on the mother, from which arises the idea of the " terrible mother.** *• The mother becomes for him a spectre of anxiety, a night-


After the completed night journey to the sea," die chest of Osiris was cast ashore by Byblos, and lay in the branches of an Erica, which grew around the coffin and became a splendid tree. The king of the land had the tree placed as a colunm under his roof.*' During this period of Osiris's absence (the winter solstice) the lament customary during thousands of years for the dead god and his return occurs, and its evpetTtf^ is a feast of joy. A passage from the mournful quest of Isis is espedally noteworthy :

    • She flutters like a swallow lamenting around the column,

which encloses the god sleeping in death."

(This same motive returns in the Kyffhaiiser saga.) Later on Typhon dismembers the corpse and scatters the pieces. We come upon the motive of^ dismember^


ment in countless sun myths/* namely, the inversion of the idea of the composition of the child in the mother's womb/^ In fact, the mother Isis collects the pieces of the body with the help of the jackal-headed Anubis. (She finds the corpse with the help of dogs.) Here the noc- turnal devourers of bodies, the dogs and jackals, become the assistants of the composition, of the reproduction.*^ The Egyptian vulture owes its symbolic meaning as mother to this necrophagic habit. In Persian antiquity the corpses were thrown out for the dogs to devour, just as to-day in the Indian funeral pyres the removal of the carcasses is left to the vultures. Persia was familiar with the custom of leading a dog to the bed of one dying, whereupon the latter had to present the dog with a mor- sel.°^ The custom, on its surface, evidently signifies that the morsel is to belong to the dog, so that he will spare the body of the dead, precisely as Cerberus was soothed by the honey-cakes which Hercules gave to him in the journey to hell. But when we bear in mind the jackal- headed Anubis who rendered his good services in the gathering together of the dismembered Osiris, and the mother significance of the vulture, then the question arises whether something deeper was not meant by this cere- mony. Creuzer has also concerned himself with this idea, and has come to the conclusion that the astral form of the dog ceremony, that is, the appearance of Sirius, the dog star, at the period of the sun's highest position, is related to this in that the introduction of the dog has a compensatory significance, death being thereby m^dCs rc-


versedly, equal to the sun^s highest position. This is quite in conformity with psychologic thought, which re- sults from the very general fact that death is interpreted as entrance into the mother's womb (rebirth). This in- terpretation would seem to be supported by the other- wise enigmatic function of the dog in the Sacrificium Mithriacum. In the monuments a dog always leaps up upon the bull killed by Mithra. However, this sacrifice is probably to be interpreted through the Persian legend, as well as through the monument, as the moment of the highest fecundity. The most beautiful expression of this is seen upon the magnificent Mithra relief of Heddem- heim. Upon one side of a large stone slab (formerly probably rotating) is seen the stereotyped overthrowing and sacrifice of the bull, but upon the other side stands Sol, with a bunch of grapes in his hand, Mithra with the cornucopia, the Dadophores with fruits, correspond- ing to the legend that all fecundity proceeds from the dead bull of the world, fruits from the horns, wine from its blood, grain from the tail, cattle from its sperma, leek from its nose, and so on. Silvanus stands above this scene with the animals of the forest arising from him. The significance suspected by Creuzer might very easily belong to the dog in this connection.^' Let us now turn back to the myth of Osiris. In spite of the restoration of the corpse accomplished by Isis, the resuscitation succeeds only incompletely in so far as the phallus of Osiris cannot again be produced, because it was eaten by the fishes; the power of life was wanting. ^^ Osiris as a phantom once more impregnated Isis, but the fruit is Harpocrates,


who was feeble in rots xarooOev yvtois (in the lower limbs), that is, corresponding to the significance of yvtov (at the feet). (Here, as is plainly evident, foot is used in the phallic meaning.) This incurability of the setting sun corresponds to the incurability of Re in the above-mentioned older Egyptian sun hynrm. Osiris, al- though only a phantom, now prepares the young sun, his son Horus, for a battle with Typhon, the evil spirit of darkness. Osiris and Horus correspond to the father- son symbolism mentioned in the beginning, which sym- bolic figure, corresponding again to the above formula- tion," is flanked by the well-formed and ugly figures of Horus and Harpocrates, the latter appearing mostly as a cripple, often represented distorted to a mere caricature," He is confused in the tradition very much with Horus, with whom he also has the name in common. Hor-pi- chrud, as his real name ^"^ reads, is composed from chrud,

    • child," and Hor, from the adjective hri = up, on top,

and signifies the up-coming child, as the rising sun, and opposed to Osiris, who personifies the setting sun — the sun of the west. Thus Osiris and Horpichrud or Horus are one being, both husband and son of the same mother, Hathor-Isis. The Chnum-Ra, the sun god of lower Egypt, represented as a ram, has at his side, as the female divinity of the land, Hatmehit, who wears the fish on her head. She is the mother and wife of Bi-neb-did (Ram, local name of Chnum-Ra). In the hymn of Hibis," Amon-ra was invoked:

"Thy (Chum-Ram) dwells in Mendes, united as the quad- ruple god Thmuis. He is the phallus, the lord of the gods. The


bull of his modier rejoices in die cow (ahet, die modier) and man fructifies dirough his semen."

In further inscriptions Hatmehit was directly referred to as the " mother of Mendes." (Mendes is the Greek form of Bi-neb-did: ram.) She is also invoked as the " Good," with the additional significance of ta-nofert, or " young woman." The cow as symbol of the mother is found in all possible forms and variations of Hathor- Isis, and also in the female Nun (parallel to this is the primitive goddess Nit or Neith), the protoplasm which, related to the Hindoo Atman,* is equally of masculine and feminine nature. Nun is, therefore, invoked as Amon,*® the original water,*^ which is in the beginning. He is also designated as the father of fathers, the mother of mothers. To this corresponds the invocation to the female side of Nun-Amon, of Nit or Neith.

" Nit, the ancient, die mother of god, die mistress of Esne, the father of fathers, die mother of mothers, who is the beetle and the vulture, the being in its beginning.

"Nit, the ancient, the mother who bore die light god, Ra, who bore first of all, when there was nothing which brought forth.

" The cow, the ancient, which bore the sun, and then laid die germ of gods and men."

The word '* nun " has the significance of young, fresh, new, also the on-coming waters of the Nile flood. In a transferred sense *' nun " was also used for the chaotic primitive waters; in general for the primitive generating matter '^ which was personified by the goddess Nunet. From her Nut sprang, the goddess of heaven, who was


represented with a starry body, and also as the heavenly cow with a starry body.

When the sun-god, little by little, retires on the back of the heavenly cow, just as poor Lazarus returns into Abraham's bosom, each has the same significance; they return into the mother, in order to rise as Horns. Thus it can be said that in the morning the goddess is the mother, at noon the sister-wife and in the evening again the mother, who receives the dying in her lap, reminding us of the Pieta of Michelangelo. As shown by the illus- tration (from Dideron's *' Iconographie Chretienne " ) , this thought has been transferred as a whole into Chris- tianity.

Thus the fate of Osiris is explained: he passes into the mother's womb, the chest, the sea, the tree, the column of Astartes; he is dismembered, re-formed, and reappears again in his son, Hor-pi-chrud.

Before entering upon the further mysteries which the beautiful myth reveals to us, there is still much to be said about the symbol of the tree. Osiris lies in the branches of the tree, surrounded by them, as in the mother's womb. The motive of embracing and entwining is often found in the sun myths, meaning that it is the myth of rebirth. A good example is the Sleeping Beauty, also the legend of the girl who is enclosed between the bark and the trunk, but who is freed by a youth with his horn." The horn is of gold and silver, which hints at the sunbeam in the phallic meaning. (Compare the previous legend of the horn.) An exotic legend tells of the sun-hero, how he must be freed from the plant entwining around him.^


A girl dreams of her lover who has fallen into the water; she tries to save him, but first has to pull seaweed and sea-grass from the water; then she catches him. In an African myth the hero, after his act, must first be disen- tangled from the seaweed. In a Polynesian myth the hero's ship was encoiled by the tentacles of a gigantic polyp. Re's ship is encoiled by a night serpent on its night journey on the sea. In the poetic rendering of die history of Buddha's birth by Sir Edwin Arnold ("The Light of Asia," p. 5) the motive of an embrace is also found :

" Queen Maya stood at noon, her days fulfilled, Under a Palso in the palace grounds, A stately trunk, straight as a temple shaft, With crown of glossy leaves and fragrant blooms; And knowing: the time come — for all things knew— The conscious tree bent down its boughs to make A bower about Queen Maya's majesty: And earth put forth a thousand sudden flowers To spread a couch: while ready for the bath The rock hard by gave out a limpid stream Of crystal flow. So brought she forth the child." **

We come across a very similar motive in the cult legend of the Samian Hera. Yearly it was claimed that the image disappeared from the temple, was fastened some- where on the seashore on a trunk of a Lygos tree and wound about with its branches. There it was " found/* and was treated with wedding-cake. This feast is un- doubtedly a lepoi yajAo^ (ritual marriage), because in Samos there was a legend that Zeus had first had a long- continued secret love relation with Hera. In -Flataea


and Argos, the marriage procession was represented with bridesmaids, marriage feast, and so on. The festival took place in the wedding month "rVr/iiyXiaJv (beginning of February). But in Plataea the image was previously carried into a lonely place in the wood; approximately corresponding to the legend of Plutarch that Zeus had kidnapped Hera and then had hidden her in a cave of Cithaeron. According to our deductions, previously made, we must conclude from this that there Is still an- other train of thought, namely, the magic charm of rejuvenation, which is condensed In the HIerosgamos. The disappearance and hiding In the wood, in the cave, on the seashore, entwined In a willow tree, points to the death of the sun and rebirth. The early springtime ra/xriXiGov (the time of Marriage) In February fits in with that very well. In fact, Pausanias Informs us that the Arglvan Hera became a maiden again by a yearly bath in the spring of Canathos, The significance of the bath is emphasized by the Information that in the Plataeian cult of Hera Teleia, Tritonlan nymphs appeared as water-carriers. In a talc from the Iliad, where the conjugal couch of Zeus upon Mount Ida is described, it is said : **

" The son of Saturn spake, and took his wife Into his arms, while underneath the pair, The sacred Earth threw up her freshest herbs: The dewy lotos, and the crocus-flower. And thick and soft the hyacinth. All these Upbore them from the ground. Upon this couch They lay, while o*er them a bright golden cloud Gathered and shed its drops of glistening dew.


So slumbered on the heights of Gargarus The All-Father overcome by sleep and love, And held his consort in his arms."

— ^Trans. by W. C. Bryant

Drexler recognizes in this description an unmistakable allusion to the garden of the gods on the extreme western shore of the ocean, an idea which might have been taken from a Prehomeric Hierosgamos hymn. This western land is the land of the setting sun, whither Hercules, Gilgamesh, etc., hasten with the sun, in order to find there immortality, where the sun ^nd the maternal sea unite in an eternally rejuvenating intercourse. Our sup- position of a condensation of the Hierosgamos with the myth of rebirth is probably confirmed by this. Pausanias mentions a related myth fragment where the statue of Artemis Orthia is also called Lygodesma (chained with willows), because it was found in a willow tree; this tale seems to be related to the general Greek celebration of Hierosgamos with the above-mentioned customs.*^

The motive of the " devouring " which Frobenius has shown to be a regular constituent of the sun myths is closely related to this (also metaphorically). The " whale dragon " (mother's womb) always ** devours ** the hero. The devouring may also be partial instead of complete.

A six-year-old girl, who goes to school unwillingly, dreams that her leg is encircled by a large red worm. She had a tender interest for this creature, contrary to what might be expected. An adult patient, who cannot separate from an older friend on account of an extraordi-


narily strong mother transference, dreams that " she had to get across some deep water (typical ideal) with this friend; her friend fell in (mother transference); she tries to drag her out, and almost succeeds, but a large crab seizes on the dreamer by the foot and tries to pull her in."

Etymology also confirms this conception: There is an Indo-Germanic root velu-, vel-, with the meaning of " en- circling, surrounding, turning." From this is derived Sanskrit val, valati = to cover, to surround, to endrdei to encoil (symbol of the snake) ; vtf//i = creeping plant; uluta = boa-constrictor = Latin volutus, Lithuanian velu, veln = wickeln (to roll up); Church Slavonian vlina = Old High German, ^ella = JVellc (wave or billow). To the root vclu also belongs the root vlvo^ with the mean- ing " cover, corium, womb." (The serpent on account of its casting its skin is an excellent symbol of rebirth.) Sanskrit ulva, ulha has the same meaning; Latin volva, volvula, vulva. To velu also belongs the root ulvord, with the meaning of ** fruitful field, covering or husk of plants, sheath." Sanskrit urvdrd = sown field. Zend urvara = plant. (See the personification of the ploughed furrow.) The same root vel has also the meaning of " wallen " (to undulate) . Sanskrit ulmuka = conflagra- tion. FaXia, FiXa, Gothic vulan = wallen (to undulate). Old High German and Middle High German walm = heat, glow.®* It is typical that in the state of " involu- tion " the hair of the sun-hero always falls out from the heat. Further the root vel is found with the meaning "to sound,®" and to will, to wish" (libido 1).


The motive of encoiling is mother symbolism/® This is verified by the fact that the trees, for example, bring forth again (like the whale in the legend of Jonah). They do that very generally, thus in the Greek legend the MsXlai vvfitpai* of the ash trees are the mothers of the race of men of the Iron Age. In northern mythology, Askr, the ash tree, is the primitive father. His wife, Embla, is the *' Emsige," the active one, and not, as was earlier believed, the aspen. Askr probably means, in the first place, the phallic spear of the ash tree. (Compare the Sabine custom of parting the bride's hair with the lance.) The Bundehesh symbolizes the first people, Meschia and Meschiane, as the tree Reivas, one part of which places a branch in a hole of the other part. The material which, according to the northern myth, was ani- mated by the god when he created men^^ is designated as tre = wood, tree." I recall also vXt^ = wood, which in Latin is called materia. In the wood of the ** world-ash^" Ygdrasil, a human pair hid themselves at the end of the world, from whom sprang the race of the renewed world." The Noah motive is easily recognized in this conception (the night journey on the sea) ; at the same time, in the symbol of Ygdrasil, a mother idea is again apparent. At the moment of the destruction of the world the " world-ash " becomes the guardian mother, the tree of death and life, one ^^iyxoXniovJ^^ ^* This function of rebirth of the " world-ash " also helps to eluddate the representation met with in the Egyptian Book of the

^Melian Virgins. t Pregnant


Dead, which is called the gate of knowledge of the soul of the East *' :

" I am the pilot in the holy keel, I am the steersman who allows no rest in the ship of Ra.^* I know that tree of emerald green from whose midst Ra rises to the height of die clouds."**

Ship and tree of the dead (death ship and death tree) are here closely connected. The conception is that Ra, born from the tree, ascends (Osiris in the Erika). The representation of the sun-god Mithra is probably ex- plained in the same way. He is represented upon the Heddernheim relief, with half his body arising from the top of a tree. (In the same way numerous other monu- ments show Mithra half embodied in the rock, and illus- trate a rock birth, similar to Men.) Frequently there is a stream near the birthplace of Mithra. This con- glomeration of symbols is also found in the birth of Aschanes, the first Saxon king, who grew from the Harz rocks, which are in the midst of the wood ^^ near a foun- tain.^® Here we find all the mother symbols united- earth, wood, water, three forms of tangible matter. We can wonder no longer that in the Middle Ages the tree was poetically addressed with the title of honor, ^'mis- tress. Likewise it is not astonishing that the Christian legend transformed the tree of death, the cross, into the tree of life, so that Christ was often represented on a living and fruit-bearing tree. This reversion of the cross symbol to the tree of life, which even in Babylon was an important and authentic religious symbol, is also considered entirely probable by Zockler,^* an authority


on the history of the cross. The pre-Christian meaning of the symbol does not contradict this interpretation; on the contrary, its meaning is life. The appearance of the cross in the sun worship (here the cross with equal arms, and the swastika cross, as representative of the sun's rays), as well as in the cult of the goddess of love (Isis with the crux ansata, the rope, the speculum veneris 9, etc. ) , in no way contradicts the previous historical mean- ing. The Christian legend has made abundant use of this symbolism.

The student of mediaeval history is familiar with the representation of the cross growing above the grave of Adam. The legend was that Adam was buried on Gol- gotha. Seth had planted on his grave a branch of the "paradise tree," which became the cross and tree of death of Christ.®^ We all know that through Adam's guilt sin and death came into the world, and Christ through his death has redeemed us from the guilt. To the question in what had Adam's guilt consisted it is said that the unpardonable sin to be expiated by death was that he dared to pick a fruit from the paradise tree.'* The results of this are described in an Oriental legend. One to whom it was permitted to cast one look into Paradise after the fall saw the tree there and the four streams. But the tree was withered, and in its branches lay an infant. (The mother had become pregnant.")

This remarkable legend corresponds to the Talmudic tradition that Adam, before Eve, already possessed a demon wife, by name Lilith, with whom he quarrelled for mastership. But Lilith raised herself into the air through


the magic of the name of God and hid herself in the sea. Adam forced her back with the help of three angels." Lilith became a nightmare, a Lamia, who threatened those with child and who kidnapped the newborn child. The parallel myth is that of the Lamias, the spectres of the night, who terrified the children. The original legend is that Lamia enticed Zeus, but the jealous Hera, howevefi caused Lamia to bring only dead children into the world. Since that time the raging Lamia is the persecutor of children, whom she destroys wherever she can. This motive frequently recurs in fairy tales, where the mother often appears directly as a murderess or as a devourer of men; ®* a German paradigm is the well-known tale of Hansel and Gretel. Lamia is actually a large, voracious fish, which establishes the connection with the whale- dragon myth so beautifully worked out by Frobenius, in which the sea monster devours the sun-hero for rebirth and where the hero must employ every stratagem to con- quer the monster. Here again we meet with the idea of the " terrible mother " in the form of the voracious fish, the mouth of death.^* In Frobenius there are numerous examples where the monster has devoured not only men but also animals, plants, an entire country, all of which are redeemed by the hero to a glorious rebirth.

The Lamias are typical nightmares, the feminine nature of which is abundantly proven.^" Their universal pecu- liarity is that they ride upon their victims. Their coun- terparts are the spectral horses which bear their riders along in a mad gallop. One recognizes very easily in these symbolic forms the type of anxious dream whidii


as Riklin shows," has already become important for the Interpretation of fairy tales through the investigation of Laistner.*® The typical riding takes on a special aspect through the results of the analytic investigation of in- fantile psychology; the two contributions of Freud and myself®* have emphasized, on one side, the anxiety sig- nificance of the horse, on the other side the sexual mean- ing of the phantasy of riding. When we take these expe- riences into consideration, we need no longer be surprised that the maternal ** world-ash " Ygdrasil is called in Ger- man ** the frightful horse." Cannegieter •** says of night- mares :

    • Abigunt eas nymphas (matres deas, mairas) hodie rustic! osse

capitis equini tectis injecto, cujusmodi ossa per has terras in .rusticonim villis crebra est animadvertere. Nocte autem ad con- cubia equitare creduntur et equos fatigare ad longinqua itinera." *

The connection of nightmare and horse seems, at first glance, to be present also ctymologically — nightmare and mare. The Indo-Germanic root for mare is mark. Mare is the horse, English mare; Old High German mar ah (male horse) and meriha (female horse); Old Norse merr (m^r^ = nightmare) ; Anglo-Saxon myre (maira). The French " cauchmar " comes from calcare = to tread, to step (of iterative meaning, therefore, " to tread " or press down) . It was also said of the cock who

•Even to-day the country people drive oflF these nymphs (mother god- desses, Maira) by throwing a bone of the head of a horse upon the roof- bones of this kind can often be seen throughout the land on the farm- bouses of the country people. By night, however, they are believed to ride at the time of the first sleep, and they are believed to tire out their hortet by long journeys.


stepped upon the hen. This movement is also typical for the nightmare; therefore, it is said of King Vanlandii Mara trad han/' the Mara trod on him in sleep even to death.** A synonym for nightmare is the ** troll " or "treter"" (treader). This movement (calcare) is proven again by the experience of Freud and myself with children, where a special infantile sexual significance is attached to stepping or kicking.

The common Aryan root mar means " to die "; there- fore, mara the " dead " or " death." From this results mors, fjLopoi = fate (also pioipa^^). As is well known, the Nornes sitting under the ** world-ash " personify fate like Clotho, Lachesis and Atropos. With the Celts the conception of the Fates probably passes into that of matres and matrona, which had a divine significance among' the Germans. A well-known passage in Julius Cssar (*' De Bello Gallico, i: 50) informs us of this meaning of the mother :

" Ut matres f amilias eonim sortibus et vatidnationibus ^ dedar rarent, utrum proelium committi ex usu esset, ncc ne." *

In Slav mara means " witch " ; poln. mora = demoni nightmare; mOr or mOre (Swiss-German) means "sow," also as an insult. The Bohemian mura means "night- mare " and " evening moth, Sphinx." This strange con- nection is explained through analysis where it often occurs that animals with movable shells (Venus shell) or wings are utilized for very transparent reasons as sym- bols of the female genitals.**^ The Sphingina are the twi-

  • That these matrons should declare by lots whether it would be to their

mdvaotage or not to engage in battle.


light moths; they, like the nightmare, come in the dark- ness. Finally, it is to be observed that the sacred olive tree of Athens is called "/iop/a (that was derived from fiopoi). Halirrhotios wished to cut down the tree, but killed himself with the axe in the attempt. The sound resemblance of mar, mere with meet = sea and Latin mare = sea is remarkable, although etjrmolo^- cally accidental. Might it refer back to '^ the great prinu- tive idea of the mother who, in the first place, meant to us our individual world and afterwards became the sjrm- bol of all worlds ? Goethe said of the mothers : *' They are encircled by images of all creatures." The Chris- tians, too, could not refrain from reuniting their mother of God with water. " Ave Maris Stella " is the begin- ning of a hymn to Mary. Then again it is the horses of Neptune which symbolize the waves of the sea. It is probably of importance that the infantile word ma-ma (mother's breast) is repeated in its initial sound in all possible languages, and that the mothers of two religious heroes are called Mary and Maya. That the mother is the horse of the child is to be seen most plainly in the primitive custom of carrying the child on the back or let- ting it ride on the hip. Odin hung on the ** world- ash," the mother, his ** horse of terror." The Egyptian sun-god sits on the back of his mother, the heavenly cow.

We have already seen that, according to Egyptian con- ceptions, Isis, the mother of god, played an evil trick on the sun-god with the poisonous snake; also Isis behaved treacherously toward her son Horus in Plutarch's tradi-


tion. That is, Horus vanquished the evil Typhon, who murdered Osiris treacherously (terrible mother = Ty- phon). Isis, however, set him free again. Horus there- upon rebelled, laid hands on his mother and tore the regal ornaments from her head, whereupon Hermes gave her a cow's head. Then Horus conquered Typhon a second time. Typhon, in the Greek legend, is a monstrous dragon. Even without this confirmation it is evident that the battle of Horus is the typical battle of the sun-hero with the whale-dragon. Of the latter we know that it is a symbol of the '* dreadful mother,*' of the voradous jaws of death, where men are dismembered and ground up.** Whoever vanquishes this monster has gained a new or eternal youth. For this purpose one must, in spite of all dangers, descend into the belly of the monster "^ (jour- ney to hell) and spend some time there. (Imprisonment by night in the sea. )

The battle with the night serpent signifies, therefore, the conquering of the mother, who is suspected of an in- famous crime, that is, the betrayal of the son. A full confirmation of the connection comes to us through the fragment of the Babylonian epic of the creation, discov- ered by George Smith, mostly from the library of Asur- banipal. The period of the origin of the text was prob- ably in the time of Hammurabi (2,000 B.C.). Wc learn from this account of creation *^ that the sun-god Ea, the son of the depths of the waters and the god of wis- dom,"^ had conquered Apsu. Apsu is the creator of the great gods (he existed in the beginning in a sort of trinity with Tiamat^— the mother of gods and Mumu, his vizier) •


Ea conquered the father, but Tiamat plotted revenge. She prepared herself for battle against the gods.

" Mother Hubur, who created everything, Procured invincible weapons, gave birth to giant snakes With pointed teeth, relentless in every way; Filled their bellies with poison instead of blood, Furious gigantic lizards, clothed them with horrors, Let them swell with the splendor of horror, formed them rearing, Whoever sees them shall die of terror. Their bodies shall rear without turning to escape. She arrayed the lizards, dragons and Labamen, Hurricanes, mad dogs, scorpion men, Mighty storms, fishmen and rams. With relentless weapons, without fear of conflict, Powerful are Tiamat's commands, irresistible are they.

" After Tiamat had powerfully done her work She conceived evil against the gods, her descendants; In order to revenge Apsu, Tiamat did evil. When Ea now heard this thing

He became painfully anxious, sorrowfully he sat himself. He went to the father, his creator, An§ar, To relate to him all that Tiamat plotted. Tiamat, our mother, has taken an aversion to us. Has prepared a riotous mob, furiously raging."

The gods finally opposed Marduk, the god of springi the victorious sun, against the fearful host of Tiamat. Marduk prepared for battle. Of his chief weapon, which he created, it is said :

" He created the evil wind, Im^uUu, the south storm and the

hurricane. The fourth wind, the seventh wind, the whirlwind and the

harmful wind, Then let he loose the winds, which he had created, the seven: To cause confusion within Tiamat, they followed behind him.


Then the lord took up the qxlone, his great weapon; For his chariot he mounted the stormwind, the inoomparablcb the terrible one."

His chief weapon is the wind and a net, mth whidi he will entangle Tiamat. He approaches Tiamat and chal* lenges her to a combat.

    • Then Tiamat and Marduk, the wise one of the gods, came to-

gether, Rising for the fight, approaching to the batde: Then the lord spread out his net and caught her. He let loose the Im^uUu in his train at her face, Then Tiamat now opened her mouth as wide as she could. He let the ImbuUu rush in so that her lips could not dose; With the raging winds he filled her womb. Her inward parts were seized and she opened wide her mouth. He touched her with the spear, dismembered her body, He slashed her inward parts, and cut out her heart, Subdued her and put an end to her life. He threw down her body and stepped upon it."

After Marduk slew the mother, he devised the crea- tion of the world.

" There the lord rested contemplating her body, Then divided he the Colossus, planning wisely. He cut it apart like a flat fish, into two parts,*®® One half he took and with it he covered the Heavens.'*

In this manner Marduk created the universe from the mother. It is clearly evident that the killing of the mother-dragon here takes place under the idea of a wind fecundation with negative accompaniments.

The world is created from the mother, that is to say, from the libido taken away from the mother through sac-


rifice. We shall have to consider this significant formula more closely in the last chapter. The most interesting parallels to this primitive myth are to be found in the literature of the Old Testament, as Gunkel ^^^ has bril- liantly pointed out. It is worth while to trace the pty* chology of these parallels.

Isaiah li:9:

(9) Awake, awake, put on strength, O arm of the Lord; awake as in the ancient days, in the generation of old. Art thou not it that hath cut Rahab, and wounded the dragon?

(10). " Art thou not it which hath dried the sea, the waters of the great deep, that hath made the depths of the sea a wzy for the ransomed to pass over?"

The name of Rahab is frequently used for Egypt in the Old Testament, also dragon. Isaiah, chapter xcc, verse 7, calls Egypt the silent Rahab," and meanSi therefore, something evil and hostile. Rahab is the well- known whore of Jericho, who later, as the wife of Prince Salma, became the ancestress of Christ Here Rahab appeared as the old dragon, as Tiamat, against whose evil power Marduk, or Jehovah, marched forth. The expression the ransomed" refers to the Jews freed from bondage, but it is also mythological, for the hero again frees those previously devoured by the whale. ( Frobenius. )

Psalm Ixxxix: 10:

" Thou hast broken Rahab in pieces, as one that is slain.**

Job XXVI : 12-13:

" He divideth the sea with his power, and by his underrtanding he smiteth through the proud.


" By his spirit he hath garnished the heavens, his hand hath formed the crooked serpent/'

Gunkel places Rahab as identical with Chaos, that is, the same as Tiamat. Gunkel translates the breaking to pieces " as " violation." Tiamat or Rahab as the mother is also the whore. Gilgamesh treats Ischtar in this way when he accuses her of whoredom. This insult towards the mother is very familiar to us from dream analysis. The dragon Rahab appears also as Leviathan, the water monster (maternal sea).

Psalm Ixxiv:

(13) " Thou didst divide the sea by thy strength: thou brakest the heads of the dragons in the waters.

(14) ^' Thou brakest the heads of Leviathan in pieces and gavest him to be meat to the people inhabiting the wilderness.

(15) Thou didst cleave the fountain and the flood: thou didst dry up mighty rivers."

While only the phallic meaning of the Leviathan was emphasized in the first part of this work, we now discover also the maternal meaning. A further parallel is :

Isaiah xxvii : I :

In that day, the Lord with his cruel and great and strong sword shall punish Leviathan, the piercing serpent, even Leviathan that crooked serpent, and he shall slay the dragon that is in the sea."

We come upon a special motive in Job, chap, xli, v. i :

" Canst thou draw out Leviathan with an hook? or his tongue with a cord which thou lettest down? Canst thou put an hook in his nose? or bore his jaw through with a thom? "


Numerous parallels to this motive are to be found among exotic myths in Frobenius, where the maternal sea monster was also fished for. The comparison of the mother libido with the elementary powers of the sea and the powerful monsters borne by the earth show how invincibly great is the power of that libido which we des- ignate as maternal.

We have already seen that the incest prohibition pre- vents the son from reproducing himself through the mother. But this must be done by the god, as is shown with remarkable clearness and candor in the pious Egyp- tian mythology, which has preserved the most ancient and simple concepts. Thus Chnum, the " moulder," the " potter," the " architect," moulds his egg upon the pot- ter's wheel, for he is ** the immortal growth," " the re- production of himself and his own rebirth, the creator of the egg, which emerged from the primitive waters." In the Book of the Dead it says :

"I am the sublime falcon (the Sun-god), which has come forth from his egg."

Another passage in the Book of the Dead reads :

" I am the creator of Nun, who has taken his place in the underworld. My nest is not seen and my egg is not broken."

A further passage reads :

    • that great and noble god in his egg: who is his own originator

of that which has arisen from him." ^®*

Therefore, the god Nagaga-uer is also called the " great cackler." (Book of the Dead.) " I cackle like


a goose and I whistle like a falcon/' The mother is re- proached with the incest prohibition as an act of wilful maliciousness by which she excludes the son from inmior- tality. Therefore, a god must at least rebel, overpower and chastise the mother. (Compare Adam and Lilith, above.) The "overpowering" signifies incestuous rape.^®* Herodotus ^®* has preserved for us a valuable fragment of this religious phantasy.

And how they celebrate their feast to Isis in the dty of Busiris, I have already previously remarked. After the sacrifioCi all of them, men and women, full ten thousand people, b^;in to beat each other. But it would be sin for me to mention for whom they do beat each other.

    • But in Papremis they celebrated the sacrifice with holy actions,

as in the other places. About the time when the sun sets, some few priests are busy around the image; most of them stand at the entrance with wooden clubs, and others who would fulfil a vow, more than a thousand men, also stand in a group widi wooden cudgels opposite them.

    • Now on the eve of the festival, they take the image out in

a small and gilded temple into another sacred edifice. Then the few who remain with the image draw a four-wheeled chariot upon which the temple stands with the image which it encloses. But the others who stand in the anterooms are not allowed to enter. Those under a vow, who stand by the god, beat them off. Now occurs a furious battle with clubs, in which they bruise each other's bodies and as I believe, many even die from their wounds: not- withstanding this, the Egyptians consider that none die.

'* The natives claim that this festival gathering was introduced for the following reason: in this sanctuary lived the mother of Arcs.^^'^ Now Ares was brought up abroad and when he became a man he came to have intercourse with his mother. The servants of his mother who had seen him did not allow him to enter peace- fully, but prevented him; at which he fetched people from an- other city, who mistreated the servants and had entrance to hiB


mother. Therefore, they asserted that this slaughter was intro- duced at the feast for Ares."

It is evident that the pious here fight their way to a share in the mystery of the raping of the mother."* This is the part which belongs to them/®^ while the heroic deed be- longs to the god."^ By Ares is meant the; Egyptian Typhon, as we have good reasons to suppose. Thus Typhon rep- resents the evil longing for the mother with which other myth forms reproach the mother, according to the well- known example. The death of Balder, quite analogous to the death of Osiris (attack of sickness of Re), because of the wounding by the branch of the mistletoe, seems to need a similar explanation. It is recounted in the myth how all creatures were pledged not to hurt Balder, save only the mistletoe, which was forgotten, presumably be- cause it was too young. This killed Balder. Mistletoe is a parasite. The female piece of wood in the fire-boring ritual was obtained "* from the wood of a parasitical or creeping plant, the fire mother. The '* mare '* rests upon '^ Marentak," in which Grimm suspects the mistletoe. The mistletoe was a remedy against barrenness. In Gaul the Druid alone was allowed to dimb the holy oak aniid solenm ceremonies after the completed sacrifice, in order to cut off the ritual mistletoe.^^^ This act is a religiously limited and organized incest. That which grows on the tree is the child,"* which man might have by the mother; then man himself would be in a renewed and rejuvenated form ; and precisely this is what man cannot have, because the incest prohibition forbids it. As the Celtic custom shows, the act is performed by the priest only, with the


observation of certain ceremonies; the hero god and the redeemer of the world, however, do the unpermitted, the superhuman thing, and through it purchase inrunortality. The dragon, who must be overcome for this purpose, means, as must have been for some time clearly seen, the resistance against the incest. Dragon and serpent, espe- cially with the characteristic accumulation of anxiety at- tributes, are the symbolic representations of anxiety which correspond to the repressed incest wish. It is, therefore, intelligible, when we come across the tree with the snake again and again (in Paradise the snake even tempts to sin). The snake or dragon possesses in par- ticular the meaning of treasure guardian and defender. The phallic, as well as the feminine, meaning of the dragon ^^^ indicates that it is again a symbol of the sexual neutral (or bisexual) libido, that is to say, a symbol of the libido in opposition. In this significance the black horse, Apaosha, the demon of opposition, appears in the old Persian song, Tishtriya, where it obstructs the sources of the rain lake. The white horse Tishtriya makes two futile attempts to vanquish Apaosha ; at the third attempt, with the help of Ahuramazda, he is successful."' Where- upon the sluices of heaven open and a fruitful rain pours down upon the earth."* In this song one sees very beau- tifully in the choice of symbol how libido is opposed to libido, will against will, the discordance of primitive man with himself, which he recognizes again in all the ad- versity and contrasts of external nature.

The symbol of the tree encoiled by the serpent may also be translated as the mother defended from incest


by resistance. This symbol is by no means rare upon Mithraic monuments. The rock encircled by a snake is to be comprehended similarly, because Mithra is one born from a rock. The menace of the new-born by the snake (Mithra, Hercules) is made clear through the legend of Lilith and Lamia. Python, the dragon of Leto, and Poine, who devastates the land of Crotopus, are sent by the father of the new-born. This idea indicates the localization, well known in psychoanalysis, of the incest anxiety in the father. The father represents the active repulse of the incest wish of the son. The crime, un- consciously wished for by the son, is imputed to the father under the guise of a pretended murderous purpose, this being the cause of the mortal fear of the son for the father, a frequent neurotic symptom. In conformity with this idea, the monster to be overcome by the young hero is frequently a giant, the guardian of the treasure or the woman. A striking example is the giant Chumbaba in the Gilgamesh epic, who protected the garden of Ishtar; "* he is overcome by Gilgamesh, whereby Ishtar is won. Thereupon she makes erotic advances towards Gilgamesh. ^^* This data should be sufficient to render intelligible the role of Horus in Plutarch, especially the violent usage of Isis. Through overpowering the mother the hero becomes equal to the sun; he reproduces him- self. He wins the strength of the invincible sun, the power of eternal rejuvenation. We thus understand a series of representations from the Mithraic myth on the Heddcrnheim relief. There we see, first of all, the birth of Mithra from the top of the tree; the next representa-


tion shows him carrying the conquered bull (comparable to the monstrous bull overcome by Gilgamesh). This bull signifies the concentrated significance of the monstcfi the father, who as giant and dangerous animal embodies the incest prohibition, and agrees with the individual libido of the sun-hero, which he overcomes by self-sacri- fice. The third picture represents Mithra, when he grasps the head ornament of the sun, the nimbus. This act recalls to us, first of all, the violence of Horus towards Isis; secondly, the Christian basic thought, that those who have overcome attain the crown of eternal life. On the fourth picture Sol kneels before Mithra. These last two representations show plainly that Mithra has taken to himself the strength of the sun, so that he becomes the lord of the sun as well. He has conquered " his ammal nature," the bull. The animal knows no incest prohibi- tion; man is, therefore, man because he conquers the incest wish, that is, the animal nature. Thus Mithra has sacrificed his animal nature, the incest wish, and with that has overcome the mother, that is to say, '* the terrible death-bringing mother." A solution is already antici- pated in the Gilgamesh epic through the formal renuncia- tion of the horrible Ishtar by the hero. The overcoming of the mother in the Mithraic sacrifice, which had almost an ascetic character, took place no longer by the archaic overpowering, but through the renunciation, the sacrifice of the wish. The primitive thought of incestuous repro- duction through entrance into the mother's womb had already been displaced, because man was so far advanced in domestication that he believed that the eternal life o|


the sun is reached, not through the perpetration of incest, but through the sacrifice of the incest wish. This impor- tant change expressed in the Mithraic mystery finds its full expression for the first time in the symbol of the crucified God. A bleeding human sacrifice was hung on the tree of life for Adam's sins."^ The first-bom sacri- fices its life to the mother when he suffers, hanging on the branch, a disgraceful and painful death, a mode of death which belongs to the most ignominious forms of execution, which Roman antiquity had reserved for only the lowest criminal. Thus the hero dies, as if he had committed the most shameful crime; he does this by returning into the birth-giving branch of the tree of life, at the same time paying for his guilt with the pangs of death. The animal nature is repressed most powerfully in this deed of the highest courage and the greatest renunciation ; therefore, a greater salvation is to be expected for humanity, be- cause such a deed alone seems appropriate to expiate Adam's guilt.

As has already been mentioned, the hanging of the sacrifice on the tree is a generally widespread ritual cus- tom, Germanic examples being especially abundant The ritual consists in the sacrifice being pierced by a spear.^^* Thus it is said of Odin (Edda, Havamal) :

" I know that I hung on the windswept tree Nine nights through, Wounded by a spear, dedicated to Odin I myself to myself."

The hanging of the sacrifice to the cross also occurred in America prior to its discovery. MuUer "• mentions the


Fejervaryian manuscript (a Mexican hieroglyphic kodex), at the conclusion of which there is a colossal cross, in the middle of which there hangs a bleeding divinity. Equally interesting is the cross of Palenque ; "® up above is a bird, on either side two human figures, who look at the cross and hold a child against it either for sacrifice or baptism. The old Mexicans are said to have invoked the favor of Centeotls, ** the daughter of heaven and the goddess of wheat," every spring by nailing upon the cross a youth or a maiden and by shooting the sacrifice with arrows."^ The name of the Mexican cross signifies

    • tree of our life or flesh." ^"

An effigy from the Island of Philae represents Osiris in the form of a crucified god, wept over by Isis and Nephthys, the sister consort."'

The meaning of the cross is certainly not limited to the tree of life, as has already been shown. Just as the tree of life has also a phallic sub-meaning (as libido sym- bol), so there is a further significance to the cross than life and immortality.^^* Miiller uses it as a sign of rain and of fertility, because it appears among the Indians distinctly as a magic charm of fertility. It goes without saying, therefore, that it plays a role in the sun cult It is also noteworthy that the sign of the cross is an impor- tant sign for the keeping away of all evil, like the ancient gesture of Manofica. The phallic amulets also serve the same purpose. Zockler appears to have overlooked the fact that the phallic Crux Ansata is the same cross which has flourished in countless examples in the soil of an- tiquity. Copies of this Crux Ansata are found in many


places, and almost every collection of antiquities pos- sesses one or more specimens/^'

Finally, it must be mentioned that the form of the human body is imitated in the cross as of a man with arms outspread. It is remarkable that in early Christian representations Christ is not nailed to the cross, but stands before it with arms outstretched. "• Maurice*" gives a striking basis for this interpretation when he says :

" It is a fact not less remarkable than well attested, that the Druids in their groves were accustomed to select the most stately and beautiful tree as an emblem of the deity they adored, and cutting off the side branches, they affixed two of the largest of them to the highest part of the trunk, in such a manner that those branches extended on each side like the arms of a man, and to- gether with the body presented the appearance of a huge cross; and in the bark in several places was also inscribed the letter T (tau).""« 

'* The tree of knowledge of the Hindoo Dschaina sect assumes human form ; it was represented as a mighty, thick trunk in the form of a human head, from the top of which grew out two longer branches hanging down at the sides and one short, vertical, uprising branch crowned by a bud or blossom-like thickening."* Robertson in his ** Evangelical Myths " mentions that in the Assyrian system there exists the representation of the divinity in the form of a cross, in which the vertical beam corre- sponds to a human form and the horizontal beam to a pair of conventionalized wings. Old Grecian idols such, for example, as were found in large numbers in Aegina have a similar character, an inunoderately long head and


arms slightly raised, wing-shaped, and in front distinct breasts."®

I must leave it an open question as to whether the symbol of the cross has any relation to the two pieces of wood in the religious fire production, as is frequendy claimed. It does appear, however, as if the cross symbol actually still possessed the significance of "union," for this idea belongs to the fertility charm, and especially to the thought of eternal rebirth, which is most intimately bound up with the cross. The thought of " union," ex- pressed by the symbol of the cross, is met with in

    • Timaios " of Plato, where the world soul is conceived

as stretched out between heaven and earth in the form of an X (Chi) ; hence in the form of a " St. Andrew's cross." When we now learn, furthermore, that the world soul contains in itself the world as a body, then this picture inevitably reminds us of the mother.

{Dialogues of Plato. Jowett, Vol. II, page 528.) " And in the center he put the soul, which he difEused through the whole, and also spread over all the body round about, and he made one solitary and only heaven, a circle moving in a cirde, having such excellence as to be able to hold converse with itself, and needing no other friendship or acquaintance. Having these purposes in view he created the world to be a blessed god."

This highest degree of inactivity and freedom from desire, symbolized by the being enclosed within itself, sig- nifies divine blessedness. The only human prototype of this conception is the child in the mother's womb, or rather more, the adult man in the continuous embrace of the mother, from whom he originates. Corresponding to


this mythologic-philosophic conception, the enviable Dio- genes inhabited a tub, thus giving mythologic expression to the blessedness and resemblance to the Divine in his freedom from desire. Plato says as follows of the bond of the world soul to the world body :

" Now God did not make the soul after the body, although we have ^)oken of them in this order; for when he put them together he would never have allowed that the elder diould serve the younger, but this is what we say at random, because we ourselves too are very largely affected by chance. Whereas he made the soul in origin and excellence prior to and older than the body, to be the ruler and mistress, of whom the body was to be the subject"

It seems conceivable from other indications that the conception of the soul in general is a derivative of the mother-imago, that is to say, a symbolic designation for the amount of libido remaining in the mother-imago. (Compare the Christian representation of the soul as the bride of Christ.) The further development of the world soul in ** Timaios " takes place in an obscure fashion in mystic numerals. When the mixture was completed the following occurred :

" This entire compound he divided lengthways into two parts, which he joined to one another at the center like the figure of anX."

This passage approaches very closely the di\dsion and union of Atman, who, after the division, is compared to a man and a woman who hold each other in an embrace. Another passage is worth mentioning:


After the entire union of the soul had taken place, according to the master's mind, he formed all that is corporeal within this, and joined it together so as to penetrate it throughout."

Moreover, I refer to my remarks about the maternal meaning of the world soul in Plotinus, in Chapter II.

A similar detachment of the symbol of the cross from a concrete figure we find among the Muskhogean IndianSi who stretch above the surface of the water (pond or stream) two ropes crosswise and at the point of intersec- tion throw into the water fruits, oil and precious stones as a sacrifice."^ Here the divinity is evidently the water, not the cross, which designates the place of sacrifice only, through the point of intersection. The sacrifice at the place of union indicates why this sjrmbol was a primitive charm of fertility,"* why we meet it so frequently in the prechristian era among the goddesses of love (mother goddesses), especially among the Egyptians in Isis and the sun-god. We have already discussed the continuous union of these two divinities. As the cross (Tau [T], Crux Ansata) always recurs in the hand of Turn, the supreme God, the hegemon of the Ennead, it may not be superfluous to say something more of the destination of Tum. The Tum of On-Heliopolis bears the name " the father of his mother"; what that means needs no ex- planation; Jusas or Nebit-Hotpet, the goddess joined to him, was called sometimes the mother, sometimes ike daughter, sometimes the wife of the god. The day of the beginning of autumn is designated in the Heliopolitan inscriptions as the *' festival of the goddess Jusasit," as '* the arrival of the sister for the purpose of uniting with


her father." It is the day in which " the goddess Mehnit completes her work, so that the god Osiris may enter into the left eye." (By which the moon is meant"*) The day is also called the filling up of the sacred eye with its needs. The heavenly cow with the moon eye, the cow-headed Isis, takes to herself in the autumn equinox the seed which procreates Horns. (Moon as keeper of the seed.) The "eye" evidently represents the genitals, as in the myth of Indra, who had to bear spread over his whole body the likeness of Yoni (vulva), on account of a Bathsheba outrage, but was so far par- doned by the gods that the disgraceful likeness of Yoni was changed into eyes."* The ** pupil " in the eye is a child. The great god becomes a child again; he enters the mother's womb in order to renew himself."* In a hjrmn it is said:

Thy mother, the heavens, stretches forth her arms to diee."

In another place it is said :

  • ' Thou shinest, oh father of the gods, upon the back of dqr

mother, daily thy mother takes thee in her arms. When thou illuminatest the dwelling of night, thou unitest with thy mother,

the heavens.""®

The Tum of Pitum-Heliopolis not only bears the Crux Ansata as a symbol, but also has this sign as his most frequent surname, that is, anA: or anXiy which means " life " or ** the living." He is chiefly honored as the demon serpent, Agatho, of whom it is said, ** The holy demon serpent Agatho goes forth from the city Nezi." The snake, on account of casting Its skin, is the symbol


of renewal, as is the scarabsus, a symbol of the sun, of whom it is said that he, being of masculine sex only, re- produces himself.

The name Chnum (another name for Turn, always meaning "the sun-god") comes from the verb it^am, which means " to bind together, to unite." *" Chnum appears chiefly as the potter, the moulder of his egg. The cross seems, therefore, to be an extraordinarily coh- densed symbol; its supreme meaning is that of the tree of life, and, therefore, is a symbol of the mother. The symbolization in a human form is, therefore, intelligible. The phallic forms of the Crux Ansata belong to the ab- stract meaning of " life " and " fertility," as well as to the meaning of " union," which we can now very properly interpret as cohabitation with the mother for the purpose of renewal}^^ It is, therefore, not only a very touching but also a very significant naive sjrmbolism when Mary, in an Old English lament of the Virgin,"* accuses the cross of being a false tree, which unjustly and without reason destroyed " the pure fruit of her body, her gentle bird- ling," with a poisonous draught, the draught of death, which is destined only for the guilty descendants of the sinner Adam. Her son was not a sharer in that guilt. (Compare with this the cunning of Isis with the fatal draught of love. ) Mary laments :

Cross, thou art the evil stepmother of my son, so higji hast thou hung him that I cannot even kiss his feet I Cross, thou art my mortal enemy, thou hast slain my litde blue bird I "

The holy cross answers :


" Woman, I thank thee for my honor: thy splendid fruit, which now I bear, shines as a red blossom.^^ Not alone to save thee but to save the whole world this precious flower blooms in thee." ^^^

Santa Crux says of the relation to each other of the two mothers (Isis in the morning and Isis in the even- ing) :

" Thou hast been crowned as Queen of Heaven on account of the child, which thou hast borne. But I shall appear as the diining relic to the whole world, at the day of judgment. I shall then raise my lament for thy divine son innocently slain upon me." -

Thus the murderous mother of death unites with the mother of life in bringing forth a child. In their lament for the dying God, and as outward token of their union, Mary kisses the cross, and is reconciled to it.^^' The naive Egyptian antiquity has preserved for us the union ^ of the contrasting tendencies in the mother idea of Isis. Naturally this imago is merely a symbol of the libido of the son for the mother, and describes the conflict be- tween love and incest resistance. The criminal incestuous purpose of the son appears projected as criminal cunmng in the mother-imago. The separation of the son from the mother signifies the separation of man from the generic consciousness of animals, from that infantile archaic thought characterized by the absence of individual consciousness.

It was only the power of the incest prohibition which created the self-conscious individual, who formerly had been thoughtlessly one with the tribe, and in this way ftlone did the idea of individual and final death become


possible. Thus through the sin of Adam death came into the world. This, as is evident, is expressed figuratively, that is, in contrast form. The mother's defence against the incest appears to the son as a malicious act, which delivers him over to the fear of death. This conflict faces us in the Gilgamesh epic in its original freshness and passion, where also the incest wish is projected onto the mother.

The neurotic who cannot leave the mother has good reasons; the fear of death holds him there. It seems as if no idea and no word were strong enough to express the meaning of this. Entire religions were constructed in order to give words to the immensity of this conflict. This struggle for expression which continued down through the centuries certainly cannot have its source in the restricted realm of the vulgar conception of incest Rather one must understand the law which is ultimately expressed as '* Incest prohibition as coercion to domes- tication, and consider the religious systems as institutions which first receive, then organize and gradually sublimate, the motor forces of the animal nature not inmiediately available for cultural purposes.

We will now return to the visions of Miss Miller. Those now following need no further detailed discussion. The next vision is the image of a " purple bay." The symbolism of the sea connects smoothly with that which precedes. One might think here in addition of the reminiscences of the Bay of Naples, which we came across in Part I. In the sequence of the whole, however, wc must not overlook the significance of the " bay." In


French it is called une bate, which probably corre- sponds to a bay in the English text. It might be worth while here to glance at the etymological side of this idea. Bay is generally used for something which is open, just as the Catalonian word badia (bat) comes from badar, " to open." In French bayer means ** to have the mouth open, to gape. Another word for the same is Meerbusen, " bay or gulf " ; Latin sinus, and a third word is golf (gulf), which in French stands in closest relation to ffouffre = abyss. Golf is derived from *' xoXno^,*^ **• which also means ** bosom " and " womb," ** mother- womb," also 'Vagina." It can also mean a fold of a dress or pocket; it may also mean a deep valley between high mountains. These expressions clearly show what primitive ideas lie at their base. They render intelligible Goethe's choice of words at that place where Faust wishes to follow the sun with winged desire in order in the ever- Ir.sting day -** to drink its eternal light " :

" The mountain chain with all its gorges deep» Would then no more impede my godlike motion; And now before mine eyes expands the ocean, With all its bays, in shining sleep! "

Faust's desire, like that of every hero, inclines towards the mysteries of rebirth, of immortality; therefore, his course leads to the sea, and down into the monstrous jaws of death, the horror and narrowness of which at the same time signify the new day.

" Out on the open ocean speeds my dreaming: The glassy flood before my feet is gleaming, A new da^ beckons to a newer shore I


A fiery chariot borne on buoyant pinions, Sweeps near me now! I soon shall ready be To pierce the ether's high, unknown dominions, To reach new spheres of pure activity I This Godlike rapture, this supreme existence. • . .. • ••••••

" Yes, let me dare those gates to fling asunder. Which every man would fain go slinking by! 'Tis time, through deeds this word of truth to thunder; That with the height of God's Man's dignity may vie I Nor from that gloomy gulf to shrink affrighted. Where fancy doth herself to self-bom pangs compel,— To struggle toward that pass benighted, Around whose narrow mouth flame all the fires of Hell^— • To take this step with cheerful resolution, Though Nothingness should be the certain swift conclusion I "

It sounds like a confirmation, when the succeeding vision of Miss Miller's is une falaise a pic, " a steep, precipi- tous cliff." (Compare goufre.) The entire series of individual visions is completed, as the author observes, by a confusion of sounds, somewhat resembling " wa-ma, wa-ma." This has a very primitive, barbaric sound. Since we learn from the author nothing of the subjective roots of this sound, nothing is left us but the suspicion that this sound might be considered, taken in connection with the whole, as a slight mutilation of the well-known call ma-ma.




There now comes a pause in the production of visions by Miss Miller; then the activity of the unconscious is resumed very energetically.

A forest with trees and bushes appears.

After the discussions in the preceding chapter, diere is need only of a hint that the symbol of the forest coinddes essentially with the meaning of the holy tree. The holy tree is found generally in a sacred forest Indosure or in the garden of Paradise. The sacred grove often takes the place of the taboo tree and assumes all the attributes of the latter. The erotic symbolism of the garden is generally known. The forest, like the tree, has mytho- logically a maternal significance. In the vision which now follows, the forest furnishes the stage upon which the dramatic representation of the end of Chiwantopel is played. This act, therefore, takes place in or near the mother.

First, I will give the beginning of the drama as it is in

the original text, up to the first attempt at sacrifice. At

the beginning of the next chapter the reader will find the

continuation, the monologue and the sacrifidal scene.

The drama begins as follows:



" Thcf personage Chiwantopcl, came from the south, on horse- back ; around him a cloak of vivid colors, red, blue and white. An Indian in a costume of doe skin, covered with beads and ornamented with feathers advances, squats down and prepares to let fly an arrow at Chiwantopel. The latter presents his breast in an attitude of defiance, and the Indian, fascinated by that sight, slinks away and disappears within the forest."

The hero, Chiwantopel, appears on horseback. This fact seems of importance, because as the further course of the drama shows (see Chapter VIII) the horse plays no indifferent role, but suffers the same death as the hero, and is even called ** faithful brother" by the latter. These allusions point to a remarkable similarity between horse and rider. There seems to exist an intimate con- nection between the two, which guides them to the same destiny. We already have seen that the symbolization of

    • the libido in resistance " through the ** terrible mother "

in some places runs parallel with the horse.^ Strictly speaking, it would be incorrect to say that the horse is, or means, the mother. The mother idea is a libido sjanbol, and the horse is also a libido symbol, and at some points the two symbols intersect in their significances. The com- mon feature of the two ideas lies in the libido, especially in the libido repressed from incest. The hero and the horse appear to us in this setting like an artistic formation of the idea of humanity with its repressed libido, whereby the horse acquires the significance of the animal uncon- scious, which appears domesticated and subjected to the will of man. Agni upon the ram, Wotan upon Sleipneir, Ahuramazda upon Angromainyu,* Jahwe upon the mon- strous seraph, Christ upon the ass,^ Dionysus upon the


ass, Mithra upon the horse, Men upon the human-footed horse, Freir upon the golden-bristled boar, etc., are parallel representations. The chargers of mythology are always invested with great significance; they very often appear anthropomorphized. Thus, Men's horse has human forelegs; Balaam's ass, human speech; the retreat- ing bull, upon whose back Mithra springs in order to strike him down, is, according to a Persian legend, actu- ally the God himself. The mock crucifix of the Palatine represents the crucified with an ass's head, perhaps in reference to the ancient legend that in the temple of Jerusalem the image of an ass was worshipped. As Drosselbart (horse's mane) Wotan is half -human, half-horse.* An old German riddle very prettily shows this unity between horse and horseman.' ** Who arc the two, who travel to Thing? Together they have three eyes, ten feet* and one tail; and thus they travel over the land." Legends ascribe properties to the horse, which psychologically belong to the unconscious of man ; horses are clairvoyant and clairaudient ; they show the way when the lost wanderer is helpless; they have mantic powers^ In the Iliad the horse prophesies evil. They hear the words which the corpse speaks when it is taken to the grave — words which men cannot hear. Cssar learned from his human-footed horse (probably taken from the identification of Cassar with the Phrygian Men) that he was to conquer the world. An ass prophesied to Augustus the victory of Actium. The horse also sees phantoms. All these things correspond to typical manifestations of the unconscious. Therefore, it is perfectly intelligible


that the horse, as the image of the wicked animal compo- nent of man, has manifold connections with the deviL The devil has a horse's foot; in certain circumstances a horse's form. At crucial moments he suddenly shows a cloven foot (proverbial) in the same way as in the abduc- tion of Hadding, Sleipneir suddenly looked out from be- hind Wotan's mantle."^ Just as the nightmare rides on the sleeper, so does the devil, and, therefore, it is said that those who have nightmares are ridden by the de^. In Persian lore the devil is the steed of God. The devil, like all evil things, represents sexuality. Witches have intercourse with him, in which case he appears in the form of a goat or horse. The unmistakably phallic nature of the devil is communicated to the horse as well; hence this symbol occurs in connections where this is the only meaning which would furnish an explanation. It is to be mentioned that Lold generates in the form of a horse, just as does the devil when in horse's form, as an old fire god. Thus the lightning was represented therio- morphically as a horse.^ An uneducated hysteric told me that as a child she had suffered from extreme fear of thunder, because every time the lightning flashed she saw immediately afterwards a huge black horse reaching up- wards as far as the sky.® It is said in a legend that the devil, as the divinity of lightning, casts a horse's foot (lightning) upon the roofs. In accordance with the primitive meaning of thunder as fertilizer of the earth, the phallic meaning is given both to lightning and the horse's foot. In mythology the horse's foot really has the phallic function as in this dream. An uneducated


patient who originally had been violently forced to coitus by her husband very often dreams (after separation) that a wild horse springs upon her and kicks her in the abdomen with his hind foot. Plutarch has given us the following words of a prayer from the Dionysus orgies :

iXOaiv tfpooi Jto'rvcre "AKtov A vaov ayvoy trvr Xaphecr^ Ctv H vaov r(p fioicp no6\ Otiafv, aSte ravpe, a^te ravpe.*^*

Pegasus with his foot strikes out of the earth the spring Hippocrene. Upon a Corinthian statue of Bel* lerophon, which was also a fountain, the water flowed out from the horse's hoof. Balder's horse gave rise to a spring through his kick. Thus the horse's foot is the dispenser of fruitful moisture." A legend of lower Austria, told by Jaehns, informs us that a gigantic man on a white horse is sometimes seen riding over the moun- tains. This means a speedy rain. In the German legend the goddess of birth, Frau Holle, appears on horsebadc. Pregnant women near confinement are prone to give oats to a white horse from their aprons and to pray him to give them a speedy delivery. It was orig^ally the custom for the horse to rub against the woman's genitals. The horse (like the ass) had in general the significance of a priapic animal. ^^ Horse's tracks are idols dispensing blessing and fertility. Horse's tracks established a daim, and were of significance in determining boundaries, like the priaps of Latin antiquity. Like the phallic Dactyli, a horse opened the mineral riches of the Harz Moun-

  • Come, O Dionysus, in thy temple of Elit, come with the Graces into

thy holy temple: come in lacred frenzy with the buirt foot


tains with his hoof. The horseshoe, an equivalent for horse^s foot,^^ brings luck and has apotropaic meaning. In the Netherlands an entire horse^s foot is hung up in the stable to ward against sorcery. The analogous effect of the phallus is well known; hence the phalli at the gates. In particular the horse^s leg turned lightning aside, according to the principle " similia similibus."

Horses also symbolize the wind, that is to say, the tertium comparationis is again the libido symbol. The German legend recognizes the wind as the wild hunts- man in pursuit of the maiden. Stormy regions frequently derive their names from horses, as the White Horse Mountain of the Liineburger heath. The centaurs are typical wind gods, and have been represented as such by Bocklin's artistic intuition.^*

Horses also signify fire and light. The fiery horses of Helios are an example. The horses of Hector are called Xanthos (yellow, bright), Podargos (swift-footed), Lampos (shining) and Aithon (burning). A very pro- nounced fire symbolism was represented by the mystic Quadriga, mentioned by Dio Chrysostomus. The su- preme God always drives his chariot in a circle. Four horses are harnessed to the chariot. The horse driven on the periphery moves very quickly. He has a shining coat, and bears upon it the signs of the planets and the Zodiac." This is a representation of the rotary fire of heaven. The second horse moves more slowly, and is illuminated only on one side. The third moves still more slowly, and the fourth rotates around himself. But once the outer horse set the second horse on fire with his ficiy


breath, and the third flooded the fourth with his stream- ing sweat Then the horses dissolve and pass over into the substance of the strongest and most fiery, which now becomes the charioteer. The horses also represent the four elements. The catastrophe signifies the conflagra- tion of the world and the deluge, whereupon the division of the God into many parts ceases, and the diidne unity is restored.^^ Doubtless the Quadriga may be understood astronomically as a symbol of rime. We already saw in the first part that the stoic representation of Fate is a fire symbol. It is, therefore, a logical continuation of the thought, when time, closely related to the conception of destiny, exhibits this same libido symbolism. Brihada- ranyaka-Upanishad, i : i , says :

" The morning glow verily is the head of the sacrificial horM^ the sun his eye, the wind his breath, the all-dreading fire his mouth, the year is the belly of the sacrificial horse. The fkj k his back, the atmosphere the cavern of his body, the earth die vault of his belly. The poles are his sides, in between the poles his ribs^ the seasons his limbs, the months and fortnights his joints. Days and nights are his feet, stars his bones, clouds his flesh. The food he digests is the deserts, the rivers are his veins, the mountains his liver and lungs, the herbs and trees his hair; the rising sun is his fore part, the setting sun his after part The ocean is his Irfwrnan^ the sea his cradle."

The horse undoubtedly here stands for a time symbol, and also for the entire world. We come across in the Mithraic religion, a strange God of Time, Aion, called Kronos or Deus Leontocephalus, because Us stereotyped representation is a lion-headed man, who, standing in a rigid attitude, is encoiled by a tnakCf whoae


head projects forward from behind over the lion's head. The figure holds in each hand a key, on the chest rests a thunderbolt, upon his back are the four wings of the wind; in addition to that, the figure sometimes bears the Zodiac on his body. Additional attributes are a cock and implements. In the Carolingian psalter of Utrechti which is based upon ancient models, the Ssculum-Aion is represented as a naked man with a snake in his hand. As is suggested by the name of the divinity, he is a symbol of time, most interestingly composed from libido symbols. The lion, the zodiac sign of the greatest sum- mer heat,^^ is the symbol of the most mighty desire. (** My soul roars with the voice of a hungry lion," says Mechthild of Magdeburg.) In the Mithra mystery the serpent is often antagonistic to the lion, corresponding to that very universal myth of the battle of the sun with the dragon.

In the Egyptian Book of the Dead, Tum is even desig- nated as a he-cat, because as such he fought the snake, Apophis. The encoiling also means the engulfing, the entering into the mother's womb. Thus time is defined by the rising and setting of the sun, that is to say, through the death and renewal of the libido. The addition of the cock again suggests time, and the addition of implements suggests the creation through time. (** Duree creatrice," Bergson.) Oromazdes and Ahriman were produced through Zrwanakarana, the '^ infinitely long duration." Time, this empty and purely formal concept, is expressed in the mysteries by transformations of the creative powcfy the libido. Macrobius says :

.' '*


" Leonis capite monstratur praesens tempus — quia conditio ejus valida fervensque est." *

Philo of Alexandria has a better understanding:

" Tempus ab hominibus pessimis putatur deus volendbus Ens es- sendale abscondere — pravis hominibus tempus putatur causa rerum mundi, sapientibus vero et optimis non tempus sed Deus." f ^'

In Firdusi ^® time is often the symbol of fate» the libido nature of which we have already learned to recog- nize. The Hindoo text mentioned above includes still more — its symbol of the horse contains the whole world; his kinsman and his cradle is the sea, the mother, similar to the world soul, the maternal significance of which we have seen above. Just as Aion represents the libido in an embrace, that is to say, in the state of death and of rebirth, so here the cradle of the horse is the sea, i. e. the libido is in the mother, dying and rising again, like the symbol of the dying and resurrected Christ, who hangs like ripe fruit upon the tree of life.

We have already seen that the horse is connected through Ygdrasil with the symbolism of the tree. The horse is also a tree of death " ; thus in the Middle Ages the funeral pyre was called St. Michael's horse, and the neo-Persian word for coffin means "wooden horse."" The horse has also the role of psycho-pompos ; he is the steed to conduct the souls to the other world— Jiorse-

  • The present time is indicated by die head of the lion — bccaote hit

condition is strong and impetuous.

fTime is thought by the wickedest people to be a diyinity who de- prives willing people of essential being; by good men it is considered to be the Cause of the things of the world, but to the wiaett and best it doct not seem time, but God.


women fetch the souls (Valkyries). Neo-Greek songs represent Charon on a horse. These definitions obviously lead to the mother symbolism. The Trojan horse was the only means by which the city could be conquered ; be- cause only he who has entered the mother and been reborn is an invincible hero. The Trojan horse is a magic charm, like the ** Nodfyr," which also serves to overcome necessity. The formula evidently reads, " In order to overcome the difficulty, thou must commit incest^ and once more be born from thy mother." It appears that striking a nail into the sacred tree signifies something very similar. The '^ Stock im Eisen " in Vienna seems to have been such a palladium.

Still another symbolic form is to be considered. Occa- sionally the devil rides upon a three-legged horse. The Goddess of Death, Hel, in time of pestilence, also rides upon a three-legged horse.'^ The gigantic ass, which is three-legged, stands in the heavenly rain lake Vouni- kasha ; his urine purifies the water of the lake, and from his roar all useful animals become pregnant and all harm- ful animals miscarry. The Triad further points to the phallic significance. The contrasting symbolism of Hel is blended into one conception in the ass of Vourukasha. The libido is fructifying as well as destroying.

These definitions, as a whole, plainly reveal the funda- mental features. The horse is a libido symbol, partly of phallic, partly of maternal significance, like the tree. It represents the libido in this application, that is, the libido repressed through the incest prohibition.


In the Miller drama an Indian approaches the hero, ready to shoot an arrow at him. Chiwantopel, however, with a proud gesture, exposes his breast to the enemy. This idea reminds the author of the scene between Cassias and Brutus in Shakespeare's " Julius Caesar/' A misun- derstanding has arisen between the two friends, when Brutus reproaches Cassius for withholding from lum the money for the legions. Cassius, irritable and angry, breaks out into the complaint :

" Cbme, Antony, and young Octavius, come. Revenge yourselves alone on Cassius, For Cassius is a-weary of the world : - Hated by one he loves: braved by his brother: Check'd like a bondman ; all his faults observed: Set in a note-book, leam'd and conn'd by rote, To cast into my teeth. O I could weep My spirit from mine eyes! — ^There is my daggier, And here my naked breast; within, a heart Dearer than Plutus' mine, richer than gold: If that thou beest a Roman, take it forth: I, that denied thee gold, will give my heart Strike, as thou didst at Caesar; for I know When thou didst hate him worst, thou lov'dst him better Than ever thou lov'dst Cassius.

The material here would be incomplete without men- tioning the fact that this speech of Cassius shows many analogies to the agonized delirium of Cyrano (compare Part I), only Cassius is far more theatrical and over- drawn. Something childish and hysterical is in his man- ner. Brutus does not think of killing him, but adminis- ters a very chilling rebuke in the following dialogue :


Brutus: Sheathe your dagger:

Be angry when you will, it shall have scope: Do what you will, dishonor shall be humor. O Cassius, you are yoked with a lamb That carries anger as the flint bears fire: Who, much enforced, shows a hasty spark. And straight is cold again.

Cassius: Hath Cassius liv'd

To be but mirth and laughter to his Brutus When grief and blood ill-tempered vexeth him?

Brutus: When I spoke that, I was ill-tempered too.

Cassius: Do you confess so much? Give me your hand.

Brutus: And my heart too.

Cassius: O Brutus!

Brutus : What's the matter ?

Cassius: Have not you love enough to bear with me

When that rash humor which my mother gave me Makes me forgetful ?

Brutus : Yes, Cassius, and from henceforth

When you are over earnest with your Brutus^ He'll think your mother chides and leave 3rou so*

The analytic interpretation of Cassius's irritability plainly reveals that at these moments he identifies himself with the mother, and his conduct, therefore, is truly femi- nine, as his speech demonstrates most excellently. For his womanish love-seeking and desperate subjection under the proud masculine will of Brutus calls forth the friendly remark of the latter, that Cassius Is yoked with a lamb, that is to say, has something very weak in his character,


which is derived from the mother. One recognizes in this without any difficulty the analytic hall-marks of an infantile disposition, which, as always, is characterized by a prevalence of the parent-imago, here the mother^ imago. An infantile individual is infantile because he has freed himself insufficiently, or not at all, from the child- ish environment, that is, from his adaptation to his parents. Therefore, on one side, he reacts falsely towards the world, as a child towards his parents, always demand- ing love and immediate reward for his feelings; on the other side, on account of the close connection to the par- ents, he identifies himself with them. The infantile indi- vidual behaves like the father and mother. He is not in a condition to live for himself and to find the place to which he belongs. Therefore, Brutus very justiy takes it for granted that the mother chides " in Cassius, not he himself. The psychologically valuable fact which we gather here is the information that Cassius is infantile and identified with the mother. The hysterical behavior is due to the circumstance that Cassius is still, in part, a lamb, and an innocent and entirely harmless child. He remains, as far as his emotional life is concerned, still far behind himself. This we often see among people who, as masters, apparently govern life and fellow-creatures; they have remained children in regard to the demands of their love nature.

The figures of the Miller dramas, being children of the creator's phantasy, depict, as is natural, those traits of character which belong to the author. The hero, the wish figure, is represented as most distinguished, because the


hero always combines in himself all wished-for ideals. Cyrano's attitude is certainly beautiful and impressive; Cassius's behavior has a theatrical effect. Both heroes prepare to die effectively, in which attempt Cyrano suc- ceeds. This attitude betrays a wish for death in the un- conscious of our author, the meaning of which we have already discussed at length as the motive for her poem of the moth. The wish of young girls to die is only an indirect expression, which remains a pose, even in case of real death, for death itself can be a pose. Such an outcome merely adds beauty and value to the pose under certain conditions. That the highest sununit of life is expressed through the symbolism of death is a well-known fact; for creation beyond one's self means personal death. The coming generation is the end of the preceding one. This symbolism is frequent in erotic speech. The lasdvi- ous speech between Lucius and the wanton servant-maid in Apuleius (** Metamorphoses," lib. ii: 32) is one of the clearest examples :

" Proeliare, inquit, et f ortiter proeliare : nee enim tibi cedam, nee terga vortam. Cominus in aspectum, si vir es, dirigc; et grassare naviter, et occide moriturus. Hodiema pugna non habet missionem. — Simul ambo corruimus inter mutuos amplexus aninutt anhelantes.'* *

This symbolism is extremely significant, because it shows how easily a contrasting expression originates and

  • 'Tight/' she said, " and fight bravely, for I will not give away an

inch nor turn my bacic. Face to face, come on if you are a man I Strike home, do your worst and die ! The battle this day is without quarter . . • till, weary in bpdy and mind, we lie powerless and gasping for breath in each other's arms."


how equally intelligible and characteristic such an expres- sion is. The proud gesture with which the hero offers himself to death may very easily be an indirect expression which challenges the pity or sympathy of the other, and thus is doomed to the calm analytic reduction to which Brutus proceeds. The behavior of Chiwantopel is also suspicious, because the Cassius scene which serves as its model betrays indiscreetly that the whole affair is merely infantile and one which owes its origin to an overactive mother imago. When we compare this piece with the series of mother symbols brought to light in the previous chapter, we must say that the Cassius scene merely con- firms once more what we have long supposed, that is to say, that the motor power of these symbolic visions arises from an infantile mother transference, that is to say, from an undetached bond to the mother.

In the drama the libido, in contradistinction to the in- active nature of the previous symbols, assumes a threaten- ing activity, a conflict becoming evident, in which the one part threatens the other with murder. The hero, as the ideal image of the dreamer, is inclined to die; he does not fear death. In accordance with the infantile character of this hero, it would most surely be time for him to take his departure from the stage, or, in childish language, to die. Death is to come to him in the form of an arrow-wound. Considering the fact that heroes themselves are very often great archers or succumb to an arrow-wound (St Sebastian, as an example), it may not be superfluous to inquire into the meaning of death through an arrow.

We read in the biogr :phy of the stigmatized nun Kath-


erine Emmerich *' the following description of the evi- dently neurotic sickness of her heart :

When only in her novitiate, she received as a Christmas present from the holy Christ a very tormenting heart trouble for the whole period of her nun's life. God showed her inwardly the purpose ; it was on account of the decline of the spirit of the order, especially for the sins of her fellow-sisters. But what rendered this trouble most painful was the gift which she had possessed from youth, namely, to see before her eyes the inner nature of man as he really was. She felt the heart trouble physically as if her heart was continually pierced by arrows.** These arrows — and this represented the still worse mental suf- fering — she recognized as the thoughts, plots, secret speecheSi misunderstandings, scandal and uncharitableness, in which her fellow-sisters, wholly without reason and unscrupulously, were engaged against her and her god-fearing way of life."

It is difficult to be a saint, because even a patient and long-suffering nature will not readily bear such a viola- tion, and defends itself in its own way. The companion of sanctity is temptation, without which no true saint can live. We know from analytic experience that these temptations can pass unconsciously, so that only their equivalents would be produced in consciousness in the form of symptoms. We know that it is proverbial that heart and smart (Herz and Schmerz) rhyme. It is a well-known fact that hysterics put a physical pain in place of a mental pain. The biographer of Emmerich has com- prehended that very correctly. Only her interpretation of the pain is, as usual, projected. It is always the others who secretly assert all sorts of evil things about heri and this she pretended gave her the pains.^^ The case, how/


ever, bears a somewhat different aspect. The very diffi- cult renunciation of all life's joys, this death before the bloom, is generally painful, and espedally painful are the unfulfilled wishes and the attempts of the animal nature to break through the power of repression. The gossip and jokes of the sisters very naturally centre around these most pamful things, so that it must appear to the saint as if her symptoms were caused by this. Naturally, again, she could not know that gossip tends to assume the role of the unconscious, which, like a clever adversary, always aims at the actual gaps in our armor. A passage from Gautama Buddha embodies this idea : **

  • ' A wish earnestly desired

Produced by will, and nourished When gradually it must be thwarted, Burrows like an arrow in the flesh."

The wounding and painful arrows do not come from without through gossip, which only attacks externally, but they come from ambush, from our own unconscious. This, rather than anything external, creates the defense- less suffering. It is our own repressed and unrecognized desires which fester like arrows in our fleshV In another connection this was clear to the nun, and that most liter- ally. It is a well-known fact, and one which needs no further proof to those who understand, that these mystic scenes of union with the Saviour generally are intermin- gled with an enormous amount of sexual libido." There- fore, it is not astonishing that the scene of the stigmata is nothing but an incubation through the Saviour, only


slightly changed metaphorically, as compared with the ancient conception of '^unio mystica,*' as cohabitation with the god. Enmierich relates the following of her stigmatization :

" I had a contemplation of the sufferings of Christ, and im- plored him to let me feel with him his sorrows, and prayed five paternosters to the honor of the five sacred wounds. Lying on my bed with outstretched arms, I entered into a great sw c ctn c w and into an endless thirst for the torments of Jesus. Then I saw a light descending upon me: it came obliquely from above. It was a crucified body, living and transparent, with arms extended, but without a cross. The wounds shone brighter than the body; they were five circles of glory, coming forth from the whole gjory. I was enraptured and my heart was moved with great pain and yet with sweetness from longing to share in the torments of my Saviour. And my longings for the sorrows of the Redeemer increased more and more on gazing on his wounds, and passed from my breast, through my hands, sides and feet to his holy wounds: then from the hands, then from the sides, then item the feet of the figure threefold shining red beams ending below in an arrow, shot forth to my hands, sides and feet."

The beams, in accordance with the phallic fundamental thought, are threefold, terminating below in an arrow- point.^^ Like Cupid, the sun, too, has its quiver, full of destroying or fertilizing arrows, sun rays,** which possess phallic meaning. On this significance evidently rests the Oriental custom of designating brave sons as arrows and javelins of the parents. " To make sharp arrows " is an Arabian expression for " to generate brave sons." The Psalms declare (cxxvii:4) :

" Like as the arrows in the hands of the giant; even so are the young children.**


(Compare with this the remarks previously made about ^^ boys.") Because of this significance of the arrow it is intelligible why the Scythian king Ariantes, when he wished to prepare a census, demanded an arrow-head from each man. A similar meaning attaches equally to the lance. Men are descended from the lance, because the ash is the mother of lances. Therefore, the men of the Iron Age are derived frdm her. The marriage cus- tom to which Ovid alludes ("Comat virg^eas hasta recurva comas" — Fastorum, lib. ii:56o) has already been mentioned. Kaineus issued a conunand that lus lance be honored. Pindar relates in the legend of tUs Kaineus :

  • 'He descended into die depths, q^litdng die eardi with a

straigjit foot." "

He is said to have originally been a maiden named Kainis, who, because of her complaisance, was trans- formed into an invulnerable man by Poseidon. Ovid pictures the battle of the Lapithx with the invulnerable Kaineus; how at last they covered him completely with trees, because they could not otherwise touch lum. Oidd says at this place :

" Exitus in dubio est: alii sub inania corpus Tartara detnisum silvanim mole ferebant, Abnuit Ampycides: medioque ex aggere fulvis Vidit avem pennis liquidas exire sub auras." *

^The result is doubtful: the body borne down by the wei|^t of the forest is carried into empty Tartaros: Ampyctdet denies thii: from out of the midst of the mass, he sees a bird with tawny featfaen itsne into the liquid air.


Roscher considers this bird to be the golden plover (Charadrius pluvialis), which borrows its name from the fact that it lives in the xotpaSpuy a crevice in the earth. By his song he proclaims the approaching rain. Kaineus was changed into this bird.

We see again in this little myth the typical constituents of the libido myth: original bisexuality, immortality (in- vulnerability) through entrance into the mother (split- ting the mother with the foot, and to become covered up) and resurrection as a bird of the soul and a bringer of fertility (ascending sun). When this type of hero causes his lance to be worshipped, it probably means that his lance is a valid and equivalent expression of him- self.

From our present standpoint, we understand in a new sense that passage in Job, which I mentioned in Chap- ter IV of the first part of this book:

" He has set me up for his mark.

"His archers compass me round about, he cleaveth my reins asunder, and doth not spare: — ^he poureth out my gall upon die ground.

" He breaketh me with breach upon breach: he runneth upon me like a giant." — Job xvi: 12-13-14.

Now we understand this symbolism as an expression for the soul torment caused by the onslaught of the un- conscious desires. The libido festers in his flesh, a cruel god has taken possession of him and pierced him with his painful libidian projectiles, with thoughts, which over- whelmingly pass through him. (As a dementia praecox patient once said to me during his recovery : " To-day a


thought suddenly thrust itself through me.") This same idea is found again in Nietzsche in Zarathustra :

The Magician

Stretched out, shivering

Like one half dead whose feet are warmed,

Shaken alas! by unknown fevers,

Trembling from the icy pointed arrows of frost.

Hunted by Thee, O Thought I

Unutterable! Veiled! Horrible One I

Thou huntsman behind the clouds!

Struck to the ground by thee,

Thou mocking eye that gazeth at me from die daikl

Thus do I lie

Bending, writhing, tortured

With all eternal tortures,


By thee, crudest huntsman.

Thou unfamiliar God.

Smite deeper!

Smite once more:

Pierce through and rend my heart I

What meaneth this torturing

With blunt-toothed arrows?

Why gazeth thou again.

Never weary of human pain.

With malicious, God-lightning eyeSi

Thou wilt not kill,

But torture, torture?

No long-drawn-out explanation is necessary to enable us to recognize in this comparison the old, universal idea of the martyred sacrifice of God, which we have met pre- viously in the Mexican sacrifice of the cross and in the sacrifice of Odin." This same conception faces us in


the oft-repeated martyrdom of St Sebastian, where, in the delicate-glowing flesh of the young god, all the pain of renunciation which has been felt by the artist has been portrayed. An artist always embodies in his artistic work a portion of the mysteries of his time. In a heightened degree the same is true of the principal Christian symbol, the crucified one pierced by the lance, the conception of the man of the Christian era tormented by his wishes, crucified and dying in Christ.

This is not torment which comes from without, which befalls mankind; but that he himself is the hunter, mur- derer, sacrificer and sacrificial knife is shown us in another of Nietzsche's poems, wherein the apparent dualism is transformed into the soul conflict through the use of the same symbolism:

" Oh, Zarathustra, Most cruel Nimrod I Whilom hunter of God The snare of all virtue, An arrow of evil! Now

Hunted by thyself Thine own prey Pierced through thyself, Now

Alone with thee

Twofold in thine own knowledge Mid a hundred mirrors False to thyself, Mid a hundred memories Uncertain

Ailing with each wound Shivering with each frost


Caught in thine own snares, Self knower! Self hangman!

"Why didst thou strangle thyself With the noose of thy wisdom? Why hast thou enticed thyself Into the Paradise of the old serpent? Why hast thou crept Into thyself, thyself? ..."

The deadly arrows do not strike the hero from with- out, but it is he himself who, in disharmony with himself, hunts, fights and tortures himself. Within himself will has turned against will, libido against libido — therefore, the poet says, " Pierced through thyself," that is to say, wounded by his own arrow. Because we have discerned that the arrow is a libido symbol, the idea of " penetrat- ing or piercing through " consequently becomes clear to us. It is a phallic act of union with one's self, a sort of self-fertilization (introversion) ; also a self -violation, a self-murder; therefore, Zarathustra may call himself his own hangman, like Odin, who sacrifices himself to Odin.

The wounding by one's own arrow means, first of all, the state of introversion. What this signifies we already know — the libido sinks into its "own depths" (a well- known comparison of Nietzsche's) and finds there below, in the shadows of the unconscious, the substitute for the upper world, which it has abandoned : the world of mem' ories (** 'mid a hundred memories "), the strongest and most influential of which are the early infantile memory pictures. It is the world of the child, this paradise-Uke


state of earliest childhood, from which we are separated by a hard law. In this subterranean kingdom slumber sweet feelings of home and the endless hopes of all that is to be. As Heinrich in the Sunken Bell," by Gerhart Hauptmann, says, in speaking of his miraculous work :

" There is a song lost and forgotten, A song of home, a love song of childhood, Brought up from the depths of the fairy well. Known to all, but yet unheard."

However, as Mephistopheles says, "The danger is great." These depths are enticing; they are the mother and — death. When the libido leaves the bright upper world, whether from the decision of the individual or from decreasing life force, then it sinks back into its own depths, into the source from which it has gushed forth, and turns back to that point of cleavage, the umbilicus, through which it once entered into this body. This point of cleavage is called the mother, because from her comes the source of the libido. Therefore, when some great work is to be accomplished, before which weak man re- coils, doubtful of his strength, his libido returns to that source — and this is the dangerous moment, in which the decision takes place between annihilation and new life. If the libido remains arrested in the wonder kingdom of the inner world,^^ then the man has become for the world above a phantom, then he is practically dead or des- perately ill.^^ But if the libido succeeds in tearing itself loose and pushing up into the world above, then a mirade appears. This journey to the underworld has been a


fountain of youth, and new fertility springs from his ap- parent death. This train of thought is very beautifully gathered into a Hindoo myth : Once upon a time, Vishnu sank into an ecstasy (introversion) and during this state of sleep bore Brahma, who, enthroned upon the lotus flower, arose from the navel of Vishnu, bringing with him the Vedas, which he diligently read. (Birth of crea- tive thought from introversion.) But through Vishnu's ecstasy a devouring flood came upon the world. ( Devour- ing through introversion, symbolizing the danger of enter- ing into the mother of death.) A demon taldng advan- tage of the danger, stole the Vedas from Brahma and hid them in the depths. (Devouring of the libido.) Brahma roused Vishnu, and the latter, transforming himself into a fish, plunged Into the flood, fought with the demon (battle with the dragon), conquered him and recaptured the Vedas. (Treasure obtained with (Uffi- culty.)

Self-concentration and the strength derived therefrom correspond to this primitive train of thought It also explains numerous sacrificial and magic rites which we have already fully discussed. Thus the impregnable Troy falls because the besiegers creep into the belly of a wooden horse; for he alone is a hero who is reborn from the mother, like the sun. But the danger of this venture is shown by the history of Philoctetes, who was the only one In the Trojan expedition who knew the hidden sanc- tuary of Chryse, where the Argonauts had sacrificed al- ready, and where the Greeks planned to sacrifice in order to assure a safe ending to their undertaking. Chryse


was a nymph upon the island of Chryse; zccording to the account of the scholiasts in Sophodes's ** Philoo tetes," this nymph loved Philoctetes, and cursed him be- cause he spurned her love. This characteristic projection, which is also met with in the Gilgamesh epic, should be referred back, as suggested, to the repressed incest wish of the son, who is represented through the projection as if the mother had the evil wish, for the refusal of which the son was ^ven over to death. In reality, however, the son becomes mortal by separating himself from the mother. His fear of death, therefore, corresponds to the repressed wish to turn back to the mother, and causes him to be** lieve that the mother threatens or pursues him. The teleological significance of this fear of persecution is eia- dent; it is to keep son and mother apart.

The curse of Chryse is realized in so far that Philoc- tetes, according to one version, when approaching his altar, injured himself in his foot with one of his own deadly poisonous arrows, or, according to another ver- sion" (this is better and far more abundantly proven) «  was bitten in his foot by a poisonous serpent.^ From then on he is ailing.^*

This very typical wound, which also destroyed Re, is described in the following manner in an Egyptian hymn:

" The ancient of the Gods moved his mouth, He cast his saliva upon the earth, And what he spat, fell upon the ground. With her hands Isis kneaded that and the soil Which was about it, together: From that she created a venerable worm, And made him like a spear.


She did not twist him living around her face, But threw him coiled upon the path, Upon which the great God wandered at ease Through all his lands.

" The venerable God stepped forth radiantly,

The gods who served Pharaoh accompanied him,

And he proceeded as every day.

Then the venerable worm stung him. . . .

The divine God opened his mouth

And the voice of his majesty echoed even to the sky.

And the gods exclaimed: Behold!

Thereupon he could not answer, - His jaws chattered,

All his limbs trembled

And the poison gripped his flesh,

As the Nile seizes upon the land."

In this hymn Egypt has again preserved for us a primi- tive conception of the serpent's sting. The aging of the autumn sun as an image of human senility is symbolically traced back to the mother through the poisoning by the serpent. The mother is reproached, because her malice causes the death of the sun-god. The serpent, the primi- tive symbol of fear,*^ illustrates the repressed tendency to turn back to the mother, because the only possibility of security from death is possessed by the mother, as the source of life.

Accordingly, only the mother can cure him, sick unto death, and, therefore, the hymn goes on to depict how the gods were assembled to take counsel :

    • And Isis came with her wisdom:

Her mouth is full of the breath of life. Her words banish sorrow. And her speech animates those who no longer breathe.


She said: 'What is that; what is diat, divine father? Behold, a worm has brought you sorrow '

" * Tell me thy name, divine father,

Because the man remains alive, who is called by his name.' "

Whereupon Re replied :

'" I am he, who created heaven and earth, and piled up the hills. And created all beings thereon.

I am he, who made the water and caused the great flood, Who produced the bull of his mother. Who is the procreator,' etc.

" The poison did not depart, it went further, The great God was not cured. Then said Isis to Re: ' Thine is not the name thou hast told me. Tell me true that the poison may leave thee. For he whose name is spoken will live.' "

Finally Re decides to speak his true name. He is ap- proximately healed (Imperfect composition of Osiris) ; but he has lost his power, and finally he retreats to the heavenly cow.

The poisonous worm is, if one may speak in this way, a '* negative " phallus, a deadly, not an animating, form of libido; therefore, a wish for death, instead of a wish for life. The ** true name" is soul and magic power; hence a symbol of libido. What Isis demands is the re- transference of the libido to the mother goddess. This request is fulfilled literally, for the aged god turns back to the divine cow, the symbol of the mother.'* This sym- bolism is clear from our previous explanations. The onward urging, living libido which rules the conscious-


ness of the son, demands separation from the mother. The lon^ng of the child for the mother is a hindrance on the path to this, taking the form of a psycholo^c re- sistance, which is expressed empirically in the neurosis by all manners of fears, that is to say, the fear of life. The more a person withdraws from adaptation to reality, and falls into slothful inactivity, the greater becomes his anxiety (cum grano salis), which everywhere besets him at each point as a hindrance upon his path. The fear springs from the mother, that is to say, from the longing to go back to the mother, which is opposed to the adapta- tion to reality. This is the way in which the mother has become apparently the malicious pursuer. Naturally, it is not the actual mother, although the actual mother, with the abnormal tenderness with which she sometimes pur- sues her child, even into adult years, may gravely injure it through a willful prolonging of the infantile state in the child. It is rather the mother-imago, which becomes the Lamia. The mother-imago, however, possesses its power solely and exclusively from the son's tendency not only to look and to work forwards, but also to glance backwards to the pampering sweetness of childhood, to that glorious state of irresponsibility and security with which the protecting mother-care once surrounded him.** The retrospective longing acts like a paralyzing poison upon the energy and enterprise; so that it may well be compared to a poisonous serpent which lies across our path. Apparently, it is a hostile demon which robs us of energy, but, in reality, it is the individual unconscious, the retrogressive tendency of which begins to overcome


the conscious forward striving. The cause of this can be, for example, the natural aging which weakens the energy, or it may be great external difficulties, which cause man to break down and become a child again, or it may be, and this is probably the most frequent cause, the woman who enslaves the man, so that he can no longer free himself, and becomes a child again/^ It may be of significance also that Isis, as sister-wife of the sun- god, creates the poisonous animal from the spittle of the god, which is perhaps a substitute for sperma, and, there- fore, is a symbol of libido. She creates the animal from the libido of the god ; that means she receives his power, making him weak and dependent, so that by this means she assumes the dominating role of the mother. (Mother transference to the wife.) This part is preserved in the legend of Samson, In the role of Delilah, who cut off Samson^s hair, the sun's rays, thus robbing him of hjLS strength.^^ Any weakening of the adult man strengthens the wishes of the unconscious ; therefore, the decrease of strength appears directly as the backward striving towards the mother.

There is still to be considered one more source of the reanimation of the mother-imago. We have already met it in the discussion of the mother scene in " Faust," that is to say, the willed introversion of a creative mind, wluch, retreating before its own problem and inwardly collecting its forces, dips at least for a moment into the source of life, in order there to wrest a little more strength from the mother for the completion of its work. It is a mother* child play with one's self, in which lies much weak self-


admiration and self-adulation ('^ Among a hundred mir- rors" — Nietzsche); a Narcissus state, a strange spec- tacle, perhaps, for profane eyes. The separation from the mother-imago, the birth out of one's self, reconciles all conflicts through the sufferings. This is probably meant by Nietzsche's verse :

    • Why hast thou enticed thyself

Into the Paradise of the old serpent?. Why hast thou crept Into thyself, thyself? • . •

    • A sick man now

Sick of a serpent's poison,*'

A captive now

Whom the hardest destiny befell

In thine own pit;

Bowed down as thou workest

Encaved within thyself,

Burrowing into thyself,



A corpse.

Overwhelmed with a hundred burdens^

Overburdened by thyself* . A wise man,

A self-knower,

The wise Zarathustra;

Thou soughtest the heaviest burden

And foundest thou thyself. • • ."

The symbolism of this speech is of the greatest ricb* ness. He is buried in the depths of self, as if in the earth; really a dead man who has turned back to mother earth; ^^ a Kaineus piled with a hundred burdens ** and pressed down to death ; the one who groaning bears die


heavy burden of his own libido, of that libido which draws him back to the mother. Who does not think of the Taurophoria of Mithra, who took his bull (accord- ing to the Egyptian hymn, "the bull of his mother"), that is, his love for his mother, the heaviest burden upon his back, and with that entered upon the painful course of the so-called Transitus ! " This path of passion led to the cave, in which the bull was sacrificed. Christ, too, had to bear the cross," the symbol of his love for the mother, and he carried it to the place of sacrifice where the lamb was slain in the form of the God, the infantile man, a " self-executioner," and then to burial in the subterranean sepulchre/®

That which in Nietzsche appears as a poetical figure of speech is really a primitive mjrth. It is as if the poet still possessed a dim idea or capacity to feel and reacti- vate those imperishable phantoms of long-past worlds of thought in the words of our present-day speech and in the images which crowd themselves into his phantasy. Hauptmann also says: " Poetic rendering is that which allows the echo of the primitive word to resound through the form." *^

The sacrifice, with its mysterious and manifold mean- ing, which is rather hinted at than expressed, passes un- recognized in the unconscious of our author. The arrow is not shot, the hero Chiwantopel is not yet fatally poisoned and ready for death through self-sacrifice. We now can say, according to the preceding material, this sacrifice means renouncing the mother, that is to say, re-


nuncidtion of all bonds and limitations which the soul has taken with it from the period of childhood into the adult life. From various hints of Miss Miller's it ap- pears that at the time of these phantasies she was still living in the circle of the family, evidently at an age which was in urgent need of independence. That is to say, man does not live very long in the infantile eniaron- ment or in the bosom of his family without real danger to his mental health. Life calls him forth to independ- ence, and he who g^ves no heed to this hard call because of childish indolence and fear is threatened by a neurosiSi and once the neurosis has broken out it becomes more and more a valid reason to escape the battle with life and to remain for all time in the morally poisoned infantile atmosphere.

The phantasy of the arrow-wound belongs in tUs struggle for personal independence. The thought of this resolution has not yet penetrated the dreamer. On the contrary, she rather repudiates it. After all the preced- ing, it is evident that the symbolism of the arrow-wound through direct translation must be taken as a coitus symbol. The '^ Occide moriturus " attains by this means the sexual significance belonging to it Chiwantopel natu- rally represents the dreamer. But nothing is attained and nothing is understood through one's reduction to the coarse sexual, because it is a conunonplace that the un- conscious shelters coitus wishes, the discovery of wluch signifies nothing further. The coitus wish under this aspect is really a symbol for the individual demonstration of the libido separated from the parents, of the conquest


of an independent life. This step towards a new life means, at the same time, the death of the past life/* Therefore, Chiwantopel is the infantile hero ** (the son, the child, the lamb, the fish) who is still enchained by the fetters of childhood and who has to die as a symbol of the incestuous libido, and with that sever the retro- gressive bond. For the entire libido is demanded for the battle of life, and there can be no remaining behind. The dreamer cannot yet come to this decision, which will tear aside all the sentimental connections with father and mother, and yet it must be made in order to follow the call of the individual destiny.



After the disappearance of the assailant, Chiwantopel begins the following monologue :

" From the extreme ends of these continents, from the fardiest lowlands, after having forsaken the palace of my father, I have been wandering aimlessly during a hundred moons, always pur- sued by my mad desire to find ' her who will understand.' Widi jewels I have tempted many fair ones, with kisses I have tried to snatch the secret of their hearts, with acts of bravery I have conquered their admiration. (He reviews the women he has known.) Chita, the princess of my race ... she is a little fool» vain as a peacock, having nought in her head but jewek and perfume. Ta-nan, the young peasant, . . . bah, a mere sow, no more than a breast and a stomach, caring only for pleasure. And then Ki-ma, the priestess, a true parrot, repeating hollow phrases learnt from the priests; all for show, without real education or sincerity, suspicious poseur and hypocrite! . • . Alas! Not one who understands me, not one who resembles me, not one who has a soul sister to mine. There is not one among them all who has known my soul, not one who could read my thought; far from it; not one capable of seeking with me the luminous sum- mits, or of spelling with me the superhuman word, love."

Here Chiwantopel himself says that his journeying and wandering is a quest for that other, and for the meaning of life which lies in union with her. In the first part of this work we merely hinted gently at this possibility. The fact that the seeker is masculine and the sought-for of



feminine sex is not so astonishing, because the chief object of the unconscious transference is the mothcfi as has probably been seen from that which we have already learned. The daughter takes a male attitude towards the mother. The genesis of this adjustment can only be sus- pected in our case, because objective proof is lacking. Therefore, let us rather be satisfied with inferences. " She who will understand " means the mother, in the in- fantile language. At the same time, it also means the life companion. As is well known, the sex contrast concerns the libido but little. The sex of the object plays a sur- prisingly slight role in the estimation of the unconscious. The object itself, taken as an objective reality, is but of slight significance. (But it is of greatest importance whether the libido is transferred or introverted.) The original concrete meaning of erfassen, " to seize," begreifen, " to touch," etc., allows us to recognize clearly the under side of the wish — to find a congenial person. But the *' upper " intellectual half is also contained in it, and is to be taken into account at the same time. One might be inclined to assume this tendency if it were not that our culture abused the same, for the misunderstood woman has become almost proverbial, which can only be the result of a wholly distorted valuation. On the one side, our culture undervalues most extraordinarily the im- portance of sexuality; on the other side, sexuality breaks out as a direct result of the repression burdening it at every place where it does not belong, and makes use of such an indirect manner of expression that one may ex- pect to meet it suddenly almost anywhere. Thus the


idea of the intimate comprehension of a human souli which is in reality something very beautiful and pure, is soiled and disagreeably distorted through the entrance of the indirect sexual meaning.^ The secondary meaning or, better expressed, the misuse, which repressed and denied sexuality forces upon the highest soul functions, makes it possible, for example, for certain of our oppo- nents to scent in psychoanalysis prurient erotic confes- sionals. These are subjective wish-fulfilment deliria which need no contra arguments. This misuse makes the wish to be '* understood " highly suspicious, if the natural demands of life have not been fulfilled. Nature has lirst claim on man; only long afterwards does the luxury of intellect come. The mediaeval ideal of life for the sake of death needs gradually to be replaced by a natural con- ception of life, in which the normal demands of men are thoroughly kept in mind, so that the desires of the animal sphere may no longer be compelled to drag down into their service the high ^fts of the intellectual sphere in order to find an outlet. We are inclined, therefore, to consider the dreamer's wish for understanding, first of all, as a repressed striving towards the natural destiny. This meaning coincides absolutely with psychoanalytic experience, that there are countless neurotic people who apparently are prevented from experiencing life because they have an unconscious and often also a conscious re- pugnance to the sexual fate, under which they imagine all kinds of ugly things. There is only too great an in- clination to yield to this pressure of the unconsdous sexu- ality and to experience the dreaded (unconsdously hoped


for) disagreeable sexual experience, so as to acquire by that means a legitimately founded horror which retains them more surely in the infantile situation. This is the reason why so many people fall into that very state towards which they have the greatest abhorrence.

That we were correct in our assumption that, in Miss Miller, it is a question of the battle for independence is shown by her statement that the hero's departure from his father's house reminds her of the fate of the young Buddha, who likewise renounced all luxury to whidi he was born in order to go out into the world to live out his destiny to its completion. Buddha gave the same heroic example as did Christ, who separated from his mother, and even spoke bitter words (Matthew, chap. X, V. 34) :

Think not that I am come to send peace on earth: I came not to send peace, but a sword.

(35) "For I am come to set a man at variance against his father, and the daughter against her mother, and the daughter- in-law against her mother-in-law.

(36) " And a man's foes shall be they of his own household.

(37) " He that loveth father or mother more than me is not worthy of me."

Or Luke, chap, xii, v. 5 1 :

" Suppose ye that I am come to give peace on earth? I tell youp Nay: but rather division.

(52) "For from henceforth there shall be five in one house divided, three against two, and two against three.

(53) " The father shall be divided against the son, and the son against the father; the mother against the daughter, and the daughter against the mother; the mother-in-law against diD


daughter-in-law, and the daughter-in-law against her mother-in- law."

Horus snatched from his mother her head adornment, the power. Just as Adam struggled with Lllith, so he struggles for power. Nietzsche, in ** Human, All Too Human," expressed the same in very beautiful words:

" One may suppose that a mind, in which the ' type of free mind ' is to ripen and sweeten at maturity, has had its decisive crisis in a great detachment, so that before this time it was just so much the more a fettered spirit and appeared chained for- ever to its corner and its pillar.^ What binds it most firmly? What cords are almost untearable? Among human beings of a high and exquisite type, it would be duties: that reverence, which is suitable for youth, that modesty and tenderness for all the old honored and valued things, that thankfulness for the earth from which they grew, for the hand which guided them, for the shrine where they leamt to pray: — their loftiest moments themselves come to bind them the firmest, to obligate them the most perma- nently. The great detachment comes suddenly for people so bound.

" * Better to die than to live here,' — thus rings the imperative voice of seduction : and this here, this ' at home ' is all, that it (the soul) has loved until now! A sudden terror and suspicion against that which it has loved, a lightning flash of scorn towards that which is called ' duty,' a rebellious, arbitrary, volcanic, impelling desire for travelling, for strange countries, estrangements, cool- ness, frigidity, disillusionments, a hatred of love, perhaps a sacri- legious touch and glance backwards' there where just now it adored and loved, perhaps a blush of shame over what it has just done, and at the same time an exultation over having done it, an intoxicating internal joyous thrill, in which a victory reveals itself — a victory? Over what? Over whom? An enigmatic, doubt- ful, questioning victory, but the first triumph. Of such woe and pain is formed the history of the great detachment It is like a disease which can destroy men, — this first eruption of strength and will towards self-assertion." ^


The danger lies, as Is brilliantly expressed by Nietzsche^ in isolation in one's self:

    • Solitude surrounds and embraces him ever more threatening,

ever more constricting, ever more heart-strangling, the terrible Goddess and Mater sseva cupidinum."

The libido taken away from the mother, who is aban- doned only reluctantly, becomes threatening as a serpent, the symbol of death, for the relation to the mother must cease, must die, -which itself almost causes man^s death. In *' Mater saeva cupidinum " the idea attains rare, almost conscious, perfection.

I do not presume to try to paint in better words than has Nietzsche the psychology of the wrench from child- hood.

Miss Miller furnishes us with a further reference to a material which has influenced her creation in a more general manner; this is the great Indian epic of Long- fellow, " The Song of Hiawatha."

If my readers have had patience to read thus iFar, and to reflect upon what they have read, they frequently must have wondered at the number of times I introduce for comparison such apparently foreign material and how often I widen the base upon which Miss Miller's crea- tions rest. Doubts must often have arisen whether it is justifiable to enter into important discussions concerning the psychologic foundations of myths, religions and cul- ture in general on the basis of such scanty suggestions. It might be said that behind the Miller phantasies such a


thing Is scarcely to be found. I need hardly emphasize the fact that I, too, have sometimes been in doubt I had never read '* Hiawatha " until, in the course of my work, I came to this part. " Hiawatha," a poetical com- pilation of Indian myths, gives me, however, a justifica* tion for all preceding reflections, because this epic con- tains an unusual number of mythologic problems. This fact is probably of great importance for the wealth of


suggestions in the Miller phantasies. We are, therefore, compelled to obtain an insight into this epic

Nawadaha sings the songs of the epic of the hero Hiawatha, the friend of man :

" There he sang of Hiawatha, Sang die songs of Hiawatha, * Sang his wondrous birth and being, How he prayed and how he fasted, How he lived and toiled and su£fered, That the tribes of men might prosper, That he might advance his people."

The teleological meaning of the hero, as that symbolic figure which unites in itself libido in the form of admira- tion and adoration, in order to lead to higher sublima- tions by way of the symbolic bridges of the myths, is anticipated here. Thus we become quickly acquainted with Hiawatha as a savior, and are prepared to hear all that which must be said of a savior, of his marvellous birth, of his early great deeds, and his sacrifice for his fellow-men.

The first song begins with a fragment of evangelism: Gitche Manlto, the '* master of life, tired of the quarrels


of his human children, calls his people together and makes known to them the joyous message :

" I will send a prophet to you, A Deliverer of the nations, Who shall guide you and shall teach you, Who shall toil and suffer with you. If you listen to his counsels, You will multiply and prosper. If his warnings pass unheeded, You will fade away and perish ! "

Gitche Manito, the Mighty, " the creator of the na- tions, is represented as he stood erect " on the great Red Pipestone quarry."

" From his footprints flowed a river, Leaped into the light of morning, 0*er the precipice plunging downward Gleamed like Ishkoodah, the comet."

The water flowing from his footsteps sufficiently proves the phallic nature of this creator. I refer to the earlier utterances concerning the phallic and fertilizing nature of the horse's foot and the horse's steps, and espe- cially do I recall Hippocrene and the foot of Pegasus.' We meet with the same idea in Psalm Ixv, w. 9 to 11:

" Thou visitest the earth, and waterest it; thou makest it very plenteous.

  • ' The river of God is full of water; thou preparest their ooniy

for so thou providest for the earth.

"Thou waterest her furrows: thou sendest rain into the littic valleys thereof; thou makest it soft with the drops of rain, and blessest the increase of it.

"Thou crownest the year with thy goodness; and diy paths drop fatness."


Wherever the fertilizing God steps, there is fniitful- ness. We already have spoken of the symbolic meaning of treading in discussing the nightmares. Kaineus passes into the depths, splitting the earth with a foot out* stretched." Amphiaraus, another chthonic hero, sinks into the earth, which Zeus has opened for him by a stroke of lightning. (Compare with that the above-mentioned vision of a hysterical patient, who saw a black horse after a flash of lightning: identity of horse's footstep and flash of lightning.) By means of a flash of lightning heroes were made immortal.* Faust attained the mothers when he stamped his foot

    • Stamp and descend, stamping thoult rise again."

The heroes in the sun-devouring myths often stamp at or struggle in the jaws of the monster. Thus Tor stamped through the ship's bottom in battle with the monster, and went as far as the bottom of the sea. (Kaineus.) (Concerning kicking" as an infantile phantasy, see above.) The regression of the libido to the presexual stage makes this preparatory action of treading either a substitution for the coitus phantasy or for the phantasy of re-entrance into the mother's womb. The comparison of water flowing from the footsteps with a comet is a light symbolism for the fructifying moisture (sperma). According to an observation by Humboldt (Kosmos), certain South American Indian tribes call the meteors " urine of the stars." Mention is also made of how Gitche Manito makes fire. He blows upon a forest, so that the trees, rubbing upon each other, burst into


flame. This demon is, therefore, an excellent libido sym* bol; he also produced fire.

After this prologue in the second song, the hero's pre- vious history is related. The great warrior, Mudjekee^ns (Hiawatha's father), has cunningly overcome the great bear, *' the terror of the nations,'* and stolen from him the magic *' belt of wampum, a girdle of shells. Here we meet the motive of the '* treasure attained with diffi- culty," which the hero rescues from the monster. Who the bear is, is shown by the poet's comparisons. Mudje- keewis strikes the bear on his head after he has robbed him of the treasure.

" Widi the heavy blow bewildered Rose the great Bear of the mountains, But his knees beneath him trembled^ And he whimpered Hie a woman/'

Mudjekeewis said derisively to him:

Else you would not cry, and whimpeTi Like a miserable woman!

• • • • •

But you, Bear! sit here and whimpeTi And disgrace your tribe by crying, Like a wretched Shaugodaya, Like a cowardly old woman!*'

These three comparisons with a woman are to be found near each other on the same page. Mudjekeewis has, like a true hero, once more torn life from the jaws of death, from the all-devouring " terrible mother." This deed, which, as we have seen, is also represented as


a journey to hell, night journey through the sea/' the conquering of the monster from within, signifies at the same time entrance into the mother's womb, a rebirth, the results of which are perceptible also for Mudjekeewis. As in the Zosimos vision, here too the entering one be- comes the breath of the wind or spirit. Mudjekeewis becomes the west wind, the fertilizing breath, the father of winds/ His sons become the other winds. An inter- mezzo tells of them and of their love stories, of which I will mention only the courtship of Wabuns, the East Wind, because here the erotic wooing of the wind is pic- tured in an especially beautiful manner. Every morning he sees a beautiful girl in a meadow, whom he eagerly courts:

    • Every morning, gazing earthward.

Still the first thing he beheld there Was her blue eyes looking at him, Two blue lakes among the rushes."

The comparison with water is not a matter of sec- ondary importance, because '^ from wind and water '* shall man be bom anew.

    • And he wooed her with caresses,

Wooed her with his smile of sunshine, With his flattering words he wooed her, With his sighing and his singing, Gendest whispers in the branches, Softest music, sweetest odors," etc.

In these onomatopoetic verses the wind's caressing courtship is excellently expressed.'


The third song presents the previous hIstor7 ^^ Hiawatha's mother. His grandmother, when a maiden, lived in the moon. There she once swung upon a liana, but a jealous lover cut off the liana, and Nokomis, Hiawatha's grandmother, fell to earth. The people, who saw her fall downwards, thought that she was a shooting star. This marvellous descent of Nokomis is more plainly illustrated by a later passage of this same song; there little Hiawatha asks the grandmother what is the moon. Nokomis teaches him about it as follows: The moon is the body of a grandmother, whom a warlike grandson has cast up there in wrath. Hence the moon is the grandmother. In ancient beliefs, the moon is also the gathering place of departed souls,* the guardian of seeds; therefore, once more a place of the origin of life of predominantly feminine significance. The remarkable thing is that Nokomis, falling upon the earth, gave birth to a daughter, Wenonah, subsequently the mother of Hiawatha. The throwing upwards of the mother, and her falling down and bringing forth, seems to contain something typical in itself. Thus a story of the seven- teenth century relates that a mad bull threw a pregnant woman as high as a house, and tore open her womb, and the child fell without harm upon the earth. On account of his wonderful birth, this child was considered a hero or doer of miracles, but he died at an early age. The belief is widespread among lower savages that the sun is feminine and the moon masculine. Among the Namaqua, a Hottentot tribe, the opinion is prevalent that the sun consists of transparent bacon.


    • The people, who journey on boats, draw it down by magic

every evening, cut off a suitable piece and then give it a kick to that it flies up again into the sky," — Waitz: " Anthropologie,"

n, 342.

The infantile nourishment comes from the mother. In the Gnostic phantasies we come across a legend of the origin of man which possibly belongs here: the female archons bound to the vault of Heaven are unable, on account of its quick rotation, to keep their young within them, but let them fall upon the earth, from which men arise. Possibly there is here a connection with barbaric midwifery, the letting fall of the parturient. The assault upon the mother is already introduced with the adventure of Mudjekeewis, and is continued in the violent handling of the *' grandmother,*' Nokomis, who, as a result of the cutting of the liana and the fall downwards, seems in some way to have become pregnant. The " cutting of the branch," the plucking, we have already recognized as mother incest. (See above.) That well-known verse, '^ Saxonland, where beautiful maidens grow upon trees," and phrases like '* picking cherries in a neighbor's gar- den," allude to a similar idea. The fall downwards of Nokomis deserves to be compared to a poetical figure in Heine.

  • ' A star, a star is falling

Out of the glittering skyl The star of Love! I watch it Sink in the depths and die.

" The leaves and buds are falling From many an apple-tree;


I watch the mirthful breezes

Embrace them wantonly . • •

Wenonah later was courted by the caressing West Wind, and becomes pregnant. Wenonah, as a young moon-goddess, has the beauty of the moonlight. Nokomis warns her of the dangerous courtship of Mudjekeewis, the West Wind. But Wenonah allows herself to become in- fatuated, and conceives from the breath of the wind, from the nvevfjia^ a son, our hero.

" And the West- Wind came at evening, • •••••

Found the beautiful Wenonah,

Lying there amid the lilies,

Wooed her with his words of sweetness^

Wooed her with his soft caresses,

Till she bore a son in sorrow.

Bore a son of love and sorrow."

Fertilization through the breath of the spirit is already a well-known precedent for us. The star or comet plainly belongs to the birth scene as a libido symbol; No- komis, too, comes to earth as a shooting star. Monkeys sweet poetic phantasy has devised a similar divine origin. '

" And she who bore me in her womb, And gave me food and clothing. She was a maid — z wild, brown maid. Who looked on men with loathing.

" She fleered at them and laughed out loud. And bade no suitor tarry;

  • I'd rather be the Wind's own bride

Than have a man and many.'


" Then came the Wind and held her fast His captive, love-enchanted ; And lo, by him a merry child Within her womb was planted."

Buddha's marvellous birth story, retold by Sir Edwin Arnold, also shows traces of this/^

" Maya, the Queen . . . Dreamed a strange dream, dreamed that a star from heaven-^ Splendid, six-rayed, in color rosy-pearl, Whereof the token was an Elephant Six-tusked and white as milk of Kamadhuk — Shot through the void ; and shining into her» Entered her womb upon the right," *^

During Maya's conception a wind blows over the land :

" A wind blew With unknown freshness over lands and seas."

After the birth the four genii of the East, West, South and North come to render service as bearers of the palanquin. (The coming of the wise men at Christ's birth.) We also find here a distinct reference to the " four winds." For the completion of the sjrmbolism there is to be found in the Buddha myth, as well as in the birth legend of Christ, besides the impregnation by star and wind, also the fertilization by an animal, here an elephant, which with its phallic trunk fulfilled in Maya the Christian method of fructification through the ear or the head. It is well known that, in addition to the dove, the unicorn is also a procreative symbol of the Logos.

Here arises the question why the birth of a hero always


had to take place under such strange symbolic circum- stances? It might also be imagined that a hero arose from ordinary surroundings and gradually grew out of his inferior environment, perhaps with a thousand trou- bles and dangers. (And, indeed, this motive is by no means strange in the hero myth.) It might be said that superstition demands strange conditions of birth and gen- eration; but why does it demand them?

The answer to this question is: that the birth of the hero, as a rule, is not that of an ordinary mortal, but is a rebirth from the mother-spouse; hence it occurs under mysterious ceremonies. Therefore, in the very begin- ning, lies the motive of the two mothers of the hero. As Rank '^ has shown us through many examples, the hero is often obliged to experience exposure, and upbringing by foster parents, and in this manner he acquires the two mothers. A striking example is the relation of Hercules to Hera. In the Hiawatha epic Wenonah dies after the birth and Nokomis takes her place. Maya dies after the birth ^^ and Buddha is given a stepmother. The step- mother is sometimes an animal (the she-wolf of Romulus and Remus, etc.). The twofold mother may be replaced by the motive of twofold birth, which has attained a lofty significance in the Christian mythology; namely» through baptism, which, as we have seen, represents re- birth. Thus man is born not merely in a commonplace manner, but also born again in a mysterious manner, by means of which he becomes a participator of the kingdom of God, of immortality. Any one may become a hero in this way who is generated anew through his own


mother, because only through her does he share in im- mortality. Therefore, it happened that the death of Christ on the cross, which creates universal salvation, wa8 understood as baptism " ; that is to say, as rebirth through the second mother, the mysterious tree of death. Christ says :

" But I have a baptism to be baptized with: and how am I straitened till it be accomplished! " — Luke xii: 50.

He interprets his death agony sjrmbolically as birth agony.

The motive of the two mothers suggests the thought of self-rejuvenation, and evidently expresses the fulfil- ment of the wish that it might be possible for the mother to bear me again; at the same time, applied to the heroes, it means one is a hero who is borne again by her who has previously been his mother; that is to say, a hero is he who may again produce himself through his mother.

The countless suggestions in the history of the procrea- tion of the heroes indicate the latter formulations. Hia- watha's father first overpowered the mother under the symbol of the bear ; then himself becoming a god, he pro- creates the hero. What Hiawatha had to do as hero, Nokomis hinted to him in the legend of the orig^ of the moon; he is forcibly to throw his mother upwards (or throw downwards?); then she would become pregnant by this act of violence and could bring forth a daughter. This rejuvenated mother would be allotted, according to the Egyptian rite, as a daughter-wife to the sun-god, the father of his mother, for self-reproduction. What action


Hiawatha takes in this regard we shall see presently. We have already studied the behavior of the pre-Asiatic gods related to Christ. Concerning the pre-existence of Christ, the Gospel of St. John is full of this thought. Thus the speech of John the Baptist:

" This is he of whom I said, After me cometh a man which is preferred before mc; for he was before me." — John i: 3a

Also the beginning of the gospel is full of deep mytho- logic significance :

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. The same was in the b^inning with God.

(3) All things were made by him, and without him was not anything made that was made.

(4) In him was life, and the life was the light of men.

(5) " And the light shineth in darkness; and the darkness com- prehendeth it not.

(6) " There was a man sent from God whose name was John.

(7) The same came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light.

(8) He was not that Light, but was sent to bear witness of that Light.

(9) That was the true Light, which lightetfa every man that cometh into the world."

This is the proclamation of the reappearing light, the reborn sun, which formerly was, and which will be again. In the baptistry at Pisa, Christ is represented bringing the tree of life to man; his head is surrounded by a sun halo. Over this relief stand the words Introitus Sous.

Because the one born was his own procreator, the his- tory of his procreation is strangely concealed under syin-


bolic events, which are meant to conceal and deny it; hence the extraordinary assertion of the virgin concep- tion. This is meant to hide the incestuous impregnation. But do not let us forget that this naive assertion plays an unusually important part in the ingenious sjrmbolic bridge, which is to guide the libido out from the incestuous bond to higher and more useful applications, which indicate a new kind of immortality; that is to say, immortal work.

The environment of Hiawatha's youth is of impor- tance :

" By the shores of Gitche Gumee, By the shining Big-Sea- Water, Stood the wigwam of Nokomis, Daughter of the Moon, Nokomis. Dark behind it rose the forest, Rose the black and gloomy pine-trees, Rose the firs with cones upon them. Bright before it beat the water. Beat the clear and sunny water, Beat the shining Big-Sea- Water."

In this environment Nokomis brought him up. Here she taught him the first words, and told him the first fairy tales, and the sounds of the water and the wood were intermingled, so that the child learned not only to under- stand man's speech, but also that of Nature :

" At the door on summer evenings Sat the little Hiawatha; Heard the whispering of the pine-trees, Heard the lapping of the water, Sounds of music, words of wonder:

  • Minne-wawa! * ^* said the pine-trees,
  • Mudway-aushka I * " said the water.**


Hiawatha hears human speech in the sounds of Na- ture; thus he understands Nature's speech. The wind says, " Wawa." The cry of the wild goose is " Wawa." Wah-wah-taysee means the small glowworm which en- chants him. Thus the poet paints most beautifully the gradual gathering of external nature into the compass of the subjective,^® and the intimate connection of the pri- mary object to which the first lisping words were applied^ and from which the first sounds were derived, with the secondary object, the wider nature which usurps imper- ceptibly the mother's place, and takes possession of those sounds heard first from the mother, and also of those feelings which we all discover later in ourselves in all the warm love of Mother Nature. The later blending, whether pantheistic-philosophic or aesthetic, of the senti- mental, cultured man with nature is, looked at retrospec- tively, a reblcnding with the mother, who was our primary object, and with whom we truly were once wholly one.^* Therefore, it is not astonishing when we again see emerging in the poetical speech of a modem philosopher, Karl Joel, the old pictures which symbolize the unity with the mother, illustrated by the confluence of subject and object. In his recent book, '* Seele und Welt" (1912), Joel writes as follows, in the chapter called *' Primal Ex- perience " ^®:

    • I lay on the seashore, the shining waters glittering in my

dreamy eyes; at a great distance fluttered the soft breeze; throb- bing, shimmering, stirring, lulling to sleep comes the wave beat to the shore — or to the ear? I know not. Distance and nearness become blurred into one; without and within glide into each


other. Nearer and nearer, dearer and more homelike sounds the beating of the waves; now, like a thundering pulse in my head it strikes, and now it beats over my soul, devours it, embraces it, while it itself at the same time floats out like the blue waste of waters. Yes, without and within are one. Glistening and foam- ing, flowing and fanning and roaring, the entire qmaphony of the stimuli experienced sounds in one tone, all thought becomes one thought, which becomes one with feeling; the world exhales in the soul and the soul dissolves in the world« Our small life is encircled by a great sietp^the sleep of our cradle, the sleep of our grave, the sleep of our home, from which we go forth in the morn' ingj to which we again return in the evening; our life but die short journey, the interval between the emergence from the oris^ inal oneness and the sinking back into itl Blue shimmers the infinite sea, wherein dreams the jelly fish of the primitive life, toward which without ceasing our thoughts hark back dimly through eons of existence. For every happening entails a change and a guarantee of the unity of life. At that moment when they are no longer blended together, in that instant man lifts his head, blind and dripping^ from the depths of the stream of experience^ from the oneness with the experience; at that moment of parting when the unity of life in startled surprise detaches the Change and holds it away from itself as something alien, at this moment of alienation the aspects of the experience have been substantial- ized into subject and object, and in that moment consdousness is bom."

Joel paints here, in unmistakable sjrmbolism, the con- fluence of subject and object as the reunion of mother and child. The symbols agree with those of mythology, even in their details. The encircling and devouring mo- tive is distinctly suggested. The sea, devouring the sun and giving birth to it anew, is already an old acquaint- ance. The moment of the rise of consciousness, the sepa- ration of subject and object is a birth ; truly philosophical


thought hangs with lame wings upon the few great primi- tive pictures of human speech, above the simple, all-sur- passing greatness of which no thought can rise. The idea of the jelly fish is not accidental." Once when I was explaining to a patient the maternal significance of water at this contact with the mother complex, she experienced a very unpleasant feeling. *' It makes me squirm,*' she said, as if I touched a jelly fish.'* Here, too, the same idea ! The blessed state of sleep before birth and after death is, as Joel observed, something like old shadowy memories of that unsuspecting, thoughtless state of early childhood, where as yet no opposition disturbed the peace- ful flow of dawning life, to which the inner longing always draws us back again and again, and from which the active life must free itself anew with struggle and death, so that it may not be doomed to destruction. Long before Joel, an Indian chieftain had said the same thing in similar words to one of the restless wise men:

" Ah, my brother, you will never Icam to know the happiness of thinking nothing and doing nothing: this is next to sleep; this is the most delightful thing there is. Thus we were before birth, thus we shall be after death." ^*

We shall see in Hiawatha's later fate how important his early impressions are in his choice of a wife. Hia- watha's first deed was to kill a roebuck with his arrow:

" Dead he lay there in the forest, By the ford across the river."

This is typical of Hiawatha's deeds. Whatever he kills, for the most part, lies next to or in the water, some-


times half in the water and half on the land.'® It seems that this must well be so. The later adventures will teach us why this must be so. The buck was no ordinary animal, but a magic one ; that is to say, one with an addi- tional unconscious significance. Hiawatha made for him- self gloves and moccasins from its hide; the gloves im- parted such strength to his arms that he could crumble rocks to dust, and the moccasins had the \^rtue of the seven-league boots. By enwrapping himself in the buck's skin he really became a giant This motive, together with the death of the animal at the ford,'^ in the water, re- veals the fact that the parents are concerned, whose gigantic proportions as compared with the child are of great significance in the unconscious. The **toys of giants" is a wish inversion of the infantile phantasy. The dream of an eleven-year-old girl expresses this :

" I am as high as a church steeple; then a policeman comes. I tell him, ' If you say anything, I will cut ofiE your head. ' "

The "policeman,*' as the analysis brought out, re- ferred to the father, whose gigantic size was over-com- pensated by the church steeple. In Mencan human sacri- fices, the gods were represented by criminals, who were slaughtered, and flayed, and the Corybantes then clothed themselves in the bloody sidns, in order to illustrate the resurrection of the gods.*' (The snake's casting of his skin as a symbol of rejuvenation.)

Hiawatha has, therefore, conquered his parents, pri- marily the mother, although in the form of a male ani- mal (compare the bear of Mudjekeewis) ; and from that


comes his giant's strength. He has taken on the parent's skin and now has himself become a great man. Now he started forth to his first great battle to fight with the father Mudjekeewis, in order to avenge his dead mother Wenonah. Naturally, under this figure of speech hides the thought that he slays the father, in order to take pos- session of the mother. Compare the battle of Gilgamesh with the giant Chumbaba and the ensuing conquest of Ishtar. The father, in the psychologic sense, merely rep- resents the personification of the incest prohibition; that is to say, resistance, which defends the mother. Instead of the father, it may be a fearful animal (the great bear, the snake, the dragon, etc.) which must be fought and overcome. The hero is a hero because he sees in every difficulty of life resistance to the forbidden treasure, and fights that resistance with the complete yearning which strives towards the treasure, attainable with difficulty, or unattainable, the yearning which paralyzes and kills the ordinary man.

Hiawatha's father is Mudjekeewis, the west wind; the battle, therefore, takes place in the west Thence came life (impregnation of Wenonah) ; thence also came death (death of Wenonah). Hiawatha, therefore, fights the typical battle of the hero for rebirth in the western sea, the battle with the devouring terrible mother, this time in the form of the father. Mudje- keewis, who himself had acquired a divine nature, through his conquest of the bear, now is overpowered by his son :


Back retreated Mudjekeewis, Rushing westward o'er the mountains^


Stumbling westward down the mountains^

Three whole days retreated fighting,

Still pursued by Hiawatha

To the doorways of the West-Wind,

To the portals of the Sunset,

To the earth's remotest border,

Where into the empty spaces

Sinks the sun, as a flamingo

Drops into her nest at nightfalL"

The " three days " are a stereotyped form represent- ing the stay in the sea prison of night. (Twenty-first until twenty- fourth of December.) Christ, too, remained three days in the underworld. "The treasure, difficult to attain," is captured by the hero during this struggle in the west. In this case the father must make a great concession to the son; he gives him divine nature,'* that very wind nature, the immortality of which alone pro- tected Mudjekeewis from death. He says to his son:

" I will share my kingdom with you, Ruler shall you be henceforward, Of the Northwest-Wind, Keewaydin, Of the home-wind, the Keewaydin.*'

That Hiawatha now becomes ruler of the home-wind has its close parallel in the Gilgamesh epic, where Gilga- mesh finally receives the magic herb from the wise old Utnapishtim, who dwells in the West, which brings lum safe once more over the sea to his home; but this, when he is home again, is retaken from him by a serpent.

When one has slain the father, one can obtain posses- sion of his wife, and when one has conquered the mothert one can free one's self.


On the return journey Hiawatha stops at the clever arrow-maker's, who possesses a lovely daughter :

" And he named her from the river, From the water-fall he named her, Minnehaha, Laughing Water."

When Hiawatha, in his earliest childhood dreaming, felt the sounds of water and wind press upon his ears, he recognized in these sounds of nature the speech of his mother. The murmuring pine trees on the shore of the great sea, said " Minnewawa." And above the murmur- ing of the winds and the splashing of the water he found his earliest childhood dreams once again in a woman,

    • Minnehaha," the laughing water. And the hero, be-

fore all others, finds in woman the mother, in order to become a child again, and, finally, to solve the riddle of immortality.

The fact that Minnehaha's father is a skilful arrow- maker betrays him as the father of the hero (and the woman he had with him as the mother). The father of the hero is very often a skilful carpenter, or other artisan. According to an Arabian legend. Tare," Abra- ham's father, was a skilful master workman, who could carve arrows from any wood; that is to say, in the Arabian form of speech, he was a procreator of splendid sons.'° Moreover, he was a maker of images of gods. Tvashtar, Agni's father, is the maker of the world, a smith and carpenter, the discoverer of fire-boring. Jo- seph, the father of Jesus, was also a carpenter; like^se Kinyras, Adonis's father, who is said to have invented


the hammer, the lever, roofing and mining. Hephaestus, the father of Hermes, is an artistic master workman and sculptor. In fairy tales, the father of the hero is very modestly the traditional wood-cutter. These conceptions were also alive in the cult of Osiris. There the divine image was carved out of a tree trunk and then placed within the hollow of the tree. (Frazer: Golden Bough,*' Part IV.) In Rigveda, the world was also hewn out of a tree by the world-sculptor. The idea that the hero is his own procreator ** leads to the fact that he is invested with paternal attributes, and reversedly the he- roic attributes are given to the father. ' In Mani there exists a beautiful union of the motives. He accomplishes his great labors as a religious founder, hides himself for years in a cave, he dies, is skinned, stuffed and hung up (hero). Besides he is an artist, and has a crippled foot A similar union of motives is found in Wieland, the smith.

Hiawatha kept silent about what he saw at the old arrow-maker's on his return to Nokomis, and he did nothing further to win Minnehaha. But now something happened, which, if it were not in an Indian epic, would rather be sought in the history of a neurosis. Hiawatha introverted his libido; that is to say, he fell into an ex- treme resistance against the real sexual demand" (Freud) ; he built a hut for himself in the wood, in order to fast there and to experience dreams and visions. For the first three days he wandered, as once in his earliest youth, through a forest and looked at all the animals and plants :


" ' Master of life ! ' he cried, desponding, ' Must our lives depend on these things? ' "

The question whether our lives must depend upon

    • these things " is very strange. It sounds as if life were

derived from these things; that is to say, from nature in general. Nature seems suddenly to have assumed a very strange significance. This phenomenon can be ex- plained only through the fact that a great amount of libido was stored up and now is given to nature. As is well known, men of even dull and prosy minds, in the springtime of love, suddenly become aware of nature, and even make poems about it. But we know that libido, prevented from an actual way of transference, always re- verts to an earlier way of transference. Minnehaha, the laughing water, is so clearly an allusion to the mother that the secret yearning of the hero for the mother is powerfully touched. Therefore, without having under- taken anything, he goes home to Nokomis ; but there again he is driven away, because Minnehaha already stands in his path.

He turns, therefore, even further away, into that early youthful period, the tones of which recall Minnehaha most forcibly to his thoughts, where he learnt to hear the mother-sounds in the sounds of nature. In this very strange revival of the impressions of nature we recognize a regression to those earliest and strongest nature im- pressions which stand next to the subsequently extin- guished, even stronger, impressions which the child re- ceived from the mother. The glamour of this feeling for her is transferred to other objects of the childish environ-


ment (father's house, playthings, etc.)i from which later those magic blissful feelings proceed, which seem to be peculiar to the earliest childish memories. When, there- fore, Hiawatha hides himself in the lap of nature, it is really the mother's womb, and it is to be expected that he will emerge again new-born in some form.

Before turning to this new creation arising from intro- version, there is still a further significance of the pre- ceding question to be considered: whether life is de- pendent upon ** these things  ? Life may depend upon these things in the degree that they serve for nourish- ment. We must infer in this case that suddenly the ques- tion of nutrition came very near the hero's heart. (This possibility will be thoroughly proven in what follows.) The question of nutrition, indeed, enters seriously into consideration. First, because regression to the mother necessarily revives that special path of transference; namely, that of nutrition through the mother. As soon as the libido regresses to the presexual stage, there we may expect to see the function of nutrition and its sym- bols put in place of the sexual function. Thence is de- rived an essential root of the displacement from below upwards (Freud), because, in the presexual stage, the principal value belongs not to the genitals, but to the mouth. Secondly, because the hero fasted» his hunger becomes predominant. Fasting, as Is well known, is employed to silence sexuality; also, it expresses sym- bolically the resistance against sexuality, translated into the language of the presexual stage. On the fourth day of his fast the hero ceased to address himself to nature;


he lay exhausted, with half-dosed eyes, upon his couch, sunk deep in dreams, the picture of extreme introversion. We have already seen that, in such circumstances, an infantile internal equivalent for reality appears, in the place of external life and reality. This is also the case with Hiawatha :

" And he saw a youth approaching^ Dressed in garments green and yellow, Coming through the purple twiligjht, Through the splendor of the sunset; Plume& of green bent o'er his forehead^ And his hair was soft and •golden.'^

This remarkable apparition reveals himself in the fol- lowing manner to Hiawatha :

" From the Master of Life descending, I, the friend of man, Mondamin. Come to warn you and instruct you. How by struggle and by labor You shall gain what you have prayed for. Rise up from your bed of branches; Rise, O youth, and wrestle with me! "

Mondamin is the maize: a god, who is eaten, arising from Hiawatha's introversion. His hunger, taken in a double sense, his longing for the nourishing mother, ^ves birth from his soul to another hero, the edible maize, the son of the earth mother. Therefore, he again arises at sunset, symbolizing the entrance into the mother, and in the western sunset glow he begins again the mystic strug- gle with the self-created god, the god who has originated entirely from the longing for the nourishing motheff


The struggle is again the struggle for liberation from this destructive and yet productive longing. Mondamin is, therefore, equivalent to the mother, and the struggle widi him means the overpowering and impregnation of the mother. This interpretation is entirely proven by a mjrth of the Cherokees, "who invoke it (the maize)^ under the name of ' The Old Woman,' in allusion to a myth that it sprang from the blood of an old woman killed by her disobedient sons ' " : "

" Faint with famine, Hiawatha Started from his bed of branches, From the twilight of his wigwam Forth into the flush of sunset Came, and wresded with Mondamin; At his touch he felt new courage Throbbing in his brain and bosom, Felt new life and hope and vigor Run through every nerve and fibre."

The battle at sunset with the god of the maize gjves Hiawatha new strength ; and thus it must be, because the fight for the individual depths, against the paralyzing longing for the mother, gives creative strength to men. Here, indeed, is the source of all creation, but it demands heroic courage to fight against these forces and to wrest from them the ** treasure difficult to attain." He who succeeds in this has, in truth, attained the best. Hiawatha wrestles with himself for his creation.** The struggle lasts again the charmed three days. The fourth day, just as Mondamin prophesied, Hiawatha conquers him, and Mondamin sinks to the ground in death. As Mondamin


previously desired, Hiawatha digs his grave in mother earth, and soon afterwards from this grave the young and fresh maize grows for the nourishment of manldnd. Concerning the thought of this fragment, we have therein a beautiful parallel to the mystery of Mithra, where first the battle of the hero with his bull occurs. Afterwards Mithra carries in '* transitus " the bull into the cave, where he kills him. From this death all fer- tility grows, all that is edible.^® The cave corresponds to the grave. The same idea is represented in the Chris- tian mysteries, although generally in more beautiful human forms. The soul struggle of Christ in Geth- semane, where he struggles with himself in order to com- plete his work, then the ** transitus," the carrying of the cross,'**' where he takes upon himself the symbol of the destructive mother, and therewith takes himself to the sacrificial grave, from which, after three days, he tri- umphantly arises; all these ideas express the same funda- mental thoughts. Also, the symbol of eating is not lack- ing in the Christian mystery. Christ is a god who is eaten in the Lord's Supper. His death transforms him into bread and wine, which we partake of in grateful memory of his great deed.^^ The relation of Agni to the Soma- drink and that of Dionysus to wine " must not be omitted here. An evident parallel is Samson's rending of the lion, and the subsequent inhabitation of the dead lion by honey bees, which gives rise to the well-known German riddle :

'^ Speise ging von dem Fresser und Siissigkeit von dcm Starken (Food went from the glutton and sweet from the strong)." ••


In the Eleusinian mysteries these thoughts seem to have played a role. Besides Demeter and Persephone^ lakchos is a chief god of the Eleusinian cult; he was the ^' puer astemus," the eternal boy, of whom Ovid says die following :

Tu puer setemus, tu formosissimus alto G)nspiceris coelo tibi, cum sine coraibus asta^ Virgineum caput est," etc*

In the great Eleusinian festival procession the image of lakchos was carried. It is not easy to say which god is lakchos, possibly a boy, or a new-bom son, similar to the Etrurian Tages, who bears the surname ^' the freshly ploughed boy, because, according to the myth, he arose from the furrow of the field behind the peasant, who was ploughing. This idea shows unmistakably the Mondamin motive. The plough is of well-known phallic meaning; the furrow of the field is personified by the Hindoos as woman. The psychology of this idea is that of a coituSi referred back to the presexual stage (stage of nutri- tion). The son is the edible fruit of the field. lakchos passes, in part, as son of Demeter or of Persephone, also appropriately as consort of Demeter. (Hero as pro- creator of himself.) He is also called rtfi jirffMrftpoi dalficov (Jaifioov equals libido, also Mother libido.) He was identified with Dionysus, especially with the Thradan Dionysus-Zagreus, of whom a typical fate of rebirth was related. Hera had goaded the Titans against Zagreus,

  • Thou boy eternal, thou most beautiful one seen in the heayeni, with-

out horns standing, with thy virgin head, etc


who, assuming many forms, sought to escape them, until they finally took him when he had taken on the form of a bull. In this form he was killed (Mithra sacrifice) and dismembered, and the pieces were thrown into a caul- dron; but Zeus killed the Titans by lightning, and swal- lowed the still-throbbing heart of Zagreus. Through this act he gave him existence once more, and Zagreus as lakchos again came forth.

lakchos carries the torch, the phallic symbol of procrea- tion, as Plato testifies. In the festival procession, the sheaf of corn, the cradle of lakchos, was carried. {XiHvovy mystica vannus lacchi.) The Orphic legend" relates that lakchos was brought up by Persephone, when, after three years' slumber in the Xfxvor,* he awoke. This statement distinctly suggests the Mondamin motive. The 20th of Boedromion (the month Boedromion lasts from about the 5th of September to the 5th of October) is called lakchos, in honor of the hero. On the evening of this day the great torchlight procession took place on the seashore, in which the quest and lament of Demeter was represented. The role of Demeter, who, seeldng her daughter, wanders over the whole earth without food or drink, has been taken over by Hiawatha in the Indian epic. He turns to all created things without obtaining an answer. As Demeter first learns of her daughter from the subterranean Hecate, so does Hiawatha first find the one sought for, Mondamin,'^ in the deepest introversion (descent to the mother). Hiawatha produces from him- self, Mondamin, as a mother produces the son. The

  • A winnowing fan used as cradle. «


longing for the mother also includes the produdng mother (first devouring, then birth-giving). Concern- ing the real contents of the mysteries, we learn through the testimony of Bishop Asterius, about 390 A.D., die following :

" Is not there (in Eleusis) the gloomiest descent, and the most solemn communion of the hierophant and the priestess; between him and her alone? Are the torches not extinguished, and does not the vast multitude regard as their salvation that which takes place between the two in the darkness? " '*

That points undoubtedly to a ritual marriage, which was celebrated subterraneously in mother earth. The Priest- ess of Demeter seems to be the representative of the earth goddess, perhaps the furrow of the field.*^ The descent into the earth is also the sjrmbol of the mother's womb» and was a widespread conception under die form of cave worship. Plutarch relates of the Magi that they sacrificed to Ahriman, sis tonov dvfjXtov* Lukian lets the magician Mithrobarzanes Hi x<^pi<^ fytf/ior xal vXdadBS xal dvifXtoy,] descend into the bowels of die eardt According to the testimony of Moses of the Koran, the sister Fire and the brother Spring were worshipped in Armenia in a cave. Julian gave an account from die Attis legend of a xard/3a<rt€ eU avtpoy,l from whence Cybele brings up her son lover, that is to say, g^ves birth to him.'^ The cave of Christ's birth, in Bethlehem ('House of Bread'), is said to have been an Atds spelseum.

  • In a sunless place.

t Descend into a sunless desert place.

t DeKent into a cave.


A further Eleusinian symbolism is found in the festival of Hierosgamos, in the form of the mystic chests, which, according to the testimony of Clemens of Alexandria, may have contained pastry, salt and fruits. The synthema (confession) of the mystic transmitted by Clemens is sug- gestive in still other directions :

" I have fasted, I have drunk of the barlcydrink, I have taken from the chest and after I have labored, I have placed it back in the basket, and from the basket into the chest."

The question as to what lay in the chest is explained in detail by Dieterich.'^^ The labor he considers a phallic activity, which the mystic has to perform. In fact, rep- resentations of the mystic basket are given, wherein lies a phallus surrounded by fruits.*** Upon the so-called Lovatelli tomb vase, the sculptures of which are under- stood to be Eleusinian ceremonies, it is shown how a mystic caressed the serpent entwining Demeter. The caressing of the fear animal indicates a religious conquer- ing of incest/^ According to the testimony of Clemens of Alexandria, a serpent was in the chest. The serpent in this connection is naturally of phallic nature, the phallus which is forbidden in relation to the mother. Rohde mentions that in the Arrhetophories, pastry, in the form of phalli and serpents, were thrown into the cave near the Thesmophorion. This custom was a petition for the bestowal of children and harvest/^ The snake also plays a large part in initiations under the remarkable title o Sia HoXrtov 0e6s. * Clemens observes that the symbol

  • . He who adiieved diviuity through the womb^


of the Sabazios mysteries is o 6ia xoXnoov deo^, Spaxa>y di iffti xal ovro? SieXxopiBvo? rov xoXnov rciv t^XovfU--

Through Arnobius we learn :

"Aureus coluber in sinum demittitur consecrads et eximitur nirsus ab inf erioribus partibus atque imis." t

In the Orphic Hjrmn 52, Bacchus is invoked by vnoxoXnu^X which indicates that the god enters into man as if through the female genitals.^ According to the testimony of Hippolytus, the hierophant in the mys* tery exclaimed hpov itnxn notvta xovpov, Bptfiaa ftptfiov (the revered one has brought forth a holy boy, Brimos from Brimo). This Christmas gospel, ^^Unto us a son is born," is illustrated especially through the tradition^ that the Athenians ** secretly show to the partakers in the Epoptia, the great and wonderful and most perfect Epoptic mystery, a mown stalk of wheat/* "

The parallel for the motive of death and resurrection is the motive of losing and finding. The motive appears in religious rites in exactly the same connection, namely, in spring festivities similar to the Hierosgamos, where the image of the god was hidden and found again. It is an uncanonical tradition that Moses left his fadier's house when twelve years old to teach mankind. In a similar manner Christ is lost by his parents, and they find him again as a teacher of wisdom, just as in the Mo-

  • He who achieved divinity through the womb; he it a serpent, and hi

was drawn through the womb of those who were being initiated.

t The golden serpent is crowded into the breast of the initiates and It dien drawn out through the lowest parts.

^ O Foetus, he who is 10 the vagina or womb.


hammedan legend Moses and Joshua lose the fish, and in his place Chidher, the teacher of wisdonii appears (like the boy Jesus in the temple) ; so does the com god, lost and believed to be dead, suddenly arise again from his mother into renewed youth. (That Christ was laid in the manger is suggestive of fodder. RobertsoDi there- fore, places the manger as parallel to the liknon.)

We understand from these accounts why the Eleusin- ian mysteries were for the mystic so rich in comfort for the hope of a better world. A beautiful Eleusinian epi- taph shows this :

" Truly, a beautiful secret is proclaimed by the blessed Gods I Mortality is not a curse, but death a blessing! "

The hymn to Demeter ^^ in the mysteries also says the


" Blessed is he, the earth-bom man, who hath seen this I Who hath not shared in these divine ceremonies, He hath an unequal fate in the obscure darkness of deatL"

Immortality is inherent in the Eleusinian symbol; in a church song of the nineteenth century by Samuel Preis- werk we discover it again :

" The world is yours. Lord Jesus, The world, on which we stand, Because it is thy world It cannot perish. Only the wheat, before it comes Up to the light in its fertility, Must die in the bosom of the earth First freed from its own nature.


" Thou goest, O Lord, our chief, To heaven through thy sorrows, And guide him who beh'eves In thee on the same path. Then take us all equally To share in thy sorrows and kingdoms, Guide us through thy gate of death. Bring thy world into the light."

Firmicus relates concerning the Attis mysteries :

" Nocte quadam simulacrum in lectica supinum ponitur et per numeros digestis fletibus plangitur; deinde cum se ficta lamenta- tione satiaverint, lumen infertur: tunc a sacerdote omnium qui flebant fauces unguentur, quibus perunctis sacerdos hoc lento mur-

mure susurrat : ' Bappeire pjorai rov Oeov oeaoofiiuov' iorai ydp i/tbf bt wimm eoTifpla,* " ♦

Such parallels show how little human personality and how much divine, that is to say, universally human, is found in the Christ mystery. No man is or, indeed, ever was, a hero, for the hero is a god, and, therefore, im- personal and generally applicable to all. Christ is a '* spirit," as is shown in the very early Christian inter- pretation. In different places of the earth, and in die most varied forms and in the coloring of various periods, the Savior-hero appears as a fruit of the entrance of die libido into the personal maternal depths. The Bacchian consecrations represented upon the Farnese relief contain

  • 0n a certain night an image is placed lying down in a litter; tiiere

is weeping and lamentations among the people, with beatings of bodies and tears. After a time, when they have become exhausted from the lamentations, a light appears; then the? priest anoints the throats of all those who were weeping, and softly whispers, '* Take courage, O initiatet of the ReBeemed Divinity; 3rou shall achieye salyation throagh your grief."


a scene where a mystic wrapped in a mantle, drawn over his head, was led to Silen, who holds the "Afjfvoy" (chalice), covered with a doth. The covering of the head signifies death. The mystic dies, figuratively, like the seed corn, grows again and comes to the com har- vest. Produs relates that the mystics were buried up to their necks. The Christian church as a place of religious ceremony is really nothing but the grave of a hero (cata- combs). The believer descends into the grave, in order to rise from the dead with the hero. That the meaning underlying the church is that of the mother's womb can scarcely be doubted. The sjrmbols of Mass are so dis- tinct that the mythology of the sacred act peeps out everywhere. It is the magic charm of rebirth. The ven- eration of the Holy Sepulchre is most plain in this re- spect. A striking example is the Holy Sepulchre of St. Stefano in Bologna. The church itself, a very old polyg- onal building, consists of the remains of a temple to Isis. The interior contains an artificial spelseum, a so-called Holy Sepulchre, into which one creeps through a very little door. After a long sojourn, the believer reappears reborn from this mother's womb. An Etruscan ossuarium in the archaeological museum in Florence is at the same time a statue of Matuta, the goddess of death; the day figure of the goddess is hollowed within as a receptacle for the ashes. The representations indicate that Matuta is the mother. Her chair is adorned with sphinxes, as a fitting symbol for the mother of death.

Only a few of the further deeds of Hiawatha can in- terest us here. Among these is the battle with Mishe-

The dual mother role 381

Nahma, the fish-king, in the eighth song. This deserves to be mentioned as a typical battle of the sun*hero. Mishe-Nahma is a fish monster, who dwells at the bottom of the waters. Challenged by Hiawatha to battle, he de- vours the hero, together with his boat :

" In his wrath he darted upward, Flashing leaped into die sunshine, Opened his great jaws, and swallowed Both canoe and Hiawatha.

" Down into that darksome cavern Plunged the headlong Hiawatha, As a log on some black river Shoots and plunges down the rapids. Found himself in utter darkness. Groped about in helpless wonder. Till he felt a great heart beating. Throbbing in that utter darkness. And he smote it in his anger, With his fist, the heart of Nahma, Felt the mighty king of fishes

Shudder through each nerve and fibre.

■ • • •

Crosswise then did Hiawatha Drag his birch<anoe for safety. Lest from out the jaws of Nahma, In the turmoil and confusion, Forth he might be hurled, and perish.'*

It is the typical myth of the work of the hero, dis- tributed over the entire world. He takes to a boat, fights with the sea monster, is devoured, he defends himself against being bitten or crushed*^ (resistance or stamp- ing motive) ; having arrived in the interior of the " whale dragon,*' he seeks the vital organ, which he cuts off


or in some way destroys. Often the death of the monster occurs as the result of a iire which the hero secretly makes within him ; he mysteriously creates in the womb of death life, the rising sun. Thus dies the fish, which drifts ashore, where, with the assistance of

    • birds," the hero again attains the light of day." The

bird in this sense probably means the reascent of the sun, the longing of the libido, the rebirth of the phoenix. (The longing is very frequently represented by the sym- bol of hovering. ) The sun sjrmbol of the bird rising from the water is (etymologically) contained in the singing swan. *' Swan " is derived from the root sven, like sun and tone. (See the preceding.) This act signifies rebirth, and the bringing forth of life from the mother," and by this means the ultimate destruction of death, which, according to a Negro myth, has come into the world, through the mistake of an old woman, who, at the time of the general casting of skins (for men re- newed their youth through casting their skin like snakes), drew on, through absent-mindedness, her old skin instead of a new one, and as a result died. But the effect of such an act could not be of any duration. Again and again troubles of the hero are renewed, always under the symbol of deliverance from the mother. Just as Hera (as the pursuing mother) is the real source of the great deeds of Hercules, so does Nokomis allow Hiawatha no rest, and raises up new difficulties in his path, in form of desperate adventures in which the hero may perhaps con- quer, but also, perhaps, may perish. The libido of man* kind is always in advance of his consciousness; unless his


libido calls him forth to new dangers he sinks into sloth- ful inactivity or, on the other hand, childish longing for the mother overcomes him at the sunmiit of his existence, and he allows himself to become pitifully weak, instead of striving with desperate courage towards the highest The mother becomes the demon, who sunmions the hero to adventure, and who also places in his path the poison- ous serpent, which will strike him. Thus Nokomis, in the ninth song, calls Hiawatha, points with her hand to the west, where the sun sets in purple splendor, and says to him:

" Yonder dwells the great Pearl-Featberi Megissogwon, the Magician, Manito of Wealth and Wampum, Guarded by his fiery serpents, Guarded by the black pitch-water. You can see his fiery serpents, The Kenabeek, the great serpents, G)iling, playing in the water."

This danger lurking in the west is known to mean death, which no one, even the mightiest, escapes. This magician, as we learn, also killed the father of Nokomis. Now she sends her son forth to avenge the father (Horns). Through the symbols attributed to the magi- cian it may easily be recognized what he symbolizes. Snake and water belong to the mother, the snake as a symbol of the repressed longing for the mother, or, in other words, as a symbol of resistance, encircles protect- ingly and defensively the maternal rock, inhabits the cave, winds itself upwards around the mother tree and guards


the precious hoard, the mysterious" treasure. The black Stygian water is, like the black, muddy spring of Dhulqamein, the place where the sun dies and enters into rebirth, the maternal sea of death and night. On his journey thither Hiawatha takes with him the mag^c oil of Mishe-Nahma, which helps his boat through the waters of death. (Also a sort of charm for inunortality, like the dragon's blood for Siegfried, etc.)

First, Hiawatha slays the great serpent Of the " night journey in the sea " over the Stygian waters it is written :

" All night long he sailed upon it, Sailed upon that sluggish water, Covered with its mould of ages, Black with rotting water-rushes, Rank with flags, and leaves of lilies. Stagnant, lifeless, dreary, dismal, Lighted by the shimmering moonlight And by will-o'-the-wisps illumined, Fires by ghosts of dead men kindled. In their weary night encampments.*'

The description plainly shows the character of a water of death. The contents of the water point to an already mentioned motive, that of encoiling and devouring. It is said in the " Key to Dreams of Jagaddeva " : ^

Whoever in dreams surrounds his body with bast, creepers or ropes, with snake-skins, threads, or tissues, dies."

I refer to the preceding arguments in regard to this. Having come into the west land, the hero challenges the magician to battle. A terrible struggle begins. Hia-


watha is powerless, because Megissogwon is invulner- able. At evening Hiawatha retires wounded, despairing for a while, in order to rest :

" Paused to rest beneath a pine-tree, From whose branches trailed the mosses. And whose trunk was coated over With the Dead-man's Moccasin-leather, With the fungus white and yellow."

This protecting tree is described as coated over with the moccasin leather of the dead, the fungus. TMs in- vesting of the tree with anthromorphic attributes is also an important rite wherever tree worship prevails, as, for example, in India, where each village has its sacred tree, which is clothed and in general treated as a human being. The trees are anointed with fragrant waters, sprinkled with powder, adorned with garlands and draperies. Just as among men, the piercing of the ears was performed as an apotropaic charm against death, so does it occur with the holy tree. Of all the trees of India there is none more sacred to the Hindoos than the Aswatha (Ficus re- ligiosa). It is known to them as Vriksha Raja (king of trees), Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesvar live in it, and the worship of it is the worship of the triad. Almost every Indian village has an Aswatha,*^ etc. This '* village linden tree," well known to us, is here clearly character- ized as the mother symbol; it contains the three gods.

Hence, when Hiawatha retires to rest under the pine- tree,'^ it is a dangerous step, because he resigns himself to the mother, whose garment is the garment of death (the devouring mother). As in the whale-dragon, the


hero also in this situation needs a " helpful bird " ; that is to say, the helpful animals, which represent the benevo- lent parents :

" Suddenly from the boughs above him Sang the Mama, the woodpecker; ' Aim your arrows, Hiawatha, At th«. head of Megissogwon, Strike the tuft of hair upon it, At their roots the long black tresses; There alone can he be wounded/ "

Now, amusing to relate, Mama hurried to his help. It is a peculiar fact that the woodpecker was also the '* Mama *' of Romulus and Remus, who put nourishment into the mouths of the twins with his beak." (Compare with that the role of the vulture in Leonardo's dream. The vulture is sacred to Mars, like the woodpecker.) With the maternal significance of the woodpecker, the ancient Italian folk-superstition agrees: that from the tree upon which this bird nested any nail which has been driven in will soon drop out again.*** The woodpecker owes its special significance to the circumstance that he hammers holes into trees. ("To drive nails in," as above I) It is, therefore, understandable that he was made much of in the Roman legend as an old king of the country, a possessor or ruler of the holy tree, the primitive image of the Paterfamilias. An old fable re* lates how Circe, the spouse of King Picus, transformed him into the Picus Martius, the woodpecker. The sorcer- ess is the ** new-creating mother," who has "mag^c in- fluence " upon the sun-husband. She kills him, trans-


forms him into the soul-bird, the unfulfilled wish. Picus was also understood as the wood demon and incubus, as well as the soothsayer, all of which fully indicate the mother libido/' Picus was often placed on a par with Picunmus by the ancients. Picunmus is the inseparable companion of Pilunmus, and both are actually called in- fanttum dii, '* the gods of little children." Especially it was said of Pilumnus that he defended new-bom children against the destroying attacks of the wood demon, Sil- vanus. (Good and bad mother, the motive of the two mothers. )

The benevolent bird, a wish thought of deliverance which arises from introversion,'* advises the hero to shoot the magician under the hair, which is the only vulner- able spot. This spot is the phallic " point,'^ if one may venture to say so ; it is at the top of the head, at the place where the mystic birth from the head takes place, wMch even today appears in children's sexual theories. Into that Hiawatha shoots (one may say, very naturally) three arrows '^ (the well-known phallic symbol), and thus kills Megissogwon. Thereupon he steals the magic wam- pum armor, which renders him invulnerable (means of immortality). He significantly leaves the dead l]ring in the water — ^because the magician is the fearful mother:

" On the shore he left the body, Half on land and half in water, In the sand his feet were buried, And his face was in the water.

Thus the situation is the same as with the fish king, because the monster is the personification of the water


of death, which in its turn represents the devouring mother. This great deed of Hiawatha's, where he has vanquished the mother as the death-bringing demon,** is followed by his marriage with Minnehaha.

A little fable which the poet has inserted in the later song is noteworthy. An old man is transformed into a youth, by craivHng through a hollow oak tree.

In the fourteenth song is a description of how Hia- watha discovers writing. I limit myself to the descrip- tion of two hieroglyphic tokens :

" Gitche Manito the Mighty, He, the Master of Life, was painted As an egg, with points projecting To the four winds of the heavens. Everywhere is the Great Spirit, Was the meaning of this symbol.'*

The world lies in the egg, which encompasses it at every point; it is the cosmic woman with child, the sym- bol of which Plato as well as the Vedas has made use of. This mother is like the air, which is everywhere. But air is spirit; the mother of the world is a spirit:

" Mitche Manito the Mighty, He the dreadful Spirit of Evil, As a serpent was depicted. As Kenabeek, the great serpent."

But the spirit of evil is fear, is the forbidden desire, the adversary who opposes not only each individual heroic deed, but life in its struggle for eternal duration as well, and who introduces into our body the poison of weak-


ness and age through the treacherous bite of the serpent It is all that is retrogressive, and as the model of our first world is our mother, all retrogressive tendencies are towards the mother, and, therefore, are disguised under the incest image.

In both these ideas the poet has represented in mytho- logic symbols the libido arising from the mother and the libido striving backward towards the mother.

There is a description in the fifteenth song how Chibia- bos, Hiawatha's best friend, the amiable player and singer, the embodiment of the joy of life, was enticed by the evil spirits into ambush, fell through the ice and was drowned. Hiawatha mourns for him so long that he succeeds, with the aid of the magician, in calling him back again. But the revivified friend is only a spirit, and he becomes master of the land of spirits. (Osiris, lord of the underworld; the two Dioscuri. ) Battles again follow, and then comes the loss of a second friend, Kwasind, the embodiment of physical strength.

In the twentieth song occur famine and the death of Minnehaha, foretold by two taciturn guests from the land of death; and in the twenty-second song Hiawatha prepares for a final journey to the west land:

" I am going, O Nokomis, On a long and distant journey, To the portals of the Sunset, To the regions of the home-wind, Of the Northwest-Wind Keewaydin.


One long track and trail of splendor, Down whose stream, as down a river,


Westward, westward, Hiawatha Sailed into the fiery sunset, Sailed into the purple vapors, Sailed into the dusk of evening.

Thus departed Hiawatha, Hiawatha the Beloved, In the glory of the sunset, In the purple mists of evening, To the regions of the home^wind, Of the Northwest-Wind, Keewaydin, To the Islands of the Blessed, To the kingdom of Ponemah, To the land of the Hereafter! "

The sun, victoriously arising, tears itself away from the embrace and clasp, from the enveloping womb of the sea, and sinks again into the maternal sea, into night, the all-enveloping and the all-reproducing, leaving behind it the heights of midday and all its glorious works. This image was the first, and was profoundly entitled to be- come the symbolic farrier of human destiny; in the morn- ing of life man painfully tears himself loose from the mother, from the domestic hearth, to rise through battle to his heights. Not seeing his worst enemy in front of him, but bearing him within himself as a deadly longing for the depths within, for drowning in his own source, for becoming absorbed into the mother, his life is a con- stant struggle with death, a violent and transitory delivery from the always lurking night. This death is no external enemy, but a deep personal longing for quiet and for the profound peace of non-existence, for a dreamless sleep in the ebb and flow of the sea of life. Even in his highest endeavor for harmony and equilibrium, for philosophic


depths and artistic enthusiasm, he seeks death, immobil- ity, satiety and rest. If, like Peirithoos, he tarries too long in this place of rest and peace, he is overcome by torpidity, and the poison of the serpent paralyzes him for all time. If he is to live he must fight and sacrifice his longing for the past, in order to rise to his own heights. And having reached the noonday heights, he must also sacrifice the love for his own achievement, for he may not loiter. The sun also sacrifices its greatest strength in order to hasten onwards to the fruits of autumn, which are the seeds of inunortality ; fulfilled in children, in works, in posthumous fame, in a new order of things, all of which In their turn begin and complete the sun's course over again.

The " Song of Hiawatha " contains, as these extracts show, a material which is very well adapted to bring into play the abundance of ancient symbolic possibilities, latent in the human mind, and to stimulate It to the creation of mjrthologlc figures. But the products always contain the same old problems of humanity, which rise again and again in new symbolic disguise from the shadowy world of the unconscious. Thus Miss Miller is reminded through the longing of Chiwantopel, of another mythic cyde which appeared in the form of Wagner's ** Siegfried." Espe- cially Is this shown in the passage in ChiwantopeFs mono* logue, where he exclaims, There is not one who under- stands me, not one who resembles me, not one who has a soul sister to mine.*' Miss Miller observes that the sentiment of this passage has the greatest analogy with the feelings which Siegfried experienced for Bnmhilde.


This analogy causes us to cast a glance at the song of Siegfried, especially at the relation of Siegfried and Brunhilde. It is a well-recognized fact that Brunhilde, the Valkyr, gives protection to the birth (incestuous) of Siegfried, but while Sieglinde is the human mother, Brunhilde has the role of ^* spiritual mother " (mother- imago) ; however, unlike Hera towards Hercules, she is not a pursuer, but benevolent. This sin, in which she is an accomplice, by means of the help she renders, is the reason for her banishment by Wotan. The strange birth of Siegfried from the sister-wife distinguishes him as Horus, as the reborn son, a reincarnation of the retreat- ing Osiris — Wotan. The birth of the young son, of the hero, results, indeed, from mankind, who, however, are merely the human bearers of the cosmic symbolism. Thus the birth is protected by the spirit mother (Hera, Lilith) : she sends Sieglinde with the child in her womb (Mary's flight) on the ^* night journey on the sea to the east:

" Onward, hasten ;

Turn to the East.

. • • •

O woman, diou cherishest The sublimest hero of the world In thy sheltering womb."

The motive of dismemberment is found again in the broken sword of Siegmund, which was kept for Sieg- fried. From the dismemberment life is pieced together again. (The Medea wonder.) Just as a smith forges the pieces together, so is the dismembered dead again put together. (This comparison is also found in


" Timaios " of Plato : the parts of the world joined together with pegs.) In the Rigveda, lo, 72, the creator of the world, Brahmanaspati, is a smith.

Brahmanaspati, as a blacksmith, Welded the world together."

The sword has the significance of the phallic sun power; therefore, a sword proceeds from the mouth of the apocalyptic Christ ; that is to say, the procreative fire, the word, or the procreative Logos. In Rigveda, Brahmana- spati is also a prayer-word, which possessed an ancient creative significance : '^

" And this prayer of the singers, expanding from itself, Became a cow, which was already there before the world, Dwelling together in the womb of this god. Foster-children of the same keeper are the gods."

— Rigveda x:3i.

The Logos became a cow; that is to say, the mother, who is pregnant with the gods. (In Christian uncanoni- cal phantasies, where the Holy Ghost has feminine sig- nificance, we have the well-known motive of the two mothers, the earthly mother, Mary, and the spiritual mother, the Holy Ghost.) The transformation of the Logos into the mother Is not remarkable in itself, because the origin of the phenomenon fire-speech seems to be the mother-libido, according to the discussion in the earlier chapter. The spiritual is the mother-libido. The sig- nificance of, the sword, in the Sanskrit conception, tejas, is probably partly determined by its sharpness, as is shown above, in its connection with the libido conception.


The motive of pursuit (the pursuing Sieglinde, analogous to Leto) is not here bound up with the spiritual mother, but with Wotan, therefore corresponding to the Linos legend, where the father of the wife is also the pursuer. Wotan is also the father of Brunhilde. Brunhilde stands in a peculiar relation to Wotan. Brunhilde says to Wotan :

" Thou speakest to the will of Wotan By telling me what thou wishest: Who ... am I Were I not thy will?"

Wotan :

I take counsel only with myself, When I speak with thee . . •

Brunhilde is also somewhat the '* angel of the face," that creative will or word," emanating from God, also the Logos, which became the child-bearing woman. God created the world through his word; that is to say, his mother, the woman who is to bring him forth again. (He lays his own egg.) This peculiar conception, it seems to me, can be explained by assuming that the libido overflowing into speech (thought) has preserved its sexual character to an extraordinary degree as a result of the inherent inertia. In this way the " word " had to execute and fulfil all that was denied to the sexual wish; namely, the return into the mother, in order to attain eternal duration. The ** word " fulfils this wish by itself becoming the daughter, the wife, the mother of the God, who brings him forth anew.®^


Wagner has this idea vaguely in his mind in Wotan's lament over Brunhilde :

" None as she knew my inmost thought; None knew the source of my will As she;

She herself was

The creating womb of my wish ; And so now she has broken The blessed union ! '*

Brunhilde's sin is the favoring of Siegmund, but, be- hind this, lies incest: this is projected into the brother- sister relation of Siegmund and Sieglinde ; in reality, and archaically expressed, Wotan, the father, has entered into his self-created daughter, in order to rejuvenate himself. But this fact must, of course, be veiled. Wotan is rightly indignant with Brunhilde, for she has taken the Isis role and through the birth of the son has deprived the old man of his power. The first attack of the death ser«  pent in the form of the son, Siegmund, Wotan has re- pelled; he has broken Siegmund's sword, but Siegmund rises again in a grandson. This inevitable fate is always helped by the woman ; hence the wrath of Wotan.

At Siegfried's birth Sieglinde dies, as is proper. The foster-mother ^^ is apparently not a woman, but a chthonic god, a crippled dwarf, who belongs to that tribe which renounces love/^ The Egyptian god of the underworld, the crippled shadow of Osiris (who celebrated a melan- choly resurrection in the sexless semi-ape Harpocrates), is the tutor of Horus, who has to avenge the death of his father.


Meanwhile Brunhllde sleeps the enchanted sleep, like a Hierosgamos, upon a mountain, where Wotan has put her to sleep" with the magic thorn (Edda), surrounded by the flames of Wotan's fire (equal to libido"), which wards off every one. But Mime becomes Siegfried's enemy and wills his death through Fafner. Here Mime's dynamic nature is revealed; he is a masculine representa- tion of the terrible mother, also a foster-mother of de- moniac nature, who places the poisonous worm (Typhon) in her son's (Horus's) path. Siegfried's longing for the mother drives him away from Mime, and his travels begin with the mother of death, and lead through vanquishing the ** terrible mother " ®' to the woman:


Off with the imp !

I ne'er would see him more!

Might I but know what my mother was like

That will my thought never tell mc!

Her eyes' tender light

Surely did shine

Like the soft eyes of the doe!

Siegfried decides to separate from the demon which was the mother in the past, and he gropes forward with the longing directed towards the mother. Nature ac- quires a hidden maternal significance for him (" doc ") ; in the tones of nature he discovers a suggestion of the maternal voice and the maternal language :


Thou gracious birdling, Strange art thou to me!


Dost thou in the wood here dwell? Ah, would that I could take thy meaning I Thy song something would say — Perchance— of my loving mother!

This psychology we have already encountered in Hia- watha. By means of his dialogue with the bird (bird, like wind and arrow, represents the wish, the winged longing) Siegfried entices Fafner from the cave. His desires turn back to the mother, and the chthonic demon, the cave-dwelling terror of the woods, appears. Fafner is the protector of the treasure; in his cave lies the hoard, the source of life and power. The mother possesses the libido of the son, and jealously does she guard it. Trans- lated into psychological language, this means the positive transference succeeds only through the release of the libido from the mother-imago, the incestuous object in general. Only in this manner is it possible to gain one's libido, the incomparable treasure, and this requires a mighty struggle, the whole battle of adaptation.*" The Siegfried legend has abundantly described the outcome of this battle with Fafner. According to the Edda, Sieg- fried eats Fafner's heart, the seat of life. He wins the magic cap, through whose power Alberich had changed himself into a serpent. This refers to the motive of cast- ing the skin, rejuvenation. By means of the magic cap one can vanish and assume different shapes. The van- ishing probably refers to dying and to the invisible pres- ence; that is, existence in the mother's womb. A luck- bringing cap, amniotic covering, the new-born child oc- casionally wears over his head (the caul). Moreoyefi


Siegfried drinks the dragon's blood, which makes it pos- sible for him to understand the language of birds, and consequently he enters into a peculiar relation with Na- ture, a dominating position, the result of his knowledge, and fmally wins the treasure.

Hort is a mediaeval and Old High German word with the meaning of ** collected and guarded treasure"; Gothic, huzd; Old Scandinavian, hodd; Germanic hozda, from pre-Germanic kuzdho — for kudtho — " the con- cealed." Kluge "'^ adds to this the Greek xevffaa, invOov = ** to hide, to conceal." Also hut {hut, to guard; English, hide), Germanic root hud, from Indo- Germanic kuth (questionable), to Greek xevOao and HvaHo^y ** cavity," feminine genitals. Prellwitz/** too, traces Gothic huzd, Anglo-Saxon hyde, English hide and hoard, to Greek xevdco, Whitley Stokes traces English hide, Anglo-Saxon hydan, New High German Hiitte, Latin ciido = helmet; Sanskrit kuhara (cave?) to primi- tive Celtic Arowrfo = concealment; Latin, occultatio.

The assumption of Kluge is also supported in other directions ; namely, from the point of view of the primi- tive idea:

" There exists in Athens ^^ a sacred place (a Temenos) of Ge, with the surname Olympia. Here the ground is torn open for about a yard in width; and they say, after the flood at the time of Deucalion, that the water receded here; and every year they throw into the fissure wheatmeal, kneaded with honey."

We have observed previously that among the Arrhe- tophorlan, pastry in the form of snakes and phalli, was thrown into a crevice in the earth. This was mentioned


in connection with the ceremonies of fertilizing the earth. We have touched slightly already upon the sacrifice in the earth crevice among the Watschandies. The flood of death has passed characteristically into the crevice of the earth; that is, back into the mother again; because from the mother the universal great death has come in the first place. The flood is simply the counterpart of the vivifying and all-producing water : 'ilxeavov, Str jtep yi- v€<rti ndvreffffi rirvxrat* One sacrifices the honey cake to the mother, so that she may spare one from death. Thus every year in Rome a gold sacrifice was thrown into the lacus Curtius, into the former Assure in the earth, which could only be closed through the sacrificial death of Curtius. He was the typical hero, who has journeyed into the underworld, in order to conquer the danger threatening the Roman state from the opening of the abyss. ( Kalneus, Amphiaraos. ) In the Amphiaraion of Oropos those healed through the temple incubation threw their gifts of gold into the sacred well, of which Pau- sanias says :

" If any one is healed of a sickness through a saying of the oracle, then it is customary to throw a silver or gold coin into the well; because here Amphiaraos has ascended as a god."

It is probable that this oropic well is also the place of his " Katabasis " (descent into the lower world). There were many entrances into Hades in antiquity. Thus near Eleusis there was an abyss, through which Aidoneus passed up and down, when he kidnapped Cora. (Dragon

  • Oceao, who arose to be the producer of all.


and maiden: the libido overcome by resistance, life re- placed by death.) There were crevices in the rocks, through which souls could ascend to the upper world. Be- hind the temple of Chthonia in Hermione lay a sacred district of Pluto, with a ravine through which Hercules had brought up Cerberus; in addition, there was an

    • Acherusian " lake." This ravine was, therefore, the

entrance to the place where death was conquered. The lake also belongs here as a further mother symbol, for symbols appear massed together, as they are surrogates, and, therefore, do not afford the same satisfaction of de- sire as accorded by reality, so that the unsatisfied rem- nant of the libido must seek still further symbolic outlets. l*hc ravine in the Areopagus in Athens was considered the seat of inhabitants of the lower world. An old Grecian custom '^ suggests a similar idea. Girls were sent into a cavern, where a poisonous snake dwelt, as a test of virginity. If they were bitten by the snake, it was a token that they were no longer chaste. We find this same motive again in the Roman legend of St. Silvester, at the end of the fifth century: ^*

" Erat draco immanissimus in monte Tarpeio, in quo est Capi- toh'um collocatum. Ad hunc draconem per CCCLXV gradus, quasi ad infernum, magi cum virginibus sacrilegis descendebant scmcl in mensc cum sacrificiis et lustris, ex quibus csca poterat tanto draconi infcrri. Hie draco subito ex improviso ascendcbat ct licet non inj^redcrctur vicinos tamen aeres flatu suo vitiabat. Ex quo mortalitns hominum et maxima luctus de morte veniebat infantum. (Lilith motive.) Sanctus itaque Silvester cum haberet cum paganis pro dcfcnsione vcritatis conflictumi ad hoc venit ut dicercnt ei pagani : ' Silvester dcscende ad draconem ct f ac eum


in nomine Dei tui vel uno anno ab interfectione gmeris humani cessare." *

St Peter appeared to Silvester in a dream and adiased him to close his door to the underworld with chains, ac- cording to the model in Revelation, chap, xx :

( 1 ) " And I saw an angel come down from heaven, having the key of the bottomless pit, and a great chain in his hand.

(2) "And he laid hold on the dragon, that old serpent, whidi is the Devil and Satan, and bound him a thousand ytais»

(3) "And cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him upi and set a seal upon him."

The anonymous author of a writing, ^^ De Promissiom- bus," ^" of the beginning of the fifth century, mentions a very similar legend:

" Apud urbem Romam specus quidam fuit in quo draco mine magnitudinis mechanica arte formatus, gladium ore gestans,^ oculis nitilantibus gemmis^^ metuendus ac terribilis apparebat Hinc annus devotse virgines floribus exomatae, eo modo in sac- rificio dabantur, quatenus inscias munera deferentes gpradum scalse, quo certe ille arte diaboli draco pendebat, contingmtes im- petus venientis gladii perimeret, ut sanguinem funderet inno- centem. Et hunc quidam monachus, bene ob meritum cognitus Stiliconi tunc patricio, eo modo subvertit; baculo, manu, singulos gradus palpandos inspiciens, statim ut ilium tangens fraudem

  • There was a huge dragon on Mount Tarpeius, where the Capitolitun

stands. Once a month, with sacrilegious maidens, the priests descended 365 steps into the hell of this dragon, carrying expiatory offerings of food for the dragon. Then the dragon suddenly and anezpectedly aroMi and, though he did not come out, he poisoned the air with his breathe Thence came the mortality of man and the deepest sorrow for the death of the children. When, for the defence of truth, St. Silvester had had a conflict with the heathen, it came to this that the heathen said: "Silvetter, go down to the dragon, and in the name of thy God make him detiit from the killing of mankind."


diabolicam repperit, eo transgrcsso descendens, draconem scidit; misitque in partes: ostendens et hie deos non esse qui manu fiunt." *

The hero battling with the dragon has much in common with the dragon, and also he takes over his qualities; for example, invulnerability. As the footnotes show, the sinu- larity is carried still further (sparkling eyes, sword in his mouth). Translated psychologically, the dragon is merely the son's repressed longing, striving towards the mother; therefore, the son is the dragon, as even Christ is identified with the serpent, which, once upon a time, similia similibus, had controlled the snake plague in the Wilderness. John iii: 14. As a serpent he is to be crucified; that is to say, as one striving backwards towards the mother, he must die hanging or suspended on the mother tree. Christ and the dragon of the Anti- christ are in the closest contact in the history of their appearance and their cosmic meaning. (Compare Bous- set, the Antichrist. ) The legend of the dragon concealed

  • Near the city of Rome there was a certain cavern in which appeared

a dragon of remarkable size, mechanically produced, brandishing a sword in his mouth, his eyes glittering like gems, fearful and terrible. Hither came virgins every year, devoted to this service, adorned with flowen, who were given to him in sacrifice. Bringing these gifts, they unknow- ingly descended the steps to a point where, with diabolical cunnings the dragon was suspended, striking those who came a blow with the sword, so that the innocent blood was shed. Now, there was a certain monk who, on account of his good deeds, was well known to Stilico, the patri- cian; he killed this dragon as follows: He examined each separate step carefully, both with a rod and his own hand, until, discovering the false step, he exposed the diabolical fraud. Then, jumping over this step, he went down and killed the dragon, cutting him to pieces, demon- strating that one who could be destroyed by human hand could not be a divinity.


in the Antichrist myth belongs to the life of the herOi and, therefore, is immortal. In none of the newer forms of myth are the pairs of opposites so perceptibly near as in that of Christ and Antichrist. (I refer to the remark- able psychologic description of this problem in Meresch- kowski's romance, "Leonardo da Vinci.") That the dragon is only an artifice is a useful and delightfully rationalistic conceit, which is most significant for that period. In this way the dismal gods were effectually vul- garized. The schizophrenic insane readily make use of this mechanism, in order to depreciate efficient personalities. One often hears the stereotyped lament, " It is all a play, artificial, made up," etc. A dream of a " schizophrenic " is most significant; he is sitting in a dark room, which has only a single small window, through which he can see the sky. The sun and moon appear, but they are only made artificially from oil paper. (Denial of the delete- rious incest influence.)

The descent of the three hundred and sixty-five steps refers to the sun's course, to the cavern of death and re- birth. That this cavern actually stands in a relation to the subterranean mother of death can be shown by a note in Malalas, the historian of Antioch,^" who relates that Diocletian consecrated there a crypt to Hecate, to which one descends by three hundred and sixty-five steps. Cave mysteries seem to have been celebrated for Hecate in Samothrace as well. The serpent also played a great part as a regular symbolic attribute in the sendee of Hecate. The mysteries of Hecate flourished in Rome towards the end of the fourth century, so that the two foregoing


legends might indeed relate to her cult. Hecate ^' is a real spectral goddess of night and phantoms, a Mar; she is represented as riding, and in Hesiod occurs as the patron of riders. She sends the horrible nocturnal fear phantom, the Empusa, of whom Aristophanes says that she appears inclosed in a bladder swollen with blood. According to Libanius, the mother of Aischines is also called Empusa, for the reason that ix (rxotetrdoy ronaav roU naifflv xal raU yvvaiSiv cJp/iaro."*

Empusa, like Hecate, has peculiar feet; one foot is made of brass, the other of ass' dung. Hecate has snake- like feet, which, as in the triple form ascribed to Hecate, points to her phallic libido nature.*® In Tralles, Hecate appears next to Priapus; there is also a Hecate Aphro- disias. Her symbols are the key," the whip,** the snake,*' the dagger ** and the torch." As mother of death, dogs accompany her, the significance of which we have pre- viously discussed at length. As guardian of the door of Hades and as Goddess of dogs, she is of threefold form, and really identified with Cerberus. Thus Hercules, in bringing up Cerberus, brings the conquered mother of death into the upper world. As spirit mother (moonl), she sends madness, lunacy. (This mythical observation states that *' the mother " sends madness; by far the ma- jority of the cases of insanity consist, in fact, in the domi- nation of the individual by the material of the incest phantasy.) In the mysteries of Cerberus, a rod, called X€vx6q)vXXo?^] was broken off. This rod protected

^ Out of dark places she rushes on children and women, t Whitc-lcaved,


the purity of virgins, and caused any one who touched the plant to become insane. We recognize in this the motive of the sacred tree, which, as mother, must not be touched, an act which only an insane person would commit. Hecate, as nightmare, appears in the form of Empusa, in a vampire role, or as Lamia, as devourer of men; perhaps, also, in that more beautiful guise, ^'The Bride of Corinth." She is the mother of all charms and witches, the patron of Medea, because the power of the terrible mother " is magical and irresistible (worldng upward from the unconscious). In Greek syncretism, she plays a very significant role. She is confused with Artemis, who also has the surname iKarri* "the one striking at a distance " or *' striking according to her will," in which we recognize again her superior power. Artemis is the huntress, with hounds, and so Hecate, through confusion with her, becomes xtn^JT^^eriic^, the wild nocturnal huntress. (God, as huntsman, see above.) She has her name in common with Apollo, ixaroi ixdepyo^.f From the standpoint of the libido theory, this connection is easily understandable, because Apollo merely symbolizes the more positive side of the same amount of libido. The confusion of Hecate with Brimo as subterranean mother is understandable; also with Persephone and Rhea, the primitive all-mother. Intel* ligible through the maternal significance is the confusion with Ilithyia, the midwife. Hecate is also the direct goddess of births, Kovporp6<po^yX the multiplier of cat-

  • Far-shooting Hecate. t Far-shooting, the f ar-dardng.

(Goddess of birth*


tie, and goddess of marriage. Hecate, orphicallyi oc- cupies the centre of the world as Aphrodite and GaUi even as the world soul in general. On a carved gem"* she is represented carrying the cross on her head. The beam on which the criminal was scourged is called ixciTtj, ♦ To her, as to the Roman Trivia, the triple roads, or Scheidczvcff, " forked road," or crossways were dedi- cated. And where roads branch off or unite sacrifices of dogs were brought her; there the bodies of the executed were thrown; the sacrifice occurs at the point of crossing. Etymologically, scheide, "sheath"; for example, sword- sheath, sheath for water-shed and sheath for vagina, is identical with schciden, '* to split," or ** to separate." The meaning of a sacrifice at this place would, therefore, be as follows : to offer something to the mother at the place of junction or at the fissure. (Compare the sacrifice to the chthonic gods in the abyss.) The Temenos of Ge, the abyss and the well, are easily understood as the gates of life and death," " past which every one gladly creeps" (Faust), and sacrifices there his obolus or his TreXavol,^ instead of his body, just as Hercules soothes Cerberus with the honey cakes. (Compare with this the mythical significance of the dog!) Thus the crevice at Delphi, with the spring, Castalia, was the seat of the chthonic dragon. Python, who was conquered by the sun-hero, Apollo. (Python, incited by Hera, pursued Leta, preg- nant with Apollo ; but she, on the floating island of Delos [nocturnal journey on the sea], gave birth to her child, who later slew the Python; that is to say, conquered in

  • Hecate. f Sacrificial cakes offered to the goda.


it the spirit mother.) In Hierapolis (Edessa) the temple was erected above the crevice through which the flood had poured out, and in Jerusalem the foundation stone of the temple covered the great abyss,** just as Christian churches are frequently built over caves, grottoes, wells, etc. In the Mithra grotto,** and all the other sacred caves up to the Christian catacombs, which owe their significance not to the legendary persecutions but to the worship of the dead,*^ we come across the same funda- mental motive. The burial of the dead in a holy place (in the "garden of the dead," in cloisters, crypts, etc.) is restitution to the mother, with the certain hope of res- urrection by which such burial is rightfully rewarded. The animal of death which dwells in the cave had to be soothed in early times throu^ human sacrifices; later with natural gifts.'* Therefore, the Attic custom gives to the dead the ^eXirovrta, to pacify the dog of hell, the three-headed monster at the gate of the underworld. A more recent elaboration of the natural ^fts seems to be the obolus for Charon, who is, therefore, designated by Rohde as the second Cerberus, corresponding to the Egyptian dog-faced god Anubis.*' Dog and serpent of the underworld (Dragon) are likewise identical. In the tragedies, the Erinnyes are serpents as well as dogs; the serpents Tychon and Echidna are parents of the ser- pents — Hydra, the dragon of the Hesperides, and Gorgo; and of the dogs, Cerberus, Orthrus, Scylla.** Serpents and dogs are also protectors of the treasure. The chthonic god was probably always a serpent dwelling in a cave, and was fed with TcsXavoL* In the Asdepiadean o

^Ritual sacrificial food offered to the goda.


the later period, the sacred serpents were scarcely visible, meaning that they probably existed only figuratively.** Nothing was left but the hole in which the snake was said to dwell. There the neXavoi* were placed; later the obolus was thrown in. The sacred cavern in the temple of Kos consisted of a rectangular pit, upon which was laid a stone lid, with a square hole ; this arrangement serves the purpose of a treasure house. The snake hole had become a slit for money, a ^' sacrificial box/' and the cave had become a '* treasure." That this development, which Herzog traces, agrees excellently with the actual condition is shown by a discovery in the temple of Asde- pius and Hygieia in Ptolemais:

" An encolled granite snake, with arched neck, was found. In the middle of the coil is seen a narrow slit, polished by usagie, just large enough to allow a coin of four centimeters diameter at most to fall through. At the side are holes for handles to lift the heavy pieces, the under half of which is used as a cover." — Herzoi, Ibid,, p. 212.

The serpent, as protector of the hoard, now lies on the treasure house. The fear of the maternal womb of death has become the guardian of the treasure of life. That the snake in this connection is really a symbol of death, that is to say, of the dead libido, results from the fact that the souls of the dead, like the chthonic gods, ap- pear as serpents, as dwellers in the kingdom of the mother of death.®* This development of symbol allows us to rec- ognize easily the transition of the originally very primi- tive significance of the crevice in the earth as mother to the

  • Ritual sacrificial food offered to the godi*


meaning of treasure house, and can, therefore, support the etymology of Hort, " hoard, treasure," as suggested by Kluge. xevdcOf belonging to xevdos, means the innermost womb of the earth (Hades) ; xvffdos, that Kluge adds, is of similar meaning, cavity or womb. Prellwitz does not mention this connection. Pick,*® however, compares New High German hort, Gothic huzd, to Armenian kust, " abdomen '* ; Church Slavonian cista, Vedic kostha = abdomen, from the Indo-Germanic root koustho -s = viscera, lower abdomen, room, store-room. Prellwitz compares xtitrOos xiitms = urinary bladder, bag, purse ; Sanskrit kus tha-s = C2ivity of the loins; then xvros = cavity, vault; xvris = little chest, from xvioo = I am pregnant. Here, from xvros = cave, xvap = hole, xvados = cup, xvXa = depression under the eye, xv/ia = swelling, wave, billow, xvpos = power, force, xvpioi = lord. Old Iranian caur, cur = hero ; Sanskrit fura 'S = strong, hero. The fundamental Indo-Germanic roots •^ are kevo = to swell, to be strong. From that the above-mentioned xviay, xvap, xvpos and Latin cavus = hollow, vaulted, cavity, hole ; cavea = cavity, enclosure, cage, scene and assembly; caula = czvityj opening, enclosure, stall®®; kueyo = swell; participle,

  • ii^y on W = swelling; en-kueyonts = prcgad,nt. iyxvioov

= Latin i«c/^«j = pregnant ; compare Sanskrit vi-gvd- yan = swelling; kuro-s (kevaro-s), strong, powerful hero.

The treasure which the hero fetches from the dark cavern is swelling life; it is himself, the hero, new- bom from the anxiety of pregnancy and the birth throes.


Thus the Hindoo fire-bringer is called Matarigvan, mean- ing the one swelling in the mother. The hero striving towards the mother is the dragon, and when he separates from the mother he becomes the conqueror of the dragon.^^ This train of thought, which we have already hinted at previously in Christ and Antichristi may be traced even into the details of Christian phantasy. There is a series of mediaeval pictures "® in which the com- munion cup contains a dragon, a snake or some sort of small animal."^"*

The cup is the receptacle, the maternal womb| of the god resurrected in the wine ; the cup is the cavern where the serpent dwells, the god who sheds his skin, in the state of metamorphosis; for Christ is also the serpent. These symbolisms are used in an obscure connection in I Corinthians, verse lo: Paul writes of the Jews who '* were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea " (also reborn) and ^' did all drink the same spiritual drink; for they drank of that spiritual rock that followed them, and that rock was Christ." They drank from the mother (the generative rock, birth from the rock) the milk of rejuvenation, the mead of immortality, and this Rock was Christ, here identified with the mother, because he is the symbolic representative of the mother libido. When we drink from the cup, then we drink from the mother's breast immortality and everlasting salvation. Paul wrote of the Jews that they ate and then rose up to dance and to indulge in fornication, and then twenty- three thousand of them were swept off by the plague of serpents. The remedy for the survivors, howeveri was


the sight of a serpent han^ng on a pole. From it was derived the cure.

" The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ? For we being many are one bread, and one body; for we are all partakers of one bread."-— / Corinthians x: 16, 17.

Bread and wine are the body and the blood of Christ; the food of the immortals who are brothers with Christ, ade\(poly those who come from the same womb. We who are reborn again from the mother are all heroes together with Christ, and enjoy immortal food. As urith the Jews, so too with the Christians, there is imminent danger of unworthy partaking, for this mystery, which is very closely related psycholo^cally with the subterranean Hierosgamos of Eleusis, involves a mysterious union of man in a spiritual sense,^®^ which was constantly misun- derstood by the profane and was retranslated into his language, where mystery is equivalent to orgy and secrecy to vice/^^ A very interesting blasphemer and sec- tarian of the beginning of the nineteenth century named Untcmahrer has made the following conunent on the last supper :

" The communion of the devil is in this brodiel. All diey sac- rifice here, they sacrifice to the devil and not to God. There Acy have the devil's cup and the devil's dish; there they have sucked the head of the snake,^^^ there they have fed upon the iniquitous bread and drunken the wine of wickedness." *®'

Unternahrer is an adherent or a forerunner of the '* theory of living one's own nature." He dreams of him- self as a sort of priapic divinity; he says of himself:


'* Black-haired, very charming and handsome in countenance, and every one enjoys h'stening to thee on account of the amiable speeches which come from thy mouth; therefore the maids love thee."

He preaches " the cult of nakedness."

  • ^ Ye fools and blind men, behold God has created man in his

image, as male and female, and has blessed them and said, ' Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth, and make it subject to thee.' Therefore, he has given the greatest honor to these poor members and has placed them naked in the garden," etc.

Now are the fig leaves and the covering removed, because thou hast turned to the Lord, for the Lord is the Spirit, and where the spirit of the Lord is, there is freedom,^®* there the clearness of the Lord is mirrored with uncovered countenance. This is precious before God, and this is the glory of the Lord, and the adornment of our God, when you stand in the image and honor of your God, as God created you, naked and not ashamed.

Who can ever praise sufficiently in the sons and daughters of the living God those parts of the body which are destined to procreate ?

In the lap of the daughters of Jerusalem is the gate of the Lord, and the Just will go into the temple there, to the altan"^ And in the lap of the sons of the living God is the water-pipe of the upper part, which is a tube, like a rod, to measure the temple and altar. And under the water-tube the sacred stones are placed, as a sign and testimony of the Lord, who has taken to himself the seed of Abraham.

  • ^ Out of the seeds in the chamber of the mother, God creates

a man with his hands, as an image of himself. Then the mother house and the mother chamber is opened in the daughters of the Living God, and God himself brings forth a child through them. Thus God creates children from the stones, for the seed comes from the stones." ^^^

History teaches in manifold examples how the religious mysteries are liable to change suddenly into sexual orgies


because they have originated from an overvaluation of the orgy. It is characteristic that this priapic divinity *^ re- turns again to the old symbol of the snake, which in the mystery enters into the faithful, fertilizing and spiritual- izing them, although it originally possessed a phallic sig- nificance. In the mysteries of the Ophites, the festival was really celebrated with serpents, in which the animals were even kissed. (Compare the caressing of the snake of Demetcr in the Eleusinian mysteries.) In the sexual orgies of the modern Christian sects the phallic kiss plays a very important role. Unternahrer was an uncultivated, crazy peasant, and it is unlikely that the Ophitic reli^ous ceremonies were known to him.

The phallic significance is expressed negatively or mys- teriously through the serpent, which always points to a secret related thought. This related thought connects with the mother; thus, in a dream a patient found the following imagery: "A serpent shot out from a moist cave and bit the dreamer in the region of the genitals.'* This dream took place at the instant when the patient was convinced of the truth of the analysis, and began to free himself from the bond of his mother complex. The meaning is: I am convinced that I am inspired and poisoned by the mother. The contrary manner of ex- pression is characteristic of the dream. At the moment when he felt the impulse to go forwards he perceived the attachment to the mother. Another patient had the fol- lowing dream during a relapse, in which the libido was again wholly introverted for a time : " She was entirely filled within by a great snake; only one end of the tail


peeped out from her arm. She wanted to seize it, but it escaped her." A patient with a very strong introversion (catatonic state) complained to me that a snake was stuck in her throat/^® This symbolism is also used by Nietzsche in the vision " of the shepherd and the snake : "*

" And verily, what I saw was like nothing I ever saw before. I saw a young shepherd, writhing, choking, twitching with a con- vulsed face, from whose mouth hung a black, heavy serpent.

" Did I ever see so much disgust and pallid fear upon a counte- nance? ^^^ Might he have been sleeping, and the snake crept into his mouth — there it bit him fast?

" My hand tore at the serpent and tore — in vain ! — I failed to tear the serpent out of his mouth. Then there cried out of me: 'Bite! Bite! Its head ofE! Bite!' I exclaimed; all my horror, my hate, my disgust, my compassion, all the good and bad cried out from me in one voice.

" Ye intrepid ones around me ! solve for me the riddle which I saw, make clear to me the vision of the lonesomest one.

" For it was a vision and a prophecy ; what did then I behold in parable? And who is it who is still to come?

" Who is the shepherd into whose mouth crept the snake? Who is the man into whose throat all the heaviness and the blackest would creep? ^^^

" But the shepherd bit, as my cry had told him ; he bit with a huge bite! Far away did he spit the head of the serpent — and sprang up.

" No longer shepherd, no longer man, a transfigured being, an illuminated being, who laughed ! Never yet on earth did a man laugh as he laughed!

" O my brethren, I heard a laugh which was no human laughter — and now a thirst consumeth me, a longing that is never allayed.

" My longing for this laugh eats into me. Oh, how can I suffer still to live! And how now can I bear to die! " "*


The snake represents the introverting libido. Through introversion one is fertilized, inspired, regenerated and reborn from the God. In Hindoo philosophy this idea of creative, intellectual activity has even cosmogenic signifi- cance. The unknown original creator of all things is, ac- cording to Rigveda 10, 121, Prajapati, the **Lord of Creation." In the various Brahmas, his cosmogenic activity was depicted in the following manner

" Prajapati desired : ' I will procreate myself, I will be manifold.* He performed Tapas; after he had performed Tapas he created these worlds."

The strange conception of Tapas is to be translated} according to Deussen,"*^ as " he heated himself with his own heat,"' with the sense of * he brooded, he hatched' " Here the hatcher and the hatched are not two, but one and the same identical being. As Hiranyagarbha, Prajapati is the egg produced from himself, the world- egg) from which he hatches himself. He creeps into him- self, he becomes his own uterus, becomes pregnant with himself, in order to give birth to the world of multiplic- ity. Thus Prajapati through the way of introversion changed into something new, the multiplicity of the world. It is of especial interest to note how the most remote things come into contact. Deussen observes :

" In the degree that the conception of Tapas (heat) becomes in hot India the symbol of exertion and distress, the ' tapo atapjrata ' began to assume the meaning of self-castigation and became related to the idea that creation is an act of self-renunciation on die part of the Creator."


Self-incubation and self-castigation and introversion are very closely connected ideas.*" The Zosimos vision mentioned above betrays the same train of thought, where it is said of the place of transformation : 6 ronoi rrji d<SHi](jeoo%* We have already observed that the place of transformation is really the uterus. Absorption in one's self (introversion) is an entrance into one's own uterus, and also at the same time asceticism. In the philosophy of the Brahmans the world arose from this activity; among the post-Christian Gnostics it produced the revival and spiritual rebirth of the individual, who was born into a new spiritual world. The Hindoo philoso- phy is considerably more daring and logical, and assumes that creation results from introversion in general, as in the wonderful hymn of Rigveda, lo, 29, it is said:

" What was hidden in the shell, Was bom through the power of fiery torments. From this first arose love, As the germ of knowledge.

The wise found the roots of existence in non-existence, By investigating the heart's impulses." ^^'

This philosophical view interprets the world as an emanation of the libido, and this must be widely accepted from the theoretic as well as the psychologic standpoint, for the function of reality is an instinctive function, hav- ing the character of biological adaptation. When the in- sane Schrcber brought about the end of the world through his libido-introversion, he expressed an entirely rational psychologic view, just as Schopenhauer wished to abolish

  • The place of discipline.


through negation (holiness, asceticism) the error of the primal will, through which the world was created. Does not Goethe say :

" You follow a false trail ; Do not think that we are not serious; Is not the kernel of nature In the hearts of men? "

The hero, who is to accomplish the rejuvenation of the world and the conquest of death, is the libido, which, brooding upon itself in introversion, coiling as a snake around Its own egg, apparently threatens life with a poi- sonous bite, in order to lead it to death, and from that darkness, conquering itself, gives birth to itself again. Nietzsche knows this conception : *"

" How long have you sat already upon your misfortune. Give heed ! lest you hatch an egg, A basilisk egg Of your long travaiL"

The hero is himself a serpent, himself a sacriiicer and a sacrificed. The hero himself is of serpent nature; tiierefore, Christ compares himself with the serpent; therefore, the redeeming principle of the world of that Gnostic sect which styled itself the Ophite was the ser- pent. The serpent is the Agatho and Kako demon. It is, indeed, intelligible, when, in the Germanic saga, they say that the heroes had serpents* eyes.**® I recall the parallel previously drawn between the eyes of the Son of man and those of the Tarpeian dragon. In the already mentioned mediaeval pictures, the dragon, instead of the


Lord, appeared in the cup ; the dragon who with changeful, serpent glances '-* guarded the divine mystery of renewed rebirth in the maternal womb. In Nietzsche the old, ap- parently long extinct idea is again revived: "*

Ailing with tenderness, just as the thawing wind» Zarathustra sits waiting, waiting on his hill| Sweetened and cooked in his own juice. Beneath his summits, Beneath his ice he sits, Weary and happy, A Creator on his seventh day. Silence ! It is my truth ! From hesitating eyes — From velvety shadows Her glance meets mine. Lovely, mischievous, the glance of a girL She divines the reason of my happiness. She divines me — ha! what is she plotting? A purple dragon lurks In the abyss of her maiden glance.^** Woe to thee, Zarathustra, Thou seemest like some one Who has swallowed gold, Thy belly will be slit open." ^**

In this poem nearly all the symbolism is collected which we have elaborated previously from other connections. Distinct traces of the primitive identity of serpent and hero are still extant in the myth of Cecrops. Cecrops is himself half-snake, half-man. Originally, he probably was the Athenian snake of the citadel itself. As a buried god, he is like Erechtheus, a chthonic snake god. Above his subterranean dwelling rises the Parthenon, the temide


of the virgin goddess (compare the analogous idea of the Christian church). The casting of the skin of the god, which we have already mentioned in passing, stands in the closest relation to the nature of the hero. We have spoken already of the Mexican god who casts his skin. It is also told of Mani, the founder of the Manichaean sect, that he was killed, skinned, stuffed and hung up.^" That is the death of Christ, merely in another mytho- logical form.^^^

Marsyas, who seems to be a substitute for Attis, the son-lover of Cybele, was also skinned.^^^ Whenever a Scythian king died, slaves and horses were slaughtered, skinned and stuffed, and then set up again."® In Phrygia, the representatives of the father-god were killed and skinned. The same was done in Athens with an ox, who was skinned and stuffed and again hitched to the plough.

In this manner the revival of the fertility of the earth was celebrated."®

This readily explains the fragment from the Sabazios mysteries, transmitted to us by Firmicus: ^*® Tavpoidpa- KOVTOi xal Ttarrfp ravpov dpdxcov*.

The active fructifying (upward striving) form of the libido is changed into the negative force striving down- wards towards death. The hero as zodion of spring (ram, bull) conquers the depths of winter; and beyond the summer solstice is attacked by the unconscious long- ing for death, and is bitten by the snake. However, he himself is the snake. But he is at war with himself, and, therefore, the descent and the end appear to him as the

  • The bull, father of the serpent, and the serpent, father of the bull.


malicious Inventions of the mother of death, who in this way wishes to draw him to herself. The mysteries, how- ever, consolingly promise that there Is no contradiction "* or disharmony when life is changed into death: ravpoi dpaKovTOS xal TcaTtfp ravpov dpaxcov,

Nietzsche, too, gives expression to this mystery : "■

'^ Here do I sit now. That is, Tm swallowed down By this the smallest oasis — — It opened up just yawning, Its loveliest maw agape. Hail ! hail ! to that whalefish, When he for his guests' welfare Provided thus!

■ • ■ • •

Hail to his belly If he had also Such a lovely oasis belly^ The desert grows, woe to him Who hides the desert! Stone grinds on stone, the desert Gulps and strangles.

The monstrous death gazes, glowing browHi And chews — his life is his chewing . . . Forget not, O man, burnt out by lust, Thou art the stone, the desert. Thou art death!"

The serpent symbolism of the Last Supper is explained by the identification of the hero with the serpent: The god is buried in the mother: as fruit of the field, as food coming from the mother and at the same time as drink of immortality he is received by the mystic, or as a ser- pent he unites with the mystic. All these symbols rep-


resent the liberation of the libido from the incestuous fixation through which new life is attained. The libera- tion is accomplished under symbols, which represent the activity of the incest wish.

It might be justifiable at this place to cast a glance upon psychoanalysis as a method of treatment In prac- tical analysis it is important, first of all, to discover the libido lost from the control of consciousness. (It often happens to the libido as with the fish of Moses in the Mohammedan legend ; it sometimes takes its course in a marvellous manner into the sea.") Freud says in his important article, "Zur Dynamik der Obertragung " : "•

" The libido has retreated into regression and again revives the infantile images."

This means, mythologically, that the sun is devoured by the serpent of the night, the treasure is concealed and guarded by the dragon: substitution of a present mode of adaptation by an infantile mode, which is represented by the corresponding neurotic symptoms. Freud con- tinues :

" Thither the analytic treatment follows it and endeavors to seek out the libido again, to render it accessible to consciousness, and finally to make it serviceable to reality. Whenever die analytic investigation touches upon the libido, withdrawn into its hiding-place, a struggle must break out; all the forces, which have caused the regression of the libido, will rise up as resistance against the work, in order to preserve this new condition."

Mythologically this means : the hero seeks the lost sun, the fire, the virgin sacrifice, or the treasure, and fights the


typical fight with the dragon, with the libido in resistance. As these parallels show, psychoanalysis mobiles a part of the life processes, the fundamental importance of which properly illustrates the significance of this process.

After Siegfried has slain the dragon, he meets the father, Wotan, plagued by gloomy cares, for the primi- tive mother, Erda, has placed in his path the snake, in order to enfeeble his sun. He says to Erda :

JFanderer: All-wise one,

Care's piercing sting by thee was planted In Wotan's dauntless heart With fear of shameful ruin and downfalL Filled was his spirit by tidings Thou didst foretell.

Art thou the world's wisest of women? Tell to me now How a god may conquer his care. *


Thou art not What thou hast said.

It IS the same primitive motive which we meet in Wagner : the mother has robbed her son, the sun-god, of the joy of life, through a poisonous thorn, and deprives him of his power, which is connected with the name. Isis demands the name of the god; Erda says, *' Thou art not what thou hast said." But the " Wanderer " has found the way to conquer the fatal charm of the mother, the fear of death :

" The eternals' downfall No more dismays me, Since their doom I willed.


" I leave to thee, loveliest Walsung, Gladly my heritage now. To the ever-young In gladness yieldeth the god I "

These wise words contain, in fact, the saving thought It is not the mother who has placed the poisonous worm in our path, but our libido itself wills to complete the course of the sun to mount from morn to noon, and, pass- ing beyond noon, to hasten towards evening, not at war with itself, but willing the descent and the end/'^

Nietzsche's Zarathustra teaches :

" I praise thee, my death, the free death, which comes to me be- cause I want it.

" And when shall I want it?

" He who has a goal and an heir wants deadi at die proper time for his goal and his heir.

"And this is the great noonday, when man in the middle of his course stands between man and superman, and celebrates his path towards evening as his highest hope: because it is the path to a new morning.

" He who is setting will bless his own going down because it is a transition : and the sun of his knowledge will be at high noon."

Siegfried conquers the father Wotan and takes posses- sion of Brunhilde. The first object that he sees Is her horse ; then he believes that he beholds a mail-dad man. He cuts to pieces the protecting coat of mail of the sleeper. (Overpowering.) When he sees it is a woman, terror seizes him :

" My heart doth falter and faint; On whom shall I call That he may help me?


Mother! Mother! Remember me!

" Can this be fearing? Oh, mother! Mother! Thy dauntless child ! A woman lieth asleep: — And she now has taught him to fear I

" Awaken ! Awaken ! Holiest maid!

Then life from the sweetness of lips Will I win me — E'en tho' I die in a kiss.'*

In the duet which follows the mother is invoked :

" O mother, hail ! Who gave thee thy birth ! "

The confession of Brunhilde is especially characteristic:

" O kncwest thou — ^joy of the world. How I have ever loved thee! Thou wert my gladness, My care wert thou ! Thy life I sheltered ; Or ere it was thine, Or ere thou wert born, My shield was thy guard.'

» ISf

The pre-existence of the hero and the pre-existence of Brunhilde as his wife-mother are clearly indicated from this passage.

Siegfried says in confirmation :

" Then death took not my mother? Bound in sleep did she lie? "


The mother-imago, which is the symbol of the dying and resurrected libido, is explained by Brunhilde to the hero, as his own will :

" Thyself am I If blest I be in thy love."

The great mystery of the Logos entering into the mother for rebirth is proclaimed with the following words by Brunhilde :

" O Siegfried, Siegfriedt Conquering light! I loved thee ever, For I divined

The thought that Wotan had hidden— The thought that I dared Not to whisper — *** That all unclearly Glowed in my bosom Suffered and strove; For which I flouted Him, who conceived it:"* For which in penance Prisoned I lay, While thinking it not And feeling only, For, in my thought, Oh, should you guess it? Was only my love for thee."

The erotic similes which now follow distinctly reveal the motive of rebirth :


A glorious flood Before me rolls.


With all my senses

I only sec

Its buoyant, gladdening billows.

Though in the deep

I find not my face,

Burning, I long

For the water's balm ;

And now as I am,

Spring in the stream.^'

O might its billows

Engulf me in bliss."

The motive of plunging into the maternal water of re- birth (baptism) is here fully developed. An allusion to the terrible mother " imago, the mother of heroes, who teaches them fear, is to be found in Brunhilde^s words (the horse-woman, who guides the dead to the other side) :

" Fearest thou, Siegfried? Fearest thou not The wild, furious woman?"

The orgiastic '^ Decide moriturus '* resounds in Brun- hilde's words :

" Laughing let us be lost — Laughing go down to death! "

And in the words

" Light-giving love, Laughing death ! "

is to be found the same significant contrast.

The further destinies of Siegfried are those of the In-


victus : the spear of the gloomy, one-eyed Hagen strikes Siegfried's vuhierable spot. The old sun, who has become the god of death, the one-eyed Wotan, smites his off- spring, and once again ascends in eternal rejuvenation. The course of the invincible sun has supplied the mystery of human life with beautiful and imperishable symbols ; it became a comforting fulfilment of all the yearning for immortality, of all desire of mortals for eternal life.

Man leaves the mother, the source of libido, and is driven by the eternal thirst to find her again, and to drink renewal from her; thus he completes his cycle, and re- turns again into the mother's womb. Every obstacle which obstructs his life's path, and threatens his ascent, wears the shadowy features of the " terrible mother," who paralyzes his energy with the consuming poison of the stealthy, retrospective longing. In each conquest he wins again the smiling love and life-giving mother — images which belong to the intuitive depths of human feel- ing, the features of which have become mutilated and irrecognizable through the progressive development of the surface of the human mind. The stem necessity of adaptation works ceaselessly to obliterate the last traces of these primitive landmarks of the period of the ori^n of the human mind, and to replace them along lines which are to denote more and more clearly the nature of real objects.



After this long digression, let us return to Miss Mil- ler's vision. We can now answer the question as to the significance of Siegfried's longing for Brunhilde. It is the striving of the libido away from the mother towards the mother. This paradoxical sentence may be translated as follows: as long as the libido is satisfied merely with phantasies, it moves in itself, in its own depths, in the mother/ When the longing of our author rises in order to escape the magic circle of the incestuous and, therefore, pernicious, object, and it does not succeed in finding reality, then the object is and remains irrevo- cably the mother. Only the overcoming of the obstacles of reality brings the deliverance from the motheri who is the continuous and inexhaustible source of life for the creator, but death for the cowardly, timid and sluggish.

Whoever is acquainted with psychoanalysis knows how often neurotics cry out against their parents. To be sure, such complaints and reproaches are often justified on ac- count of the common human imperfections, but still more often they are reproaches which should really be directed towards themselves. Reproach and hatred are always futile attempts to free one's self apparently from the par- ents, but in reality from one's own hindering longing for



the parents. Our author proclaims through the mouth of her infantile hero Chiwantopel a series of insults against her own family. We can assume that she must renounce all these tendencies, because they contain an un- recognized wish. This hero, of many words, who per- forms few deeds and indulges in futile yearnings, is the libido which has not fulfilled its destiny, but which turns round and round in the kingdom of the mother, and, in spite of all its longing, accomplishes nothing. Only he can break this magic circle who possesses the courage of the will to live and the heroism to carry it through. Could this yearning hero-youth, Chiwantopel, but put an end to his existence, he would probably rise again in the form of a brave man seeking real life. This necessity imposes itself upon the dreamer as a wise counsel and hint of the unconscious in the following monologue of Chiwantopel. He cries sadly :

" In all the world, there is not a single one! I have sougjit among a hundred tribes. I have watched a hundred moons, since I began. Can it be that there is not a solitary being who will ever know my soul? Yes, by the sovereign God, yes I But ten thousand moons will wax and wane before that pure soul is bom. And it is from another world that her parents will come to this one. She will have pale skin and pale locks. She will know sor- row before her mother bears her. Suffering will accompany her; she will seek also, and she will find, no one who understands her. Temptation will often assail her soul — ^but she will not yield. In her dreams, I will come to her, and she will understand. / have kept my body inviolate. I have come ten thousand moons before her epoch, and she will come ten thousand moons too late. But she will understand ! There is only once in all the ten thousand moons that a soul like hers is bom."


Thereupon a green serpent darts from the bushes, glides towards him and slings him on the arm, then at- tacks the horse, which succumbs first. Then Chiwantopel says to his horse :

" ' Adieu, faithful brother! Enter into rest! I have loved you, and you have served me well. Adieu. Soon I will rejoin you!' Then to the snake : ' Thanks, little sister, you have put an end to my wanderings^

t »»

Then he cried with grief and spoke his prayer :

U f

Sovereign God, take me soon! I have tried to know thee, and to keep thy law! O, do not suffer my body to fall into cor- ruption and decay, and to furnish the vultures with food!' A smoking crater is perceived at a distance, the rumbling of an earthquake is heard, followed by a trembling of the ground."

Chiwantopel cries in the delirium of sufferingi while the earth covers his body:

" I have kept my body inviolate. Ah! She understands. Ja- ni-wa-nia, Ja-ni-wa-ma, thou who comprehendeth me."

ChiwantopePs prophecy is a repetition of Longfellow's " Hiawatha," where the poet could not escape sentimen- tality, and at the close of the career of the herO| Hia- watha, he brings in the Savior of the white people, in the guise of the arriving illustrious representatives of the Christian religion and morals. (One thinks of the work of redemption of the Spaniards in Mexico and Peru!) With this prophecy of Chiwantopel, the personality of the author is again placed in the closest relation to the hero, and, indeed, as the real object of Chiwantopel's longing.


Most certainly the hero would have married her, had she lived at his time ; but, unfortunately, she comes too late. The connection proves our previous assertion that the libido moves round in a circle. The author loves herself ; that is to say, she, as the hero, is sought by one who comes too late. This motive of coming too late is characteristic of the infantile love: the father and the mother can- not be overtaken. The separation of the two personal- ities by ten thousand moons is a wish fulfilment ; with that the incest relation is annulled in an effectual manner. This white heroine will seek without being understood. (She is not understood, because she cannot understand herself rightly. ) And she will not find. But in dreams, at least, they will find each other, " and she will under- stand." The next sentence of the text reads:

" I have kept my body inviolate."

This proud sentence, which naturally only a woman can express, because man is not accustomed to boast in that direction, again confirms the fact that all enterprises have remained but dreams, that the body has remained " invio- late." When the hero visits the heroine in a dream, it is clear what is meant. This assertion of the hero's, that he has remained inviolate, refers back to the unsuccessful attempt upon his life in the previous chapter (huntsman with the arrow), and clearly explains to us what was really meant by this assault; that is to say, the refusal of the coitus phantasy. Here the wish of the unconscious obtrudes itself again, after the hero had repressed it the first time, and thereupon he painfully and hysterically


utters this monologue. ^'Temptation will often assail her soul — but it will not yield." This very bold assertion reduces — noblesse oblige — the unconscious to an enormous infantile megalomania, which is always the case when the libido is compelled, through similar circumstanceSi to re- gressions. '* Only once in all the ten thousand moons is a soul born like mine ! " Here the unconscious ego ex- pands to an enormous degree, evidently in order to cover with its boastfulncss a large part of the neglected duty of life. But punishment follows at its heels. Whoever prides himself too much on having sustained no wound in the battle of life lays himself open to the suspicion that his fighting has been with words only, whilst actually be has remained far away from the firing-line. This spirit is just the reverse of the pride of those savage women, who point with satisfaction to the countless scars which were given them by their men in the sexual fight for supremacy. In accordance with this, and in logical continuation of the same, all that follows is expressed in figurative speech. The orgiastic " Occide morltunis " in its admixture with the reckless laughter of the Dionysian frcn/y confronts us here in sorry disguise with a senti- mental stage trickery worthy of our posthumous edition of *^ Christian morals." In place of the positive phallus, the negative appears, and leads the hero's horse (his libido animalls), not to satisfaction, but into eternal peace— also the fate of the hero. This end means that the mother, represented as the jaws of death, devours the libido of the daughter. Therefore, instead of life and procrcativc growth, only phantastic self-oblivion results.


This weak and inglorious end has no elevating or illumi- nating meaning so long as we consider it merely as the so- lution of an individual erotic conflict. The fact that the symbols under which the solution takes place have actually a significant aspect, reveals to us that behind the individual mask, behind the veil of individuation," a primitive idea stands, the severe and serious features of which take from us the courage to consider the sexual meaning of the Mil- ler symbolism as all-sufficient.

It is not to be forgotten that the sexual phantasies of the neurotic and the exquisite sexual language of dreams are regressive phenomena. The sexuality of the uncon- scious is not what it seems to be; it is merely a symbol; it is a thought bright as day, clear as sunlight, a decision, a step forward to every goal of life — but expressed in the unreal sexual language of the unconscious, and in the thought form of an earlier stage; a resurrection, so to speak, of earlier modes of adaptation. When, therefore, the unconscious pushes into the foreground the coitus wish, negatively expressed, it means somewhat as follows : under similar circumstances primitive man acted in such and such a manner. The mode of adaptation which to- day is unconscious for us is carried on by the savage Negro of the present day, whose undertakings beyond those of nutrition appertain to sexuality, characterized by violence and cruelty. Therefore, in view of the archaic mode of expression of the Miller phantasy, we are jus- tified in assuming the correctness of our interpretation for the lowest and nearest plane only. A deeper stratum of meaning underlies the earlier assertion that the figure of


Chiwantopel has the character of Cassius, who has a Iamb as a companion. Therefore, Chiwantopel is the portion of the dreamer's libido bound up with the mother (and, therefore, masculine) ; hence he is her infantile person- ality, the childishness of character, which as yet is unable to understand that one must leave father and mother, when the time is come, in order to serve the destiny of the entire personality. This is outlined in Nietzsche's words:

"Free dost thou call thyself? Thy dominant thought would I hear and not that thou hast thrown of! a yoke. Art thou one who had the right to throw off a yoke? There are many who throw away their last value when they throw away their scnri- tude."

Therefore, when Chiwantopel dies, it means that herein is a fulfilment of a wish, that this infantile hero, who cannot leave the mother's care, may die. And if with that the bond between mother and daughter is severed, a great step forward is gained both for inner and outer freedom. But man wishes to remain a child too long; he would fain stop the turning of the wheel, which, rolling, bears along with it the years; man wishes to keep bis childhood and eternal youth, rather than to die and suffer corruption in the grave. (** O, do not suffer my body to fall into decay and corruption.") Nothing brings the relentless flight of time and the cruel perishability of all blossoms more painfully to our consciousness than an in- active and empty life. Idle dreaming is the mother of the fear of death, the sentimental deploring of what has been and the vain turning back of the clock. Although man can forget in the long- (perhaps too long) guarded


feelings of youth, in the dreamy state of stubbornly held remembrances, that the wheel rolls onward, never- theless mercilessly does the gray hair, the relaxation of the skin and the wrinkles in the face tell us, that whether or not we expose the body to the destroying powers of the whole struggle of life, the poison of the stealthily creeping serpent of time consumes our bodies, which, alas I we so dearly love. Nor does it help if we cry out with the melancholy hero Chiwantopel, I have kept my body inviolate "; flight from life does not free us from the law of age and death. The neurotic who seeks to get rid of the necessities of life wins nothing and lays upon himself the frightful burden of a premature age and death, which must appear especially cruel on account of the total emptiness and meaninglessness of his life. If the libido is not permitted to follow the progressive life, which is willing to accept all dangers and all losses, then it follows the other road, sinking into its own depths, working down into the old foreboding regarding the im- mortality of all life, to the longing for rebirth.

Holderlin exemplifies this path in his poetry and his life. I leave the poet to speak in his song:

To the Rose.

" In the Mother-womb eternal, Sweetest queen of every lea, Still the living and supernal Nature carries thee and me.

" Little rose, the storm's fierce power Strips our leaves and alters us; Yet the deathless germ will tower To new blooms, miraculous."


The following comments may be made upon the par- Tiblc of this poem : The rose is the symbol of the beloved woman ('* Haidenroslein," heather rose of Goethe). The rose blooms in the '* rose-garden " of the maiden; therefore, it is also a direct symbol of the libido. When the poet dreams that he is with the rose in the mother- womb of nature, then, psychologically, the fact is that his libido is with the mother. Here is an eternal germination and renewal. We have come across this motive already in the Hierosgamos hymn (Hiad XIV): The nuptials in the blessed West; that is to say, the union in and with the mother. Plutarch shows us this motive in naive form in his tradition of the Osiris myth; Osiris and Isis copu- lating in the mother's womb. This is also perceived by Iloldcrlin as the enviable prerogative of the gods — ^to enjoy everlasting infancy. Thus, in Hyperion, he says:

" Fateless, like the sleeping nursling, Breathe the Heavenly ones; Chastely guarded in modest buds, Their spirits blossom eternally, And their quiet eyes Gaze out in placid Eternal serenity."

This quotation shows the meaning of heavenly bliss. Ilcilderlin never was able to forget this first and greatest happiness, the dreamy picture of which estranged him from real life. Moreover, in this poem, the ancient viotivc of the lidns in the mother's womb is intimated (Isis and Osiris in the mother's womb.) The motive is archaic. There is a legend in Frobenius of how the great


serpent (appearing from the little serpent in the hollow tree, through the so-called stretching out of the serpent) has finally devoured all men (devouring mother — death )| and only a pregnant woman remains alive; she digs a ditch, covers it with a stone (grave — smother's womb), and, living there, she gives birth to twins, the subsequent dragon-killers (the hero in double form, man and phalluSi man and woman, man with his libido, the dying and rising sun).

This existence together in the mother is to be found also very beautifully expressed in an African myth ( Fro- benius) :

" In the beginning, Obatala, the heaven, and Odudua, the earth, his wife, lay pressed firmly together in a calabas."

The guarding in a modest bud " is an idea which has appeared already in Plutarch, where it is said that the sun was born in the morning from a flower bud. Brahmai too, comes from the bud, which also gave birth in Assam to the first human pair.


(An unfinished poem.)

" Scarcely sprouted from the waters, O Earth, Are thy old mountain tops and diffuse odors, While the first green islands, full of young woods, breathe delight Through the May air over the Ocean.

" And joyfully the eye of the Sun-god looked down Upon the firstlings of the trees and flowers; Laughing children of his youth, bom from thee ; When on the fairest of the islands . • .



Once lay thy most beautiful child under the grapes;

Lay after a mild night; in the dawn,

In the daybreak a child born to thee, O Earth!

And the boy looks up familiarly

To his Father, Helios,

And, tasting the sweet grapes,

He picked the sacred vine for his nurse,

And soon he is grown ; the beasts

Fear him, for he is different from them:

This man ; he is not like thee, the father,

For the lofty soul of the father,

is in him boldly united with thy pleasures.

And thy sadness, O Earth,

He may resemble the eternal Nature,

The mother of Gods, the terrible Mother.

" Ah ! therefore, O Earth, His presumption drives him away from thy breast. And thy gifts are vain, the tender ones; Ever and ever too high does the proud heart beat.

" Out from the sweet meadow of his shores Man must go into the flowcrless waters, And tho his groves shine with golden fruit, Like the starry night, yet he digs. He digs caves in the mountains, and seeks in the mines, Far from the sacred rays of his father. Faithless also to the Sun-god, Who docs not love weaklings, and mocks at cares.

" Ah! freer do the birds of the wood breathe: Although the breast of man heaves wilder and more proudly, His pride becomes fear, and the tender flowers Of his peace do not bloom for long."

This poem betrays to us the beginning of the discord between the poet and nature; he begins to be estranged from reality, the natural actual existence. It is a re-


markable idea how the little child chooses " the vine for his nurse." This Dionysian allusion is very old. In the significant blessing of Jacob it is said of Judah (Genesis, chap, xlix, verse 1 1 ) :

'* Binding his foal unto the vine, and his ass's colt unto the choice vine."

A Gnostic gem has been preserved upon which there is a representation of an ass suckling her foal, above which is the symbol of Cancer, and the circumscription D.N.I.H.Y.X.P.S. : Dominus Noster Jesus Christus, with the supplement Dei filius. As Justinus Martyr indignantly observes, the connections of the Christian legend with that of Dionysus are unmistakable. (Compare, for example, the miracle of the wine.) In the last-named legend the ass plays an important role. Generally speaking, the ass has an entirely different meaning in the Mediterranean countries than with us — an economic one. Therefore, it is a benediction when Jacob says (Genesis, chap, xlix, verse 14) :

" Issachar is a strong ass couching down between two burdens,"

The above-mentioned thought is altogether Oriental. Just as in Egypt the new-born sun is a bull-calf, in the rest of the Orient it can easily be an ass's foal, to whom the vine is the nurse. Hence the picture in the blessing of Jacob, where it is said of Judah:

" His eyes are ruddy with wine and his teeth white with milk."

The mock crucifix of the Palatine, with an ass's head, evidently alludes to a very significant background.


To Nature.

" While about thy veil I lingered, playing.

And, like any bud, upon thee hung,* Still I felt thy heart in every straying

Sound about my heart that shook and clung. While I groped with faith and painful yearning,

To your picture, glowing and unfurled. Still I found a place for all my burning

Tears, and for my love I found a world 1

" To the Sun my heart, before all others.

Turned and felt its potent magicry; And it called the stars its little brothers,'

And it called the Spring, God's melody ; And each breeze in groves or woodlands fruity

Held thy spirit — and that same sweet joy Moved the well-springs of my heart with beauty—

Those were golden days without alloy.

" Where the Spring is cool in every valley,*

And the youngest bush and twig is green, And about the rocks the grasses rally,

And the branches show the sky between. There I lay, imbibing every flower

In a rapt, intoxicated glee, And, surrounded by a golden shower,

From their heights the clouds sank down to me.'

" Often, as a weary, wandering river

Longs to join the ocean's placid mirth, I have wept and lost mj'self forever

In the fulness of thy love, O Earth I Then — ^with all the ardor of my being —

Forth I rushed from Time's slow apathy. Like a pilgrim home from travel, fleeing

To the arms of rapt Eternity.


Blessed be childhood's golden dreams, their power Hid from me Life's dismal poverty:.


'All the hearfs rich germs ye brought to flower;

Things I could not reach, ye gave to me! * In thy beauty and thy light, O Nature,

Free from care and from compulsion free. Fruitful Love attained a kingly stature,

Rich as harvests reaped in Arcady.

That which brought me up, is dead and riven,

Dead the youthful world which was my shield; And this breast, which used to harbor heaven,

Dead and dry as any stubble-field. Still my Springlike sorrows sing and cover

With their friendly comfort every smarts But the morning of my life is over

And the Spring has faded from my heart • • .

Shadows are the things diat once we cherished ; Love itself must fade and cannot bide;

Since the golden dreams of youth have perished) Even friendly Nature's self has died.

Heart, poor heart, those Azys could never show it- How far-off thy home, and where it lies • . •

Now, alas, thou nevermore wilt know it If a dream of it does not su£Sce."


" What gathers about me. Earth, in your dusky, friendly green? What are you blowing towards me. Winds, what do ytm htkig

again? There is a rustling in all the tree-tops. . . •

" Why do you wake my soul? Why do ye stir in me the past, ye Kind ones? Oh, spare me, and let them rest; oh, do not mock Those ashes of my joy. . • •

" O change your changeless gods — And groiy in your youth over the old oQeii


And if you would be akin to the mortals

The young girls will blossom for you.

And the young heroes will shine;

And, sweeter than ever,

Morning will play upon the cheeks of the happy ones;

And, ravishing-sweet, you will hear

The songs of those who are without care. . • •

" Ah, once the living waves of song Surged out of every bush to me ; And still the heavenly ones glanced down upon me. Their eyes shining with joy."

The separation from the blessedness of childhood, from youth even, has taken the golden glamour from nature, and the future is hopeless emptiness. But what robs nature of Its glamour, and life of its joy, is the poison of the retrospective longing, which harks back, in order to sink into its own depths :


" Thou seekest life — and a godly fire springs to thee. Gushing and gleaming, from the deeps of the earth; And, with shuddering longing, Throws thee down into the flames of Aetna.

" So, through a queen's wanton whim, Pearls are dissolved in wine — restrain her not I Didst thou not throw thy riches, Poet, Into the bright and bubbling cup I

" Still thou art holy to me, as the Power of Eardi Which took thee away, lovely assassin! . • . And I would have followed the hero to the depdis, Had Love not held me."


This poem betrays the secret longing for the maternal depths.^

He would like to be sacrificed in the chalice, dissolved in wine like pearls (the "crater" of rebirth), yet love holds him within the light of day. The libido still has an object, for the sake of which life is worth living. But were this object abandoned, then the libido would sink into the realm of the subterranean, the mother, who brings forth again :

Obituary. (Unfinished poem.)

" Daily I go a dif&rent path. Sometimes into the green wood, sometimes to the bath in the

spring ; Or to the rocks where the roses bloom. From the top of the hill I look over the land, Yet nowhere, thou lovely one, nowhere in the light do I find

thee; And in the breezes my words die away. The sacred words which once we had.

" Aye, thou art far away, O holy countenance! And the melody of thy life is kept from me. No longer overheard. And, ah, where are Thy magic songs which once soothed my heart With the peace of Heaven ? How long it is, how long!

The youth is aged ; the very earth itself, which once smiled on me. Has grown different.

" Oh, farewell ! The soul of every day departs, and, departing, turns to thee — And over thee there weeps The eye that, becoming brighter. Looks down. There where thou tarriest."


This distinctly suggests a renunciation, an envy of one*s own youth, that time of freedom which one would like to retain through a deep-rooted dislike to all duty and endeavor which is denied an immediate pleasure reward. Painstaking work for a long time and for a remote object is not in the nature of child or primitive man. It is diffi- cult to say if this can really be called laziness, but it seems to have not a little in common with it, in so far as the psychic life on a primitive stage, be it of an infantile or archaic type, possesses an extreme inertia and irre- sponsibility in production and non-production.

The last stanza portends evil, a gazing towards the other land, the distant coast of sunrise or sunset; love no longer holds the poet, the bonds with the world are torn and he calls loudly for assistance to the mother:


" Lordly son of the Gods! Because you lost your loved one, You went to the rocky coast and cried aloud to the flood. Till the depths of the holy abyss heard and echoed your grief, From the far reaches of your heart. Down, deep down, far

from the clamor of ships, Deep under the waves, in a peaceful cave, Dwelt the beautiful Thetis, she who protected you, the Goddess

of the Sea, Mother of the youth was she ; the powerful Goddess, She who once had lovingly nursed him.

On the rocky shore of his island ; she who had made him a hero With the might of her strengthening bath and the powerful song

of the waves. And the mother, mourning, hearkened to the cry of her child. And rose, like a cloud, from the bed of the sea, Soothing with tender embraces the pains of her darling; And he listened, while she, caressing, promised to soften his grief.


" Son of the Gods! Oh, were I like you, dien could I confidently Call on the Heavenly Ones to hearken to my secret grief. But never shall I see this — I shall bear the disgrace As if I never belonged to her, even though she thinks of me with

tears. Beneficent Ones! And yet Ye hear the lightest pntjrers of men* Ah, how rapt and fervently I worshipped you, holy Lig^t, Since I have lived, the Earth and its fountains and woodlands, Father Ether — and my heart has felt you about me, so ardent

and pure — Oh, soften my sorrows, ye Kind Ones, That my soul may not be silenced, may not be struck dumb too

early ; That I may live and thank Ye, O Heavenly Powers, With joyful songs through all the hurrying days. Thank ye for gifts of the past, for the joys of vanished Youd»— And then, pray, take me, the lonely one^ Graciously, unto yourselves."

These poems describe more plainly than could be de«  picted with meagre words the persistent arrest and the constantly growing estrangement from life, the gradual deep immersion into the maternal abyss of the individual being. The apocalyptic song of Patmos is strangely re* lated to these songs of retrogressive longing. It enters as a dismal guest surrounded by the mist of the depths, the gathering clouds of insanity, bred through the mother. In it the primitive thoughts of the m3rth, the suggestion clad in symbols, of the sun-like death and resurrection of life, again burst forth. Similar things are to be found in abundance among sick people of this sort

I reproduce some significant fragments from Patmos :

" Near is the God

. And hard to comprehend.


But where Danger threatens The Rescuer appears."

These words mean that the libido has now sunk to the lowest depths, where '* the danger is great." (Fausti Part II, Mother scene.) There "the God is near"; there man may find the inner sun, his own nature, sun- like and self-renewing, hidden in the mother-womb like the sun in the nighttime :

". . . In Chasms And in darkness dwell The eagles ; and fresh and fearlessly

The Sons of the Alps pass swiftly over the abyss

Upon lightly swinging bridges."

With these words the dark phantastic poem passes on. The eagle, the bird of the sun, dwells in darkness — the libido has hidden itself, but high above it the inhabitants of the mountains pass, probably the gods (" Ye are walk- ing above in the light"), symbols of the sun wandering across the sky, like the eagle flying over the depths :

". . . Above and around are reared The summits of Time, And tlie loved ones, though near, Live on deeply separated mountains. So give us waters of innocence, And give us wn'ngs of true understanding, With which to pass across and to return again.*'

The first is a gloomy picture of the mountains and of time— although caused by the sun wandering over the mountains, the following picture a nearness, and at the


same time separation, of the lovers, and seems to hint at life in the underworld,® where he is united with all that once was dear to him, and yet cannot enjoy the happiness of reunion, because it is all shadows and unreal and devoid of life. Here the one who descends drinks the waters of innocence, the waters of childhood, the drink of rejuve- nation,** so wings may grow, and, winged, he may soar«up again into life, like the winged sun, which arises like a swan from the water (*' Wings, to pass across and to return again ") :

". . . So I spoke, and lo, a genie Carried me off, swifter than I had imagined, And farther than ever I had thought From my own house! It grew dark As I went in the twilight. The shadowy wood,

And the yearning brooks of my home-land Grew vague behind me — And I knew the country no longer."

After the dark and obscure words of the introduction, wherein the poet expresses the prophecy of what is to come, the sun journey begins ("night journey in the sea ") towards the east, towards the ascent, towards the mystery of eternity and rebirth, of which Nietzsche also dreams, and which he expressed in significant words :

" Oh, how could I not be ardent for eternity, and for the nup- tial ring of rings — the ring of the return! Never yet have I found the woman from whom I wish children, unless she would be this woman whom I love ; for I love thee, O eternity,"


Holderlin expresses this same lon^ng in a beautiful symbol, the individual traits of which are already familiar

to us:

^^ . . But soon in a fresh radiance Mysteriously

Blossoming in golden smoke, With the rapidly growing steps of the sun. Making a thousand summits fragrant, Asia arose ! And, dazzled,

I sought one whom I knew; For unfamiliar to me were the broad roads. Where from Tmolus Comes the gilded Pactol, And Taurus stands and Messagis — And the gardens are full of flowers. But high up in the light The silvery snow gleams, a silent fire; And, as a symbol of eternal life, On the impassable walls, Grows the ancient ivj\^®

And carried by columns of living cedars and laurek Are the solemn, divinely built palaces."

The symbol is apocalyptic, the maternal city in the land of eternal youth, surrounded by the verdure and flowers of imperishable spring.^^ The poet identifies him- self here with John, who lived on Patmos, who was once associated wuth ** the sun of the Highest," and saw him face to face :

" There at the Mystery of the Vine they met, There at the hour of the Holy Feast they gathered, And — feeling the approach of Death in his great, quiet soul,


The Lord, pouring out his last love, spoke,

And then he died.

Much could be said of it —

How his triiunphant glance,

The happiest of all,

Was seen by his companions, even at the last

Therefore he sent the Spirit unto them,

And the house trembled, solemnly;

And, with distant thunder.

The storm of God rolled over the cowering heads

Where, deep in thought.

The heroes of death were assembled. . • .

Now, when he, in parting.

Appeared once more before them,

Then the kingly day, the day of the sun, was put out^

And the gleaming sceptre, formed of his rajrsi

Was broken — and sufiEered like a god itself.

Yet it shall return and glow again

When the right time comes."

The fundamental pictures are the sacrificial death and the resurrection of Christ, like the self-sacrifice of the sun, which voluntarily breaks its sceptre, the fructifying rays, in the certain hope of resurrection. The following comments are to be noted in regard to '^ the sceptre of rays'^ Spielrein's patient says, **God pierces throu^ the earth with his rays." The earth, in the patient's mind, has the meaning of woman. She also comprehends the sunbeam in mythologic fashion as something solid: '* Jesus Christ has shown me his love, by striking against the window with a sunbeam." Among other insane pa- tients I have come across the same idea of the solid sub- stance of the sunbeam. Here there is also a hint of the


phallic nature of the instrument which is associated with the hero. Thor's hammer, which, cleaving the earth, penetrates deeply into it, may be compared to the foot of Kaincus. The hammer is retained in the interior of the earth, like the treasure, and, in the course of time, it gradually comes again to the surface (the treasure blooms^'), meaning that it was born again from the earth. (Compare what has been said concerning the etymology of " swelling.") On many monuments Mithra holds a peculiar object in his hands, which Cumont com- pares to a half-filled tube. Dieterich proves from his papyrus text that the object is the shoulder of the bull, the bear constellation. The shoulder has an indirect phallic meaning, for it is the part which is wanting in Pelops. Pelops was slaughtered by his father, Tantalus, dismembered, and boiled in a kettle, to make a meal for the gods. Demcter had unsuspectingly eaten the shoulder from this feast, when Zeus discovered the outrage. He had the pieces thrown back into the kettle, and, with the help of the life-dispensing Clotho, Pelops was regen- erated, and the shoulder which was missing was replaced by an ivory one. This substitution is a close parallel to the substitution of the missing phallus of Osiris. Mithra is represented in a special ceremony, holding the bull's shoulder over Sol, his son and vice-regent This scene may be compared to a sort of dedication, or accolade (something like the ceremony of confirmation). The blow of the hammer as a generating, fructifying, inspir- ing function Is retained as a folk-custom and expressed by striking with the twig of life, which has the significance


of a charm of fertility. In the neuroses, the sexual mean- ing of castigation plays an important part, for among many children castigation may elicit a sexual orgasm. The ritual act of striking has the same significance of generating (fructifying), and is, indeed, merely a variant of the original phallic ceremonial. Of similar character to the bull's shoulder is the cloven hoof of the devil, to which a sexual meaning also appertains. The ass's jaw- bone wielded by Samson has the same worth. In the Polynesian Maui myth the jawbone, the weapon of the hero, is derived from the man-eating woman, Muri- ranga-whenua, whose body swells up enormously from lusting for human flesh (Frobenius). Hercules* club is made from the wood of the maternal olive tree. Faust's key also " knows the mothers." The libido springs from the mother, and with this weapon alone can man over- come death.

It corresponds to the phallic nature of ihe ass's jaw- bone, that at the place where Samson threw it God caused a spring to gush forth ^^ (springs from the horse's treadi footsteps, horse's hoof). To this relation of meanings belongs the magic wand, the sceptre in general. SxiJTtrpoy belongs to ffxaTtoS, ffHrfnavoov, trxtjTCoov = staff; ffHTfTTTos = storm-wind; Latin scapus = shaft, stock, scapula, shoulder; Old High German Scafi = spear, lance." We meet once more in this compilation those connections which are already well known to us: Sun-phallus as tube of the winds, lance and shoulder- blade.

The passage from Asia through Patmos to the Chris-


tian mysteries in the poem of Holderlin is apparently a superficial connection, but in reality a very ingenious train of thought; namely, the entrance into death and the land beyond as a self-sacrifice of the hero, for the attainment of immortality. At this time, when the sun has set, when love is apparently dead, man awaits in mysterious joy the renewal of all life :

". . . And Joy it was From now on

To live in the loving nig^t and see The eyes of innocence hold the unchanging Depths of all wisdom.'*

Wisdom dwells in the depths, the wisdom of the mother: being one with it, insight is obtained into the meaning of deeper things, into all the deposits of primitive times, the strata of which have been preserved in the soul. H(')lderlin, in his diseased ecstasy, feels once more the greatness of the things seen, but he does not care to bring up to the light of day that which he had found in the depths — in this he differs from Faust.


And it is not an evil, if a few Arc lost and never found, and if the speech Conceals the living sound ; Because each godly work resembles ours; And yet the Highest does not plan it all*- The great pit bears two irons, And the glowing lava of Aetna. • • • Would I had the power To build an image and see the Spirit- See it as it was !


He allows only one hope to glimmej through, formed in scanty words:

    • He wakes the dead ;

They who are not enchained and bound. They who are not unwroug^t. . . • And if the Heavenly Ones Now, as I believe, love me— . . . Silent is his sign ^* In the dusky sky. And one stands under it His whole life long — ^for Christ still lives.'*

But, as once Gilgamesh, bringing back the magic herb from the west land, was robbed of his treasure by the demon serpent, so does Holderlin's poem die away in a painful lament, which betrays to us that no victorious res- urrection will follow his descent to the shadows :

. • . Ignominiously A power tears our heart away, For sacrifices the heavenly ones demand/'

This recognition, that man must sacrifice the retro- gressive longing (the incestuous libido) before the

  • ' heavenly ones " tear away the sacrifice, and at the same

time the entire libido, came too late to the poet There- fore, I take it to be a wise counsel which the unconscious gives our author, to sacrifice the infantile hero. This sacrifice is best accomplished, as is shown by the most obvious meaning, through a complete devotion to life, in which all the libido unconsciously bound up in familial bonds, must be brought outside into human contact For it is necessary for the well-being of the adult individuali


who in his childhood was merely an atom revolving ia a rotary system, to become himself the centre of a new system. That such a. step implies the solution or, at least, the energetic treatment of the individual sexual problem is obvious, for unless this is done the unemployed Ubida will inexorably remain hxed in the incestuous bond, and will prevent individual freedom in essential matters. Let us keep in mind that Christ's teaching separates man from his family without consideration, and in the talk with Nicodemus we saw the specific endeavor of Christ to pro- cure activation of the incest libido. Both tendencies serve the same goal — the liberation of man; the Jew from his extraordinary fixation to the family, which does not imply higher development, but greater weakness and more un- controlled incestuous feeling, produced the compensatioa of the compulsory ceremonial of the cult and the r^ ligious fear of the incomprehensible Jehovah. Whca i man, terrified by no laws and no furious fanatics or prophets, allows his incestuous libido full play, and dod not liberate it for higher purposes, then he is under the influence of unconscious compulsion. For compulsion il the unconscious wish. (Freud.) He is under the domi- nance of the libido ttpapft4vt}* and his destiny does not lie in his own hands; his adventures, Tvxat Koi M6tfiai,\ fall from the stars. His unconscious incestuous libido, which thus is applied in its most primitive form, fixes the nian, as regards his love type, in a corresponding pnnii* tive stage, the stage of ungovernablcness and surrender to the emotions. Such was the psychologic situation of

  • F«e. t Cbancci ud intu.


the passing antiquity, and the Redeemer and Physician of that time was he who endeavored to educate man to the sublimation of the incestuous libido.^' The destruc- tion of slavery was the necessary condition of that sub- limation, for antiquity had not yet recognized the duty of work and work as a duty, as a soda! need of funda- mental importance. Slave labor was compulsory work, the counterpart of the equally disastrous compulsion of the libido of the privileged It was only the obligation of the individual to work which made possible in the long run that regular *' drainage*' of the unconsciousi which was inundated by the continual regression of the libido. Indolence is the be^nning of all vice, because in a condition of slothful dreaming the libido has abundant opportunity for sinking into itself, in order to create compulsory obligations by means of regressively re«  animated incestuous bonds. The best liberation is through regular work.^^ Work, however, is salvation only when it is a free act, and has in itself noth- ing of infantile compulsion. In this respect, religious ceremony appears in a high degree as organized inactiv- ity, and at the same time as the forerunner of modem work.

Miss Miller's vision treats the problem of the sacri- fice of the infantile longing, in the first place, as an indi- vidual problem, but if we cast a glance at the form of this presentation, then we will become aware that here it must concern something, which is also a problem of hu- manity in general. For the symbols employed, the ser- pent which killed the horse ^^ and the hero voluntarily


sacrificing himself, are primitive figures of phanta- sies and religious myths streaming up from the uncon- scious.

In so far as the world and all within it is, above all, a thought, which is credited with transcendental "sub- stance " through the empirical need of the same, there results from the sacrifice of the regressive libido the crea- tion of the world; and, psychologically speaking, the world in general. For him who looks backward the world, and even the infinite starry sky, is the mother ^* who bends over and encloses him on all sides, and from the renun- ciation of this idea and from the longing for this ides arises the image of the world. From this most simple fundamental thought, which perhaps appears strange to us only because it is conceived according to the principle of desire and not the principle of reality,^^ results the significance of the cosmic sacrifice. A good example of this is the slaying of the Babylonian primitive mother Tiamat, the dragon, whose body is destined to form the heaven and the earth. We come upon this thought in its most complete form in Hindoo philosophy of the most ancient date; namely, in songs of Rigveda. In Rigvedt id: 8 1, 4, the song inquires:

    • What was the tree, what wood in sooth produced it, from whidi

they fashioned out the earth and heaven? Ye thoughtful men inquire within your spirit, whereon he stood when he established all things."

Vi^vakarman, the All-Creator, who created the world from the unknown tree, did so as follows :


" He who, sacrificing, entered into all these beings As a wise sacrificer, our Father, who, Striving for blessings through prayer, Hiding his origin. Entered this lowly world, What and who has served him As a resting-place and a support? " ^®

Rigveda lo: 90, gives answer to these questions. Purusha is the primal being who

    • . . . covered earth on every side and

Spread ten fingers* breadth beyond."

One sees that Purusha is a sort of Platonic world soul, who surrounds the world from without. Of Purusha it is said:

" Being born he overtopped the earth Before, behind, and in all places."

The mother symbolism is plain, it seems to me, in the idea of Purusha. He represents the mother-imago and the libido of the child clinging to her. From this as- sumption all that follows is very easily explained :

" As sacrificial animal on the bed of straw Was dedicated the Purusha, Who was born on the straw. Whom the Gods, the Blest, and the Wise, Meeting there, sacrificed."

This verse is very remarkable; if one wishes to stretch this mythology out on the procrustean bed of logic, sore violence would have to be committed. It is an incredibly


phantastic conception that, beside the gods, ordinary '* wise men *' unite in sacrificing the primitive being, aside from the circumstance that, beside the primitive being, nothing had existed in the beginning (that is to say, before the sacrifice), as we shall soon see. If the great mystery of the mother sacrifice is meant thereby, then all becomes clear :

" From that great general sacrifice The dripping fat was gathered up. He formed the creatures of the air, And animals both wild and tame. From that great general sacrifice Richns and Sama-hymns were bom ; Therefrom the metres were produced, The \'ajus had its birth from it.

" The moon was gendered from his mind And from his eye the Sun had birth; Indra and Agni from his mouth Were born, and Vayu from his breadi.

" Forth from his navel came midair; llie sky was fashioned from his head ; Earth from his feet, and from his ears The regions. Thus they formed the worlds."

It is evident that by this is meant not a physical, but a psychological cosmogony. The world arises when man discovers it. lie discovers it when he sacrifices the mother; that is to say, when he has freed himself from the midst of his unconscious lying in the mother. That which impels him forward to this discovery may be in- terpreted psychologically as the so-called " Incest bar-


rler " of Freud. The incest prohibition places an end to the childish longing for the food-giving mother, and com- pels the libido, gradually becoming sexual, into the path of the biological aim. The libido forced away from the mother by the incest prohibition seeks for the sexual ob- ject in the place of the forbidden mother. In this wider psychologic sense, which expresses itself in the allegoric language of the " incest prohibition," " mother," etc, must be understood Freud's paradoxical sentence, " Orig- inally we have known only sexual objects." " This sen- tence must be understood psychologically throughout, in the sense of a world image created from within out- wards, which has, in the first place, nothing to do with the so-called " objective " idea of the world. This is to be understood as a new edition of the subjective idea of the world corrected by reality. Biology, as a science of objective experience, would have to reject uncondition- ally Freud's proposition, for, as we have made dear above, the function of reality can only be partly sexual; in another equally important part it is self-preservation. The matter appears different for that thought which ac- companies the biological function as an epiphenomenon. As far as our knowledge reaches, the individual act of thought is dependent wholly or in greatest part on the existence of a highly differentiated brain, whereas the function of reality (adaptation to reality) is something which occurs in all living nature as wholly independent from the act of thought. This important proposition of Freud's applies only to the act of thought, for thinking, as we may recognize from manifold traces, arose dynami-




call; from the libido, which was split of! from ihe on'gioal object at the "incest barrier" and became actual when the iirst budding sexual emotions began to flow in the current of the libido which goes to the mother. Through the inccat barrier the sexual libido is forced away from the identification with the parents, and introverted for lad: of adequate activity. It is the sexual libido which forces the growing individual slowly away from his family. If this necessity did not exist, then the family would always remain clustered together in a solid group. Hence the neurotic always renounces a complete erotic experience," in order that he may remain a child. Phantasies seem to arise from the introversion of the sexual libido. Since the first childish phantasies most certainly do not attain the qualityof a consciousplan,and as phantasies likewise (evefl among adults) are almost always the direct derivatcs of the unconscious, it is, therefore, highly probable that the first phantastic manifestations arise from an act of re- gression. As we illustrated earlier, the regression goes back to the presexual stage, as many traces show. Here the sexual libido obtains again, so to speak, that universal capacity of application, or capacity for displaccmcnl, which it actually possessed at that stage when the sexual application was not yet discovered. Naturally, 00 acfc- quate object is found in the presexual stage for the regres- sive sexual libido, but only surrogates, which always leave a wish; namely, the wish to have the surrogate as similar as possible to the sexual goal. This wish is secret, ho^ ever, for it is really an incest wish. The unsatisfied un- conscious wish creates innumerable secondary objects,


symbols for the primitive object, the mother (as the Rigveda says, the creator of the world, *' hiding his origin," enters into things). From this the thought or the phantasies proceed, as a desexualized manifestation of an originally sexual libido.

From the standpoint of the libido, the term " Incest barrier " corresponds to one aspect, but the matter, how- ever, may be considered from another point of view.

The time of undeveloped sexuality, about the third and the fourth year, is, at the same time, considered exter- nally, the period when the child finds himself confronted with increased demands from the world of reality. He can walk, speak and independently attend to a number of other things. He sees himself in a relation to a world of unlimited possibilities, but in which he dares to do little or nothing, because he is as yet too much of a baby and cannot get on without his mother. At this time mother should be exchanged for the world. Against this the past rises as the greatest resistance; this is always so whenever man would undertake a new adapta- tion. In spite of all evidence and against all conscious resolutions, the unconscious (the past) always enforces its standpoint as resistance. In this difficult position, pre- cisely at this period of developing sexuality, we see the dawning of the mind. The problem of the child at this period is the discovery of the world and of the great trans- subjective reality. For that he must lose the mother; every step out into the world means a step away from the mother. Naturally, all that which is retrogressive in men rebels against this step, and energetic attempts are


made against this adaptation in the first place. There- fore, this period of life is also that in which the first clearly developed neuroses arise. The tendency of this age is one directly opposed to that of dementia precox. The child seeks to win the world and to leave the mother (this is a necessary result). The dementia precox pa- tient, however, seeks to leave the world and to regain the subjectivity of childhood. We have seen that in de- mentia prxcox the recent adaptation to reality is replaced by an archaic mode of adaptation; that is to say, the recent idea of the world is rejected in favor of an archaic idea of the world. When the child renounces his task of adaptation to reality, or has considerable difficulties in this direction, then we may expect that the recent adapta- tion will again be replaced by archaic modes of adapta- tion. It would, therefore, be conceivable that through regression in children archaic products would naturally be unearthed; that is to say, old ways of functioning of the thought system, which is inborn with the brain dif- ferentiation, would be awakened.

According to my available but as yet unpublished ma- terial, a remarkably archaic and at the same time gen- erally applicable character seems to appertain to infantile phantasy, quite comparable with the products of demen- tia pra^'cox. It does not seem improbable that through regression at this age those same associations of elements and analogies are reawakened which formerly constituted the archaic idea of the world. When we now attempt to investigate the nature of these elements, a glance at the psychology of myths is sufficient to show us that the


archaic idea was chiefly sexual anthropomorphism. It ap- pears that these things in the unconscious childish phan- tasy play an extraordinary role, as we can recognize from examples taken at random. Just as the sexualism of neuroses is not to be taken literally but as regressive phan- tasy and symbolic compensation for a recent unachieved adaptation, so is the sexualism of the early infantile phantasy, especially the incest problem, a regressive product of the revival of the archaic modes of function, outweighing actuality. On this account I have expressed myself very vaguely in this work, I am sure, in regard to the incest problem. This is done in order not to be re- sponsible for the idea that I understand by it a gross sexual inclination towards the parents. The true facts of the case are much more complicated, as my investiga- tions point out. Originally incest probably never pos- sessed particularly great significance as such, because cohabitation with an old woman for all possible motives could hardly be preferred to mating with a young woman. It seems that the mother has acquired incestuous sig- nificance only psychologically. Thus, for example, the incestuous unions of antiquity were not a result of a love inclination, but of a special superstition, which is most intimately bound up with the mythical ideas here treated. A Pharaoh of the second dynasty is said to have mar- ried his sister, his daughter and his granddaughter; the Ptolemies were accustomed also to marriage with sis- ters; Kambyses married his sister; Artaxerxes married his two daughters; Qobad I (sixth century A. D.) mar- ried his daughter. The Satrap Sysimithres married his


mother. These incestuous unions are explained by the circumstance that in the Zend Avesta the marriage of rela- tives was directly commanded;" it emphasized the re- semblance of rulers to the divinity, and, therefore, was more of an artificial than a natural arrangement, because it originated more from a theoretical than from a bio- logical inclination. (A practical impetus towards that lay often In the peculiar laws of inheritance left over from the Mutter recht, ** maternal right'* [matriarchal], period.) The confusion which certainly frequently involved the barbarians of antiquity in regard to the choice of their sexual objects cannot very well be measured by the stand- ard of present-day love psychology. In any case, the incest of the semi-animal past is in no way proportionate to the enormous significance of the incest phantasy among civili/ed people. This disproportion enforces the as- sumption that the incest prohibition which we meet even amongst relatively lower races concerns rather the mythi- cal ideas than the biological damage; therefore, the ethnical prohibition almost always concerns the mother and seldom the father. Incest prohibition can be under- stood, therefore, as a result of regression, and as the result of a libidinous anxiety, which regressively attacks the mother. Naturally, it is difHcult or impossible to say from whence this anxiety may have come. I merely venture to suggest that it may have been a question of a primitive separation of the pairs of opposites which arc hidden in the will of life : the will for life and for death. It remains obscure what adaptation the primitive man tried to evade through introversion and regression to the


parents; but, according to the analogy of the soul life in general, it may be assumed that the libido, which dis- turbed the initial equilibrium of becoming and of ceasing to be, had been stored up in the attempt to make an especially difficult adaptation, and from which it recedes even today.

After this long digression, let us turn back to the song of the Rigveda. Thinking and a conception of the world arose from a shrinking back from stern reality, and it is only after man has regressively assured himself again of the protective parental power " that he enters life wrapped in a dream of childhood shrouded in mag^c superstititions ; that is to say, "thinking,"" for he, tim- idly sacrificing his best and assuring himself of the favor of the invisible powers, step by step develops to greater power, in the degree that he frees himself from his retro- gressive longing and the original lack of harmony in his being.

Rigveda 10, 90, concludes with the exceedingly sig- nificant verse, which is of greatest importance for the Christian mysteries as well :

"Gods, sacrificing, rendered homage to the sacrifice: these weit the earliest holy ordinances, The mighty ones attained the height of heaven, there where the Sadhyas, goddesses of old, are dwelling."

Through the sacrifice a fulness of power was attained, which extends up to the power of the " parents." Thus the sacrifice has also the meaning of a psycholo^c matu- ration process.


In the same manner that the world originated through sacrifice, through the renunciation of the retrospective mother libido, thus, according to the teachings of the Upanishads, is produced the new condition of man, which may be termed the immortal. This new condition is again attained through a sacrifice; namely, through the sacrificial horse which is given a cosmic significance in the teaching of the Upanishads. What the sacrificial horse means is told by Brihadaranyaka-Upanishad i : i :



" I. The (lawn is truly the head of the sacrificial horse, the sun his eye, the wind his breath, his mouth the all-spreading fire, the year is the body of the sacrificial horse. The sky is his back, the atmosphere his body cavity, the earth the vault of his belly, the poles are his sides, the space between the poles his ribs, the seasons his limbs, the months and half-months his joints, day and night his feet, the stars his bones, the clouds his flesh, the food, which he digests, are the deserts; the rivers, his veins; liver and lungs, the mountains; the herbs and trees, his hair; the rising sun is his fore- part, the setting sun his hind-part. When he shows his teeth, that is lightning; when he trembles, that is thunder; when he urinates, that is rain ; his voice is speech.

" 2. The day, in truth, has originated for the horse as the sacrificial dish, which stands before him ; his cradle is in the world- sea towards the East ; the night has originated for him as the sac- rificial dish, which stands behind him; its cradle is in the world-sea of the evening; these two dishes originated in order to surround the horse. As a charger he generated the gods, as champion he produced the Gandharvas, as a racer the demons, as horse man- kind. The Ocean is his relative, the ocean his cradle."

As Deusscn remarks, the sacrificial horse has the sig- nificance of a renunciation of the universe. When the horse is sacrificed, then the world is sacrificed and de-


stroyed, as It were — a train of thought which Schopen- hauer also had in mind, and which appears as a product of a diseased mind in Schreber.^* The horse in the above text stands between two sacrificial vessels, from one of which it comes and to the other of which it goes, just as the sun passes from morning to evening. The horse, therefore, signifies the libido, which has passed into the world. We previously saw that the ** mother libido" must be sacrificed in order to produce the world; here the world is destroyed by the repeated sacrifice of the same libido, which once belonged to the mother. The horse can, therefore, be substituted as a symbol for this libido, because, as we saw, it had manifold connections with the mother.^^ The sacrifice of the horse can only produce another state of introversion, which is sim- ilar to that before the creation of the world. The position of the horse between the two vessels, which rep- resent the producing and the devouring mother, hint at the idea of life enclosed in the ovum; therefore, the ves* sels are destined to '* surround " the horse. That this is actually so the Brihadaranyaka-Upanishad 3 : 3 proves :

    • I. From where have the descendants of Parikshit come, that

I ask thee, Yajnavallcya! From where came the descendants of Parikshit ?

"2. Yajnavallcya spake: 'He has told thee, they have come from where all come, who offer up the sacrificial horse. That is to say, this world extends so far as two and diirty days of the chariot of the Gods (the sun) reach. This (world) surrounds the earth twice around. This earth surrounds the ocean twice around. There is, as broad as the edge of a razor or as the wing of a fly, a space between (the two shells of the egg of the world).


These were brought by Indra as a falcon to the wind: and the wind took them up into itself and carried them where were the offerers of the sacrificial horse. Somewhat like this he spoke (Gandharva to thee) and praised the wind.'

" Therefore is the wind the special (vyashti) and the wind the universal (samashti). He, who knows this, defends himself from dying again."

As this text tells us, the offerers of the sacrificial horse come in that narrowest fissure between the shells of the egg of the world, at that place, where the shells unite and where they are divided. The fissure (vagina) in the ma- ternal world soul is designated by Plato in " Timaeus " by X, the symbol of the cross. Indra, who as a falcon has stolen the soma (the treasure attainable with difficulty), brings, as Psychopompos, the souls to the wind, to the generating pneuma, which carries them forward to the fissure or vagina, to the point of union, to the entrance into the maternal egg. This train of thought of the Hindoo philosophy briefly and concisely summarizes the sense of innumerable myths; at the same time it is a striking example of the fact that philosophy is internally nothing else but a refined and sublimated mythology. It is brought to this refined state by the influence of the cor- rector of reality.^® We have emphasized the fact that in the Miller drama the horse is the first to die, as the animal brother of the hero, ( Corresponding to the early death of the half-animal Eabani, the brother friend of Gilgamesh.) This sacrificial death recalls the whole category of mythological animal sacrifices. Volumes could be filled with parallels, but we must limit ourselves here to suggestions. The sacrificial animal, where it has


lost the primitive meaning of the simple sacrificial gift, and has taken a higher religious significance, stands in a dose relation to both the hero and the divinity. The animal represents the god himself; *• thus the bull '* rep- resents Zagreus, Dionysus and Mithra; the lamb repre- sents Christ,** etc. As we are aware, the animal symbols represent the animal libido. The sacrifice of the animal means, therefore, the sacrifice of the animal nature. This is most clearly expressed in the religious legend of Attis. Attis is the son lover of the divine mother, Agdistis Cybelc. Agdistis was characteristically androgynous,'* as symbol of the mother-libido, like the tree; really a clear indica-* tion that the mother-imago has in addition to the sig- nificance of the likeness of the real mother the meaning of the mother of humanity, the libido in general. Driven mad by the insanity-breeding mother enamored of him, he emasculates himself, and that under a pine tree. (The pine tree plays an important role in his service. Every year a pine tree was wreathed about and upon it an image of Attis was hung, and then it was cut down, which represents the castration.) The blood, which spurted to the earth, was transformed Into budding violets. Cybele now took this pine tree, bore it Into her cavern and there wept over It. (Pleta.) The chthonic mother takes her son with her into the cavern — namely, into the womb — according to another version. Attis was transformed into the pine tree. The tree here has an essentially phallic meaning; on the contrary, the attaching of the image of Attis to the tree refers also to the maternal meaning. (" To be attached to the mother.") In Ovid (" Meta-


morphoses," Book X) the pine tree is spoken of as follows :

    • Grata deum matri, siquidem Cybeleius Attis

Exuit hac hominem, truncoque induniit illo." *

The transformation into the pine tree is evidently a burial in the mother, just as Osiris was overgrown by the heather. Upon the Attis bas-relief of Coblenz Attis ap- pears growing out of a tree, which is interpreted by Mannhardt as the " life-principle " of vegetation inherent in the tree. It is probably a tree birth, just as with Mithra. (Relief of Heddernheim. ) As Firmicus ob- serves, in the Isis and Osiris cult and also in the cult of the virgin Persephone, tree and image had played a role."^ Dionysus had the surname Dendrites, and in Boeotia he is said to have been called ivdevipoi, meaning ** in a tree." (At the birth of Dionysus, Me- gaira planted the pine tree on the Kithairon.) The Pen- theus myth bound up with the Dionysus legend furnishes the remarkable and supplementary counterpart to the death of Attis, and the subsequent lamentation. Pcn- theus,'^^ curious to espy the orgies of the Maenades, climbed tipon a pine tree, but he was observed by his mother; the Maenades cut down the tree, and Pentheus, taken for an animal, was torn by them in frenzy,'* his own mother being the first to rush upon him. In this myth the phallic meaning of the tree (cutting down, cas- tration) and its maternal significance (mounting and the

  • Beloved of the mother of the gods, inasmuch at the psrbeline Attis

iheds his human shape in this way and stiffens into this tree trunk.


sacrificial death of the son) is present; at the same time the supplementary counterpart to the Pieta is apparent, the "terrible mother." The feast of Attis was cele- brated as a lamentation and then as a joy in the spring. (Good Friday and Easter.) The priests of Attis-Cybele worship were often eunuchs, and were called Galloi." The archigallus was called Atys ( Attis). *^ Instead of the animal castration, the priests merely scratched their arms until they bled. (Arm in place of phallus, "the twisting of arms.") A similar symbolism of the sac- rificial impulse is met in the Mithraic religion, where es- sential parts of the mysteries consist in the catching and the subduing of the bull.

A parallel figure to Mithra is the primitive man Gayo- mard. He was created together with his bull, and the two lived for six thousand years in a blissful state. But when the world came into the cycle of the seventh sign of the Zodiac (Libra) the evil principle entered. Libra is astrologically the so-called positive domicile of Venus; the evil principle, therefore, came under the dominion of the goddess of love (destruction of the sun-hero through the mother-wife — snake, whore, etc). As a re- sult, after thirty years, Gayomard and his bull died. (The trials of Zartusht lasted also thirty years; compare the span of Christ's life.) Fifty-five species of grain came from the dead bull, twelve kinds of salubrious plants, etc. The spcrma of the bull entered into the moon for purification, but the sperma of Gayomard entered into the sun. This circumstance possibly suggests a rather feminine meaning of bull. Gosh or Drva^pa is the soul


of the bull, and was worshipped as a female divinity. She would not, at first, from diiEdence, become the goddess of the herds, until the coming of Zarathustra was an- nounced to her as consolation. This has its parallel in the Hindoo Purana, where the coming of Krishna was promised the earth. (A complete analogy to Christ") She, too, travels in her chariot, like Ardvigura, the god- dess of love. The soul of the bull is, therefore, decidedly feminine. This myth of Gayomard repeats only in an altered form the primitive conception of the closed ring of a male-female divinity, self-begetting and forth-bring- ing.

Like the sacrificial bull, the fire, the sacrifice of which we have already discussed in Chapter III, has a feminine nature among the Chinese, according to the commen- taries " of the philosopher Tschwang-Tse :

    • The spirit of the hearth is called Ki. He is clad in bright red,

which resembles fire, and appears as a lovely, attractive maiden."

In the ** Book of Rites " it is said:

    • Wood is burned in the flames for the spirit of Au. This

sacrifice to Au is a sacrifice to old departed women."

These spirits of the hearth and fire are the souls of de- parted cooks and, therefore, are called " old women." The kitchen god develops from this pre-Buddhistic tra- dition and becomes later (male sex) the ruler of the family and the mediator between family and god. Thus the old feminine fire spirit becomes a species of Logos. (Compare with this the remarks in Chapter III.)


From the bull's sperma the progenitors of the cattle came, as well as two hundred and seventy-two species of useful animals. According to Minokhired, Gayomard had destroyed the Dev Azur, who was considered the demon of evil appetites.*^ In spite of the efforts of Zara- thustra, this demon remained longest on the earth. He was destroyed at last at the resurrection, like Satan in the Apocalypse of John. In another version it is said that Angromainyus and the serpent were left until the last» so as to be destroyed by Ahuramazda himself. Accord- ing to a surmise by Kern, Zarathustra may mean golden- star " and be identical with Mithra. Mithra's name is connected with neo-Persian Mihr, which means " sun and love."

In Zagreus we see that the bull is also identical with the god ; hence the bull sacrifice is a god sacrifice, but on a primitive stage. The animal symbol is, so to speak, only a part of the hero; he sacrifices only his animal; therefore, symbolically, renounces only his animal nature. The internal participation in the sacrifice ^^ is eiqpressed excellently in the anguished ecstatic countenance of the bull-slaying Mithra. He does it willingly and unwill- ingly^^ hence the somewhat hysterical expression which has some similarity to the well-known mawkish counte- nance of the Crucified of Guido Reni. Benndorf says : ^

The features, which, especially in the upper portion, bear an absolutely ideal character, have an extremely morbid expression."

Cumont ^^ himself says of the facial expression of the Tauroctonos :


" The countenance, which may be seen in the best reproduce tions, is that of a young man of an almost feminine beauty; the head has a quantity of curly hair, which, rising up from the fore- head, surrounds him as with a halo; the head is slightly tilted backwards, so that the glance is directed towards the heavens, and the contraction of the brows and the lips give a strange expres- sion of sorrow to the face." **

The Ostian head of Mithra Tauroctonos, illustrated in Cumont, has, indeed, an expression which we recognize in our patients as one of sentimental resignation. Sen- timentality is repressed brutality. Hence the exceed- ingly sentimental pose, which had its counterpart in the symbolism of the shepherd and the lamb of contem- poraneous Christianity, with the addition of infan- tilism/*

Meanwhile, it is only his animal nature which the god sacrifices; that is to say, his sexuality ,^^ always in dose analogy to the course of the sun. We have learned in the course of this investigation that the part of the libido which erects religious structures is in the last analysis fixed in the mother, and really represents that tie through which we are permanently connected with our origin. Briefly, we may designate this amount of libido as '^ Mother Libido." As we have seen, this libido conceals itself in countless and very heterogeneous symbols, also in animal images, no matter whether of masculine or fem- inine nature — differences of sex are at bottom of a sec- ondary value and psychologically do not play the part which might be expected from a superficial observation.

The annual sacrifice of the maiden to the dragon prob- ably represented the most ideal symbolic situation. In


order to pacify the anger of the " terrible mother *' the most beautiful woman was sacrificed as symbol of man's libido. Less vivid examples are the sacrifice of the first* born and various valuable domestic animals. A second ideal case is the self-castration in the service of the mother (Dea Syria, etc.), a less obvious form of which is circunou cision. By that at least only a portion is sacrificed.^* With these sacrifices, the object of which In Ideal cases is to symbolize the libido drawing away from the mother, life is symbolically renounced in order to regain it. By the sacrifice man ransoms himself from the fear of death and reconciles the destroying mother. In those later re«  ligions, where the hero, who in olden times overcomes all evil and death through his labors, has become the divine chief figure, he becomes the priestly sacrificer and the regenerator of life. But as the hero Is an imaginary figure and his sacrifice is a transcendental mystery, the significance of which far exceeds the value of an or- dinary sacrificial gift, this deepening of the sacrifidal symbolism regressively resumes the idea of the human sacrifice. This is partly due to the preponderance of phantastic additions, which always take their subject- matter from greater depths, and partly due to the higher religious occupation of the libido, which demanded a more complete and equivalent expression. Thus the relation between Mithra and his bull is very close. It Is the hero himself in the Christian mysteries who sacrifices himself voluntarily. The hero, as we have sufficiently shown, is the infantile personality longing for the mother, who as Mithra sacrifices the wish (the libido), and as Christ


gives himself to death both willingly and unwillingly. Upon the monuments of the Mithraic religion we often meet a strange symbol: a crater (mixing bowl) encoiled by a serpent, sometimes with a lion, who as antagonist opposes the serpent/* It appears as if the two were fighting for the crater. The crater symbolizes, as we have seen, the mother, the serpent the resistance defend- ing her, and the lion the greatest strength and strongest will.* The struggle is for the mother. The serpent takes part almost regularly In the Mithraic sacrifice of the bull, moving towards the blood flowing from the wound. It seems to follow from that that the life of the bull (blood) is sacrificed to the serpent. Previously we have pointed out the mutual relationship between serpent and bull, and found there that the bull symbolizes the living hero, the shining sun, but that the serpent symbolizes the dead, buried or chthonic hero, the invisible sun. As the hero is in the mother in the state of death, the serpent is also, as the symbol of the fear of death, the sign of the devouring mother. The sacrifice of the bull to the serpent, therefore, signifies a willing renunciation of life, in order to win it from death. Therefore, after the sac- rifice of the bull, wonderful fertility results. The an- tagonism between serpent and lion over the crater is to be interpreted as a battle over the fruitful mother^s womb, somewhat comparable to the more simple symbol- ism of the Tishtriya song, where the demon Apaosha, the black horse, has possession of the rain lake, and the white horse, Tishtriya, must banish him from it. Death from time to time lays its destroying hand upon life and


fertility and the libido disappears, by entering into the mother, from whose womb it will be born renewed. It, therefore, seems very probable that the significance of the Mithraic bull sacrifice is also that of the sacrifice of the mother who sends the fear of death. As the contrary of the Occide moriturus is also intended here, so is the act of sacrifice an impregnating of the mother; the chthonic snake demon drinks the blood ; that is to say, the libido (sperma) of the hero committing incest. Life is thus inunortalized for the hero because, like the sun, he generates himself anew. After all the preceding mate- rials, it can no longer be difficult to recognize . in the Christian mysteries the human sacrifice, or the sacrifice of the son to the mother.**^ Just as Attis emasculates himself on account of the mother, so does Christ himself hang upon the tree of life," the wood of martyrdom, the ixarrfy* the chthonic mother, and by that redeems creation from death. By entering again into the mother's womb (Matuta, Pieta of Michelangelo) he redeems in death the sin in life of the primitive man, Adam, in order symbolically through his deed ^^ to procure for the innermost and most hidden meaning of the religious libido its highest satisfaction and most pronounced ex- pression. The martyrdom of Christ has in Augustine as well actually the meaning of a Hierosgamos with the mother (corresponding to the Adonis festival, where Venus and Adonis were laid upon the nuptial couch) :


Frocedit Christus quasi sponsus de thalamo suo, prsesagio nuptiarum exiit ad campum saeculi; pervenit usque ad crucis

• Hecate.


torum (torus has the meaning of bed, pillow, concubine, bier) et ibi firmavit ascendendo conjugium: ubi cum sentiret anhelantem in suspiriis crcaturam commercio pletatis se pro conjuge dedit ad pcenam et copulavit sibi perpetuo iure matronam."

This passage is perfectly clear. A similar death over- takes the Syrian Melcarth, who, riding upon a sea horse, was annually burned. Among the Greeks he is called Melicertes, and was represented riding upon a dolphin. The dolphin is also the steed of Arion. We have learned to recognize previously the maternal significance of dolphin, so that in the death of Melcarth we can once more recognize the negatively expressed Hierosgamos with the mother. (Compare Frazer " Golden Bough," IV, p. 87.) This figurative expression is of the greatest teleological significance. Through its symbol it leads that libido which inclines backward into the original, primitive and Impulsive upwards to the spiritual by in-

vesting it with a mysterious but fruitful function. It is superfluous to speak of the effect of this symbol upon the unconscious of Occidental humanity. A glance over history shows what creative forces were released in this symbol."*

The comparison of the Mithraic and the Christian sacrifice plainly shows wherein lies the superiority of the Christian symbol; it is the frank admission that not only are the lower wishes to be sacrificed, but the whole per- sonality. The Christian symbol demands complete de- votion; it compels a veritable self-sacrifice to a hi^er purpose, while the Sacrlficlum Mlthriacum, remaining fixed on a primitive symbolic stage, is contented with an


animal sacrifice. The religious effect of these symbols must be considered as an orientation of the unconsdous by means of imitation.

In Miss Miller's phantasy there is internal compul- sion, in that she passes from the horse sacrifice to the self-sacrifice of the hero. Whereas the first symbolizes renunciation of the sexual wishes, the second has the deeper and ethically more valuable meaning of the sac- rifice of the infantile personality. The object of psycho- analysis has frequently been wrongly understood to mean the renunciation or the gratification of the ordinary sexual wish, while, in reality, the problem is the sublimation of the infantile personality, or, expressed mythologically, a sacrifice and rebirth of the infantile hero. In the Chris- tian mysteries, however, the resurrected one becomes a supermundane spirit, and the invisible kingdom of Godt with its mysterious gifts, are obtained by his believers through the sacrifice of himself on the mother. In psychoanalysis the infantile personality is deprived of its libido fixations in a rational manner; the libido which is thus set free serves for the building up of a personality matured and adapted to reality, who does willingly and without complaint everything required by necessity. (It is, so to speak, the chief endeavor of the infantile person- ality to struggle against all necessities and to create coer- cions for itself where none exist in reality.)

The serpent as an instrument of sacrifice has already been abundantly illustrated. (Legend of St. Silvester, trial of the virgins, wounding of Re and Philoctetes, sym* holism of the lance and arrow.) It is the destroying


knife; but, according to the principle of the "Decide moriturus " also the phallus, the sacrificial act represents a coitus act as well/* The religious significance of the serpent as a cave-dwelling, chthonic animal points to a further thought; namely, to the creeping into the mother's womb in the form of a serpent." As the horse is the brother, so the serpent is the sister of Chiwantopel. This close relation refers to a fellowship of these animals and their characters with the hero. We know of the horse that, as a rule, he is not an animal of fear, although, mythologically, he has at times this meaning. He sig- nifies much more the living, positive part of the libido, the striving towards continual renewal, whereas the ser- pent, as a rule, represents the fear, the fear of death,'* and is thought of as the antithesis to the phallus. This antithesis between horse and serpent, mythologically be- tween bull and serpent, represents an opposition of the libido within itself, a striving forwards and a striving backwards at one and the same time.'* It is not only as if the libido might be an irresistible striving forward, an endless life and will for construction, such as Schopen- hauer has formulated in his world will, death and every end being some malignancy or fatality coming from with- out, but the libido, corresponding to the sun, also wills the destruction of its creation. In the first half of life its will is for growth, in the second half of life it hintS) softly at first, and then audibly, at its will for death. And just as in youth the impulse to unlimited growth often lies under the enveloping covering of a resistance against life, so also does the will of the old to die frequently lie


under the covering of a stubborn resistance against the end.

This apparent contrast in the nature of the libido is strikingly illustrated by a Priapic statuette in the antique collection at Verona.*' Priapus smilingly points with his finger to a snake biting ofi his " membrum." He carries


a basket on his arm, filled widi oblong objects, probably phalli, evidently prepared as substitutes.

A similar motive Is found in the " Deluge " of Rubens (in the Munich Art Gallery), where a serpent emascu- lates a man. This motive explains the meaning of the " Deluge " ; the maternal sea is also the devouring mother." The phantasy of the world conflagration, ol the cataclysmic end of the world in general, is nothing but a mythological projection of a personal individual will for death; therefore, Rubens could represent the essence of the " Deluge *' phantasy in the emasculation by the serpent; for the serpent is our own repressed iriU


for the end, for which we find an explanation only witU the greatest difficulty.

Concerning the symbolism of the serpent in general. Its significance is very dependent upon the time of life and circumstances. The repressed sexuality of youth is sym- bolized by the serpent, because the arrival of sexuality puts an end to childhood. To age, on the contrary, the serpent signifies the repressed thought of death. WitK our author it is the insufficiently expressed sexuality which as serpent assumes the role of sacrificer and de- livers the hero over to death and rebirth.

As in the beginning of our investigation the hero's name forced us to speak of the symbolism of Popocate- petl as belonging to the creating part of the human body, so at the end does the Miller drama again give us an opportunity of seeing how the volcano assists in the death of the hero and causes him to disappear by means of an earthquake into the depths of the earth. As the volcano gave birth and name to the hero, so at the end of the day it devours him again.®* We learn from the last words of the hero that his longed-for beloved, she who alone understands him, is called Ja-ni-wa-ma. We find in this name those lisped syllables familiar to us from the early childhood of the hero, Hiawatha, Wawa, wama, mama. The only one who really understands us is the mother. For verstehen, " to understand " (Old High German firstdn), is probably derived from a primitive Germanic prefix fri, identical with Tcepl, meaning ** round- about." The Old High German antfriston, " to inter- pret," is considered as identical with firstan. From that


results a fundamental significance of the verb verstehen, " to understand," as " standing round about some- thing." •* Comprehendere and xata<TvXka/i/3av€iv ex- press a similar idea as the German erfassen, to grasp, to comprehend." The thing common to these expres* sions is the surrounding, the enfolding. And there is no doubt that there is nothing in the world which so com- pletely enfolds us as the mother. When the neurotic complains that the world has no understanding, he says indirectly that he misses the mother. Paul Verlaine has expressed this thought most beautifully in his poem, " Mon Reve Familier " :

My Familiar Dream.

" Often I have that strange and poignant dream Of some unknown who meets my flame with flami Who, with each time, is never quite the same,

Yet never wholly different does she seem.

She understands mel Every fitful gleam

Troubling my heart, she reads aright somehow: Even the sweat upon my pallid brow

She soothes with tears, a cool and freshening stream.

" If she is dark or fair? I do not know — Her name? Only that it is sweet and low,

Like those of loved ones who have long since died. Her look is like a statue's, kind and clear ;

And her calm voice, distant and dignified, Like those hushed voices that I loved to hear."




  • He 18 said to have killed himself when he heard that the whom ha

so passionately adored was his mother.

' " Wish Fulfilment and Symbolism in Fairy Tales." T^. I7 W. A. White, M.D.

" " Dream and Myth." Deuticke, Wien 1909.

  • " The Myth of the Birth of the Hero."
  • Die Symbolik in den Legenden, Mflrchen, Gehrindien and

Triumen." Psycfnatrisch,'Niurologische Wochenschrift, X. Jahrgang.

  • " On the Nightmare." Amer. Joum. of Iiuamty, 191a

^ Jahrbuch, 1910, Pt. II.

  • " Die Frommigkeit des Grafen Ludwig yon Zinzendorf. Bin pqfdio-

analytischer Beitrag zur Kenntnis der religiosen Sublimationprozesse und zur Erklarung des Pietismus." Deuticke, Wien 191a We have a suggestive hint in Freud's work, "Bine Kindheitterinnenmg det Leonardo da Vinci." Deuticke, Wien 191a

  • Compare Rank in Jahrbuch, Pt II, p. 465.


  • Compare Liepmann, "Uber Ideenflucht," Halle 1904; alto Jtiii|^

"Diagnost. Assoc. Stud^' P* 103: Denken als Unterordnung outer eine herrschende Vorstellung " ; compare Ebbinf^aai, "Knltor der Gcgen- wart/' p. 221. Kuipe (" Gr. d. Psychologie," p. 464) expreiset himielf in a similar manner: "In thinking it is a question of an anticipatory apperception which sometimes governs a greater, iometimet a nnaller circle of individual reproductions, and is differentiated from acddental motives of reproduction only by the consequence with whidi all thingi outside this circle are held back or repressed."

'In his "Psychologia empirica meth. scientif. pertract," etc, lys^t p. 23, Christian Woll sasrs simply and precisely: "Cogitatio eit actus animae quo sibi rerumque aliarum extra se consda est"

'The moment of adaptation is emphasized especially hj William James in his definition of reasoning: "Let us make this ability to deal with novel data the technical differentia of reasoninff. This will sufficiently mark it out from common associative thinkmg^ and will immediately enable us to say just what peculiarity it contains."

  • " Thoughts are shadows of our ezperiencefl» alwayi darker^ empder,



simpler than these," says Nietzsche. Lotze ("Logik," p. 552) ezpresset himself in rep^ard to this as follows: "Thought, left to the logical laws of its movement, encounters once more at the end of its regularly traversed course the things suppressed or hidden."

' Compare the remarks of Baldwin following in text. The eccentric philosopher Johanii Cicorg Hamann (1730-88) even places intelligence and speech as identical (see Hamann's writings, pub. by Roth, Berlin 1821). With Nietzsche intelligence fares even worse as speedi mctapliysics '* (Sprachmetaphysik). Friedrich Mauthner goes the farthest in this conceptifin (" Sprachc und Psychologic," Z901). For him there exists absolutely no thought without speech, and speaking ii diinking. Ilis idea of the "fetish of the word" governing in science is worthy of notice.

" Compare Kleinpaul : " Das Leben der Spracbe," 3 Binde. Leipzig


' " Jardin d'fepicure," p. 80.

^ It is difficult to calculate how great is the seductive influence of the primitive word-meaning upon a thought. " An3rthing which has even been in consciousness remains as an affective moment in the unconscious," sajrs Ilcrmaim Paul ("Prinzipien der Sprachgeschichte," 4th ed., 1909, p. 2s). The old word-meanings have an after-effect, chiefly imperceptible, "within the dark chamber of the unconscious in the Soul" (Paul). J. G. Ilnniann, mentioned above, expresses himself unequivocably : "Meta- ph>sics reduces all catchwords and all figures of speech of our empirical knowledge to empty hieroglyphics and types of ideal relations." It if said that Kant learned some things from Hamann.

• " Grundriss der Psychologic," p. 365.

'" ** Lchrbuch der Psychologic," X, 26.

"James Mark Baldwin: *' Thought and Things, or Genetic Logic**

^' In this connection I must refer to an experiment which Eber- sclnvciler {yUlgemcine Zeitschrift fur Psychiatrie,^ »9o8) has made at mv rc(|uest, which discloses the remarkable fact that in an association ezperi- nu'Mt the intrapsychic association is influenced by phonetic considerations ( l.'ntcrsuchun<:en iiber den Kinfluss der sprachlichen Komponente auf die Assoziation," AUgemelne Zeitschrift fiir Psychiatrie, 1908).

13 g.

So at least this form of thought appears to Consciousness. Frend says in this connection ("The Interpretation of Dreams," tr. by Brill, p. 41S) : " It is demonstrably incorrect to state that we abandon ourselves to an aimless course of ideas when we relinquish our reflections, and allow the unwilled ideas to emerge. It can be shown that we are able to ri'jcct only those end-presentations known to us, and that immediately upon the cessation of these unknown or, as we inaccurately tay, unoon- S'ious cnd-prcsentations come into play which now determme the course of the unwilled ideas — a thought without end-presentation cannot be pioduccd through any influence we can exert on our own psychic life.

    • " (irundriss der Psychologic," p. 464.

^' Behind this assertion stand, flrst of all, experiences taken from die field of tlie normal. The undirected thinking is very far removed from meditation,** and especially so as far as readiness of speech is con- cerned, lu psychological experiments I have frequently found that tlifl


subjects of the investigation — ^I speak only of cultivated and intelligent people, whom I have allowed to indulge in reveries, apparently unin- tentionally and without previous instruction — have exhibited affect- expressions which can be registered experimentally. But the basic thought of these, even with the best of intentions, they could express only incompletely or even not at all. One meets with an abundance of similar experiences in association experiments and psychoanaly8i»—-in- deed, there is hardly an unconscious complex which has not at some time existed as a phantasy in consciousness.

However, more instructive are the experiences from the domain of psychopathology. But those arising in the field of die hysterias and neuroses, which are characterized by an overwhelming transference tendency, are rarer than the experiences in the territory of the intro- version type of neuroses and psychoses, which constitute by far the greater number of the mental derangements, at least the collected Schizophrenic group of Bleuler. As has already been indicated by the term "introversion," which I briefly introduced m my study, "Konflikte der kind lichen Seele," pp. 6 and lo, these neuroses lead to an over- powering autoerotism (Freud). And here we meet with this unuttera- ble purely phantastic thinking, which moves in inexpressible symbols and feelings. One gets a slight impression of this when one seeks to examine the paltry and confused expressions of these people. As I have frequently observed, it costs these patients endless trouble and effort to put their phantasies into common human speech. A highly intelligent patient, who interpreted such a phantasy piece by piece, often said to me, "I know absolutely with what it is concerned, I see and feel everjrthing^ but it is quite impossible for me to find the words to express it" The poetic and religious introversion gives rise to similar experiences; for example, Paul, in the Epistle to the Romans viii:a6 — ^^For we know not what we should pray for as we ought: but the Spirit itself maketh intercession with groanings which cannot be uttered."

    • Similarly, James remarks, "The great difference, in fact, between

that simple kind of rational thinking which consists in the concrete objects of past experience merely suggesting each other, and reason dis- tinctively so called, is this, that whilst the empirical thinking is only reproductive, reasoning is productive."

    • Compare the impressive description of Petrarch's ascent of Mt;

Ventoux, by Jacob Burckhardt (" Die Kultur der Renaissance in ItalieD," 1869, p. 235):

" One now awaits a dexription of the view, bat in Tain, not because the poet is indifferent to it, but, on the contrary^ because the impression affects him all too strongly. His entire past life, with all its follies, passes before him: he recalls that it is ten years a^ to-day that he, as a young man, left Bologna, and he turns a yearning glance toward Italy. He opens a book — ' Confessions of St Augustine,' his companion at that time — and his eye falls upon this passage in the tenth chapter: ' and the people went there and admired die high mountains, the wide wastes of the sea and the mighty downward rushins streamy and the ocean and the courses of the stars, and forgot themselves.' His brother, to whom he reads these words, cannot comprehend why, at this point, he closes the book and is silent."

"Wundt fi^ves a striking description of the scholastic method in his " Philosophische Studien," XHI, p. 345. The method consists "first in this, that one realizes the chief aim of scientific investigation is the


diKOvtrr of • camprehcniive ■chcme. flmlr •Mibllahcd, and capalile of bcItiK applied in > uniform niaoaei to ih« mixt vsried pt«bicRu; «k- ontily, in that one lay* an nctMivc value upon crnain general Idna, •□d, can(«quenlly, upon the no rd ■symbol* doigniling theac idea*, wherefore (n ■nnlyiiii of word -meaning* come*, in extTtme oisct. to bt ■D empty lubdely and splining of hairs, iaiiead of aa laremigukm of Ibe real ficu from tthich the idea* are abiiracted."

"The concluding passage in " Traunideatung " wM of pnjihnie t!^ nilicaace, and hai been biilliantly eilabliahed »dcc Iben Ihrou^ itn^ati- gation* of the pivchosci. " In ihe piychoie* these modes of optTitiao of ihe piycliic mec^aniiim, normally tupptessed Id the waking ataie, attain heeome operative, and then disclose their inability to latisfy our need* io the outer world." The importance of thi* position ia cmphaiiMd by the views of Pierre Janet, developed EndependcDtly of Freud, and which deserve lo be mentioned here, because they add confinnation from an entirely different side, namely, the biological. Janet make* ih( distinc- tion in thia function of a firmly organiied "inferior" and "aupetiot" part, conceived of as in a state of continuous trantfonnation.

" It 11 really oo this auperior part of (he functions, on iheir adaptatloo to present circumaiaoces, that the neiitose* depend. The neitrosei are the disturbances or the check* in the evolution of the functioaa— the illnesses depending upon the morbid functioning of the organism. These are cbaracterued by an alteration in ihe superior part of the functions, in their evolution and in dieir adapiation to the present momeal — to the present stale of the exterior world and of the individual, and also by tfat absence or delerioration of Ihe old parts of these lame fuiullans.

" In the place of these superior operalioni there are developed physical, mental, and, above ail, emotional disturbance*. This i* only the tendency to replace the superior operations by an exaggeration of certain inferior operations, and especially by gross visceral disturbances" ("Les N*vroses," p. jgj).

The old parts are, indeed, the inferior parts of the fiinctlooi, BBd theM replace, in a purposeless fashion, the abortive atlempis at adaptatioa. Briefly speaking, the archaic replaces the recent function whicb ha* failed. Similar views concerning the nature of neurotic aymptooi* arc expressed by Clapatcde as well (" Quel que* mot* lur la dwollJOD de I'llysterie," drcA. dt Psychol. 1, VH, p. 169).

He understands the hysterogenic mechanism a* a " Tendaaoa 1 Ta rfveraion " — as a sort of atavistic manner of reaction.

"I am indebted to Dr, Abraham for the following inierrsiing cam- municatioD: "A little girl of three and a half years had been pr(s«Died with a llilie brother, who became the object of the well-known diildisb jealousy. Once she *aid to her mother, 'You arc two roammas; yoa arc my msnuoa, and your breait is little brother's mamma.* She bad jnit been looking on with great interest at the process of nutsiog." It is veil characteristic of the archaic thinking of the child for the breaat to b> designated as " mamma."

"Compare especially Freud's thorough invesligatioD of tbc child ia tii* "Analvse der Phobic eJnes fiinfjahrigen Knaben," 1913 Jtlikriiiri, Ft. I. Also my study, " Konflikle der kiodlichen SeelV 1911 JaMudi, Pt. U, p. jj.

""Human, All Too Human," Vol. II, p. a? and on.

" " Sammlung kleiner Scbrifien luc Neuroaenlehta," Pt II, fi. wsj.


    • " Der Kunstler, Ansatze zu einer Sexualpsychologie," 1907, p. 36.

"Compare also Rank's later book, "The Myth of the Birth td the


'* *' Wish Fulfilment and Symbolism in Fairy Tales,** 1908.

" " Dreams and Myths."

" Compare with this " Konflikte der kindlichen Seele," p. 6, foot

'* Compare Abraham, "Dreams and Myths." New York 1913. The wish for the future is represented as already fulfilled in the paet Later, the childish phantasy is again taken up regrestively in order to compensate for the disillusionment of actual life.

"Rank: "The Myth of the Birth of the Hero."

'^ Naturally, it could not be said that because this wai an inedtntion in antiquity, the same would recur in our phantasy, but rather that in antiqui^ it was possible for the phantasy so generally present to become an institution. This may be concluded from the peculiar activity of die mind of antiquity.

" The Dioscuri married the Leucippides by theft, an act which, accord- ing to the ideas of higher antiquity, belonged to the necessary cdatoma of marriage (Preller: "Griechische Mythologie," 2854, Pt II, p. 68).

"Sec S. Creuzer: "SymboJik und Mythologie," 1811, Pt III, p. a45« 

"Compare also the sodomitic phantasies in the Metamorphoses'* of Apuleius. In Herculaneum, for example, corresponding sculptures have been found.

" Ferrero : " Les lois psychologiques du symbolisme."

'* With the exception of the fact that the thoughts enter consdoiisiiesi already in a high state of complexity, as Wunidt sasrs.

"Schelling: "Philosophic der Mythologie," Werke, Pt II, considers the " preconscious " as the creative source, also H. Fichte (" P^vdiologie,** I, p. 508) considers the preconscious region as the place ii origin of the real content of dreams.

"Compare, in this connection, Floumoy: "Des Indes k la plante Mars." Also Jung: "Zur Psychologic und Patholosie sogenannter ok- kulter Phanomene/' and " Uber die Psychologic der i>ementia praccoQE.** Excellent examples are to be found in Schreber: " Denkwflrdi^Eeitcii eines Nervenkranken." Mutze, Leipzig.

" " Jardin d'Epicure."

    • ^The figure of Judas acquires a great psydiological significance as

the priestly sacrificer of the Lamb of God, who, 1^ this act, sacrifices himself at the same time. (Self-destruction.) Compare Pt II of this work.

  • ' Compare with this the statements of Drews ("The Christ Myth"),

which are so violently combated by the blindness of our time. Clear* sighted theologians, like Kaltho£F ("Entstehung des Christentums," X90i)t present as impersonal a judgment as Drews. Kaltho£F says, "The sources from which we derive our information concerning the onpn fsi Christianity are such that in the present state of historical research no historian would undertake the task of writing die biograplgr ol an


historical Jesus." Ibid., p. lo: "To see behind these stories the life of a real historical personage, would not occur to any man, if it were not for the influence of rationalistic theology." Ibid., p. 9: "The divine in Christ, always considered an inner attribute and one with the human, leads in a straight line backward from the scholarly man of God, tiirough the Epistles and Gospels of the New Testament, to the Apocalypse of Daniel, in which the theological imprint of the figure of Christ hat arisen. At every single point of this line Christ shows superhuman traits; nowhere is He that which critical theology wished to make Him, simply a natural man, an historic individual."

    • Compare J. Burckhardt's letter to Albert Brenner (pub. by Hans

Brenner in the Basle Jahrbuch, 1901): "I have absolutely nothing stored away for the special interpretation of Faust You are well provided with commentaries of all sorts. Hark! let us at once take the whole foolish pack back to the reading-room from whence they have come. What you are destined to find in Faust, that you will find by intuition. Faust is nothing else than pure and legitimate mjrth, a great primitive conception, so to speak, in which everyone can divine in hit own way his own nature and destiny. Allow me to make a comparison: What would the ancient Greeks have said had a commentator interposed him- self between them and the Oedipus legend? There was a chord of the Oedipus legend in every Greek which longed to be touched directly and respond in its own way. And thus it is with the German nation and Faust."

  • ' I will not conceal the fact that for a time I was in doubt whether

I dare venture to reveal through analysis the intimate personality which the author, with a certain unselfish scientific interest, has exposed to public view. Yet it seemed to me that the writer would possess an understanding deeper than any objections of my critics. There is always some risk when one exposes one's self to the world. The absence of any personal relation with Miss Miller permits me free speech, and also exempts me from those considerations due woman which are prejudicial to conclusions. The person of the author is on that account just as shadowy to me as are her phantasies; and, like Odysseus, I have tried to let this phantom drink only enough blood to enable it to speak, and in so doing betray some of the secrets of the inner life.

I have not undertaken this analysis, for which the author owes me but little thanks, for the pleasure of revealing private and intimate matters, with the accompanying embarrassment of publicity, but because I widied to show the secret of the individual as one common to alL


^ A very beautiful example of this is found in C. A. Bernoulli: "Frans Overbeck und Friedrich Nietzsche. Bine Freundschaft," i^ (Pt. I, p. 72). This author depicts Nietzsche's behavior in Basle soaety: "Once at a dinner he said to the young lady at his side. 'I dreamed a short time ago that the skin of my hand, which lay before me on the tablet suddenly became like glass, shiny and transparent, through which I saw distinctly the bones and the tissues and the play of the muscles. All at once I saw a toad sitting on my hand and at the same time I felt an irresistible compulsion to swallow the beast. I overcame my terrible aversion and gulped it down.' The young lady laufl^ed. 'And do yoa laugh at that?' Nietzsche asked, his deep eyes fixed on his oompanioiH

pp. 49-86] THE HYMN OF CREATION 491

half questioning, half sorrowful. The young lady knew intuitively that she did not wholly understand that an oracle had spoken to her in the form of an allegory and that Nietzsche had revealed to her a glimpse into the dark abyss of his inner self." On page 166 Bernoulli con- tinues as follows: "One can perhaps see, behind that harmless pleasure of faultless exactness in dress, a dread of contamination arising from some mysterious and tormenting disgust"

Nietzsche went to Basle when he was very young; he was then just at the age when other young people are contemplating marriage. Seated next^ to a young woman, he tells her that something terrible and dis- gusting is taking place in his transparent hand, something which he must take completely into his body. We know what illness caused the premature ending of Nietzsche's life. It was precisely this which he would tell the young lady, and her laughter was indeed discordant

'A whole series of pqrchoanalytic experiences could easily be pro- duced here to illustrate this statement

'Ferenczi: " Intro jektion und Obertragung," JoArbuck, Pt I (191a).


'The choice of words and comparisons is always significant A psychology of travels and the unconscious forces co-operating with them IS yet to be written.

'This mental disturbance had until recently the very unfortunate designation, Dementia Praecox, eiven by Kraepelin. It is extremely un- fortunate that this malady should have been discovered by the psydii- atrists, for its apparently bad prognosis is due to this circumstance. Dementia praecox is synonymous with therapeutic hopelessness. How would hysteria appear if judged from the standpoint of psychiatry I The psychiatrist naturally sees in the institutions only the worst cases of dementia praecox, and as a consequence of his therapeutic helpless- ness he must be a pessimist How deplorable would tuberculosis appear if the physician of an asylum for the incurable described the nosology of this disease 1 Just as little as the chronic cases of hysteria, which gradually degenerate in insane asylums, are characteristic of real hysteria, just so little are the cases of dementia praecox in asylums characteristic of those earlv forms so frequent in general practice, and which Janet has described under the name of Psychasthenia. These cases fall under Bleuler's description of Schizophrenia, a name which connotes a psychological fact, and mi^ht easily be compared with similar facts in hysteria. The term which I use in mjr private work for these conditions is Introversion Neurosis, by which, in my opinion, the most important characteristic of the condition is ^ven, namely, the predominance of introversion over transference, which latter is the characteristic feature of hysteria.

In my *' Psychology of Dementia Praecox " I have not made any study of the relationship of the Psychasthenia of Janet. Subsequent experience with Dementia Praecox, and particularly the study of Psychasthenia in Paris, have demonstrated to me the essential relationship of Janet's group with the Introversion Neuroses (the Schizophrenia of Bleuler).

  • Compare the similar views in my article, " t)ber die Psychologie der

Dementia praecox/' Halle 1907; and * Inhalt der Psychose," Deuticke, Wien 1908. Also Abraham: "Die psychosexuellen Diffierenzen der

492 THE HYMN OF CREATION [pp. 49-86

Hysteric und der Dementia praecox," Zentralhlati fur Nervenheilkunit und Psychiatrie, 1908. This author, in support of Freud, defines the chief characteristic of dementia praecox as Autoerotism, which as I have asserted is only one of the results of Introversion.

  • Freud, to whom I am indebted for an essential part of this view,

also speaks of " Heilungsversuch," the attempt toward cure, the learch for health.

' Miss Miller's publication gives no hint of any knowledge of psycho- analysis.

  • Here I purposely give preference to the term " Imago " rather than

to the expression '* Complex," in order, by the choice of terminology, to invest this psychological condition, which I include under "Imago," with living independence in the psychical hierarchy, that is to say, with that autonomy which, from a large experience, I have claimed as the essentia] peculiarity of the emotional complex. (Compare "The Psychology of Dementia Praecox.") My critics, Isserlin especially, have seen in this view a return to medieval psychology, and they have, there- fore, rejected it utterly. This " return " took place on my part con- sciously and intentionally because the phantastic, projected psychology of ancient and modern superstition, especially demonology, furnishes exhaustive evidence for this point of view. Particularly intereating insight and confirmation is given us by the insane Schreber in an auto- biography (" Denkwiirdigkeiten eines Nervenkranken," Mutze, Leipzig)^ where he has given complete expression to the doctrine of autonomy.

" Imago " has a significance similar on the one hand to the psycho- logically conceived creation in Spitte]er*s novel "Imago," and upon the other hand to the ancient religious conception of " imagine! et laret."

  • Compare my article, " Die Bedeutung des Vaters fur das Schicksal

des Einzelnen."

' As is well known, Anaxagoras developed the conception that die living primal power (Urpotenz) of vwt^ (mind) imparts movement, as if by a blast of wind, to the dead primal power (Urpotenz) of matter. There is naturally no mention of sound. This vo^, which is very similar to the later conception of Philo, the ^^/oc owep/iaTiKdt of the Gnostics and the Pauline Trvevfia (spirit) as well as to the wevfia of the contemporary Christian theologians, has rather the old mythological significance of the fructifying breath of the winds, which impregnated the mares of Lusitania, and the Egyptian vultures. The animation of Adam and the impregnation of the Mother of God by the nvevfia are pro- duced in a similar manner. The infantile incest phantasy of one of mf patients reads: "the father covered her face with his hands and blew into her open mouth."

  • Haydn's " Creation " might be meant

""See Job xvi:i-ii.

^' I recall the case of a young insane girl who continually imagined that her innocence was suspected, from which thought she wouldnoC allow herself to be dissuaded. Gradually there developed out of her defensive attitude a correspondingly energetic positive erotomania.

" Compare the preceding footnote with the text of Miss Miller's.

^'The case is published in "Zur Psychologic und PatfaologiB sogenannter okkulter Phauomene." Mutze, Leipzig 190s.

pp. 49-86] THE HYMN OF CREATION 493


Compare Freud's "Analyse der Phobie eines filnfj&hrigeo KnabeD," Jahrbuch, Vol. I. ist half; also Jung: "Konflikte der kindlichen Seele." Jahrbuch, II, Vol. I.

  • ' Others do not make use of this step, but are directly carried away

by Eros.

'* " La sagesse et la destin6e."

  • 'This time I shall hardly be spared the reproach of nayitlcism. But

perhaps the facts should be further considered; doubtless the unconsdoui contains material which does not rise to the threshold of consciousness. The analjTsis dissolves these combinations into their historical deter- minants, for it is one of the essential tasks of analysis to render impotent by dissolution the content of the complexes competing with the proper conduct of life. Psychoanalysis works backwards like the science 6t history. Just as the largest part of the past is so far removed diat it it not reached by history, so too the greater part of the unconscious de- terminants is unreachable. History, however, knows nothing of two kinds of things, that which is hidden in the past and that which it hidden in the future. Both perhaps might be attained with a certain probability; the first as a postulate, the second as an historical prog- nosis. In so far as to-morrow is already contained in to-day, and all the threads of the future are in place, so a more profound knowled^ of the past might render possible a more or less far-reaching and certam knowledge of the future. Let us transfer this reasoning, as Kant hat already done, to psychology. Then necessarily we must come to the tame result. Just as traces of memory long since fallen below the threshold of consciousness are accessible in the unconscious, so too there are certain very fine subliminal combinations of the future, which are of the greatest significance for future happenings in so far ai the future is conditioned by our own psychology. But just so little at the adenoe of history concerns itself with the combinations for the future, which ii the function of politics, so little, also, are the psjrchologica] combinations for the future the object of analjrsis; they would be much more the object of an infinitely refined psychological synthesis, which attempts to follow the natural current of the libido. This we cannot do, but possibly this might happen in the unconscious, and it appears as if from time to dme, in certain cases, significant fragments of this process come to li|^t, at least in dreams. From this comes the prophetic significance fd the dream long claimed by superstition.

The aversion of the scientific man of to-day to this type of thlnlrlng^ hardly to be called phantastic, is merely an overcompensation to the very ancient and all too great inclination of mankind to believe in prophciiea and superstitions.

  • ' Dreams seem to remain spontaneouslv in the memory just ao long at

they give a correct r6sum6 of the psychologic situation of the indiviouaL

^* How paltry are the intrinsic ensemble and the detail fd the erotic experience, is shown by this frequently varied love aong which I quote in its epirotic form:

EpiRonc Love Song

(Ziitschrift des Vereines fiir Folkskunde, XII, p. 159.)

O Maiden, when we kissed, then it was night; who taw us?

A night Star saw us, and the moon.

And it leaned downward to the sea, and gave it the ttdii^

494 THE HYMN OF CREATION [pp. 49^6

Then the Sea told the rudder, the rudder told the tailor,

The sailor put it into song, then the neighbor heard it,

Then the priest heard it and told my mother.

From her the father heard it, he got in a burning anger,

They quarrelled with me and commanded me and they have forlnddcD mt

Ever to go to the door, ever to go to the window.

And yet I will go to the window as if to my flowers,

And never will I rest till my beloved is mine.

Jobxli:i3 (Leviathan). " 21. His breath kindleth coals, and a flame goeth out of hii moodL " 22. In his neck remaineth strength, and sorrow is turned into joy

before him. "24. His heart is as firm as a stone; yea, at hard at a piece of the

nether millstone. "25. When he raiseth up himself, the mighty are afraid: by reaton

of breakings they purify themselves. " 33- Upon earth there is not his like who it made without fear. " 34. He beholdeth all high things: he is a king over all the children of pride." Chapter xlii. " X. Then Job answered the Lord, and said,

" 2. I know that thou canst do everything, and that no thought can be withholden from thee."

  • ' The theriomorphic attributes are lacking in the Chriatian relipon

except as remnants, such as the Dove, the Fish and the Lnmb. The latter is also represented as a Ram in the drawings in the Catacombt. Here belong the animals associated with the Evangelists which particu- larly need historical explanation. The Eagle and me Lion were definite degrees of initiation in the Mithraic mysteries. The worahippera of Dionysus called themselves ^ec because the god was represented as a bull ; likewise the &pKTot of Artemis, conceived of as a ahe-bear. The Angel might correspond to the i^Mftofioi of the Mithrat mytteriek It is indeed an exquisite invention of the Christian phantaay that the animal coupled with St. Anthony is the pig, for the good taint waa one of those who were subjected to the devil's most evil temptationa.

'* Compare Pfister's notable article: "Die Frommi^Leit dea Grafen Ludwig von Zinzendorf." Wien 1910.

"The Book of Job, originating at a later period under non-Jewiah influences, is a striking presentation of individual projection pagrcfaology.

'* " If we say we have no sin, we deceive cartel vet, and the truth it

not in us" (I John 1:8).

" " Surely he has borne our griefs and carried our lorrowa "


^* " Bear ye one another's burdens" (Galatiant vi:a).

'* God is Love, corresponding to the platonic " Eroa ** whidi onitet humanity with the transcendental.

'" Compare Reitzenstein (" Die hellenistischen Mjrtterienreligionen," Leipzig and Berlin 1910, p. 20) : " Among the various forma with which a primitive people have represented the highest religpoua conaecratioab union with God, belongs necessarily that of the tezual union, in which man attributes to his semen the innermost nature and power of God.

pp. 49-86] THE HYMN OF CREATION 495

That which was io the first instance wholly a sensual act becomes in the most widely separated places, independently, a sacred act, in which the god is represented by a human deputy or his symbol the Phallus."

'* Take as an example among many others the striking psjrchologic de- scription of the fate of Alypius, in the " Confessions " of St Augustine (Bk. VI, Ch. 7): "Only the moral iniquity of Carthage, expressed in the absolute wildness of its worthless spectacles, had drawn him down into the whirlpool of this misery. [Augustine, at that time a teacher of Logic, through his wisdom had converted Alypius.] He rose up after those words from the depths of the mire, into which he had willingly let himself be submerged, and which had blinded him with fatal pleasure. He stripped the filth from o£F his soul with courageous abstemioatneit. All the snares of the Hippodrome no longer perplexed him. Thereupon Alypius went to Rome in order to stud^r law; there he became a back- slider. He was transported to an unbelievable degree b^ an unfortunate passion for gladiatorial shows. Although in the beginning he abom- inated and cursed these shows, one evening some of his friends and fellow-students, whom he met after they had dined, in spite of hit pas- sionate refusals and the exertion of all the power of his resistance, dragged him with friendly violence to the Amphitheatre on the occasion of a cruel and murderous exhibition. At the time he said to them, 'If you drag my body to that place and hold it there, can you turn my mind and my eyes to that spectacle ? ' In spite of his supplicationt they dragged him with them, eager to know if he would be able to resist the spectacle. When they arrived they sat down where place was still left, and all glowed with inhuman delight. He closed his eyes and forba.de his soul to expose itself to such danger. O, if he had also stopped up his ears! When some one fell in combat and all the people set up a mif^hty shout, he stifled his curiosity and prepared proudly to scorn the sight, confident that he could view the spectacle if he so desired. And his soul was overcome with terrible wounds, like the wounds oi the body which he desired to see, and souls more miserable than the one whose fall had caused the outcry, which pressing through his ears, had opened his eyes, so that his weakness had been bared. Through this he could be struck and thrown down, for he had the feeling of confidence more than strength, and he was the wester because he trusted himself to this and not to Thee. When he saw the blood, then at the same time he drew in the desire for blood, and no longer turned away but directed his looks thither. The fury took possession of him and sret he did not know it; he took delight in the wicked combat and was intoxi- cated by the bloody pleasure. Now he was no longer the sam? as when he had come, and he was the true accomplice of those who first had dragged him there. What more is there to say? He saw, he cried out^ he was inflamed, and he carried away with him the insane longings which enticed him again to return, not only in the company of those who first had dragged him with them, but going ahead of all and leading others."

'^Compare the prayer of the so-called Mithraic Liturgy (pub. by Dieterich). There, characteristic places are to be found, such for in- stance as: r^C avOpuirivjK fiov ^pvxtK^ Swd/uuf ijv tyii w6^ fieTairapaXift:flfO/i(U fura riTv kvearuaav koX KartiriiycwT&v /ie wucpdv av6ynf» dxpeog6iniTo» (The human soul force which I, weighed down by guilt, would again attain, because of the present bitter need oppressing me), hruiahwfuu Ivmo rfc


Kartrretyoi'ffr^ Kai wixpac awaftatr^ov avAyiajc (On account of the opprest- ing bitter and inexorable need).

From the speech of the High Priest (Apuleius: " Metamorphotes," lib. XI, 248) a similar train of thought may be gathered. The young philosopher Lucius was changed into an ass, that continuously rutting animal which Isis hated. Later he was released from the enchantment and initiated into the mysteries of Isis. When he was freed from the spell the priest speaks as follows: "Lubrico virentis aetatulae, ad aervilet delapsus voluptates, curiositatis improsperae sinistrum praemium re- portasti. — Nam in eos, quorum sibi vitas servitium Deae nostrae ma- jcstas vindicavit, non habet locum casus infestus — ^in tutelam jam receptua es Fortunae, sed videntis " (But falling into the slavery of pleaaure, in the wantonness of buxom youth, you have reaped the inauspicioui reward of your ill-fated curiosity — for direful calamity has no power over thoie whose lives the majesty of our Goddess has claimed for her own service. — You are now received under the guardianship of fortune, but of a fortune who can see). In the prayer to the Queen of Heaven, Isiii Lucius says: "Qua fatorum etiam inextricabiliter contorta retractas licia et Fortunae tempestates mitigas, et stellarum noxios meatus cohibei** (By which thou dost unravel the inextricably entangled threads of the fates, and dost assuage the tempests of fortune and restrain the malign nant influences of the stars). — Generally it was the purpose of the rite to destroy the " evil compulsion of the star " by magic power.

The power of fate makes itself felt unpleasantly only when everything goes against our will; that is to say when we no longer find ourselves in harmony with ourselves. As I endeavored to show in my article, " Die Bedeutung des Vaters," etc., the most dangerous power of fate lies in the infantile libido fixation, localized in the unconscious. The power of fate reveals itself at closer range as a compulsion of the libido; wherefore Maeterlinck justly says that a Socrates could not possibly be a tragic hero of the type of Hamlet. In accordance with this conception the ancients had already placed eifinpj^hn (destiny) in relation to "Primal Light," or "Primal Fire." In the Stoic conception of the primal causey the warmth spread everywhere, which has created everything and which is therefore Destiny. (Compare Cumont: " Mysterien des Mithra/' p. 83.) This warmth is, as will later be shown, a symbol of the libido. Another conception of the Ananke (necessity) is, according to the Book of Zoroaster, Trrpi ^var.(j^ (concerning nature), that the air as wind had once a connection with fertility. I am indebted to Rev. Dr. Keller of Zurich for calling my attention to Bergson's conception of the "dur^e creatrice."

'^Schiller says in " Wallenstein": "In your breast lie the constella- tions of your fate." "Our fates are the result of our personality," says Emerson in his " Essays." Compare with this my remarks in " Die

Bedeutung des Vaters."

The ascent to the "Idea" is described with unusual beauty in Augustine (Bk. X, Ch. 8). The beginning of Ch. 8 reads: "I will raise myself over this force of my nature, step by step ascending to Him who has made me. I will come to the fields and the spacious palaces of wj memory."

"The followers of Mithra also called themselves Brothers. In philosophical speech Mithra was Logos emanating from God. (Cumont: " Myst. des Mithra," p. 102.)

Besides the followers of Mithra there existed many Brotherhoodsi

pp. 49-86] THE HYMN OF CREATION 497

which were called Thiasai and probably were the organization! from which the Church developed later. (A. Kalthoff: "Die Entstehung det Christentums.")

    • Augustine, who stood in close relation to that period of transition not

only in point of time but also intellectually, writes in his ** Confetsiont " (Bk. VI, Ch. 16) :

" Nor did I, unhappy, consider from what source it sprung, that even on these things, foul as they were, I with pleasure discoursed with my carnal pleasures. And yet these friends I loved for themselves only, and friends; nor could I, even according to the notions I then had of happiness, be happy without friends, amid what abundance soever of I felt that I was beloved of them for myself only. O, crooked paths I Woe to the audacious soul, which hoped, by forsaking Thee, to j^ain some better thing 1 Turned it hath, and turned again, upon back, sides, and belly, yet all was painful, and Thou alone rest!" (Trans, by Pusey.)

It is not only an unpsychologic but also an unscientific method of procedure to characterize offhand such effects of religion as suggestion. Such things are to be taken seriously as the expression of the deepest psychologic need.

^ " Both religions teach a pronounced ascetic morally, but at the tame time a morality of action. The last is true also of Mithracism. Cumont says that Mithracism owed its success to the value of its morale: "This stimulated to action in an extraordinary degree" (" Myst. des Mithra"). The followers of Mithra formed a "sacred legion" for battle against evil, and among them were virgins (nuns) and continents (ascetics). Whether these brotherhoods had another meaning-^at is, an economic- communistic one — is something I will not discuss now. Here only the religious-psychologic aspects interest us. Both religions have in commoii the idea of the divine sacrifice. Just as Christ sacrificed himself as the Lamb of God, so did Mithra sacrifice his Bull. This sacrifice in both religions is the heart of the Mysteries. The sacrificial death of O^rist means the salvation of the world; from the sacrifice of the bull of Mithra the entire creation springs.

    • This analytic perception of the roots of the Mystery Religions is

necessarily one-sided, just as is the analysis of the basis o^ the religious poem. In order to understand the actual causes of the repression in Miss Miller one must delve into the moral history of the present; just as one is obliged to seek in the ancient moral and economic histo^ the actual causes of repression which have given rise to the Msrstery cults. This investigation has been brilliantly carried out b^ Kalthotf. (See his book, " Die Entstehung des Christentums," Leipzig 1904.) I also refer especially to Pohlmann's " Geschichte des antiken Kommunismus und Sozialismus"; also to Biicher: "Die Aufstande der unfreien Arbeiter 143 bis 129 V. Chr.," 1874.

The other cause of the enormous introversion of the libido in antiquity is probably to be found in the fact that an unbelievably lar^ part of the people suffered in the wretched state of slavery. It is inevitable that finally those who bask in good fortune would be infected in the mys- terious manner of the unconscious, b^ the deep sorrow and still deeper misery of their brothers, through which some were driven into orgiastic furies. Others, however, the better ones, sank into that strange world* weariness and satiety of the intellectuals of that time; Thus from two sources the great introversion was made possible.

498 THE SONG OF THE MOTH [pp. 87-126

Compare Freod: "The Interpretation of the Dream."

"Compare Freud: "Sublimation," in "Three Contributiona to the Sexual Theory."

'* In a manner which is closely related to my thouf^t, Kalthoff ("Entstehung des Christentums") understandi the secularizing of the religious interest as a new incarnation of the ^yoc (word). He la^: " The profound grasp of the soul of nature evidenced in modern painting and poetry, the living intuitive feeling which even science in its moit austere works can no longer do without, enables us easily to underatand how the Logos of Greek philosophy which assigned its place in the world to the old Christ type, clothed in its world-to-come significance cele- brated a new incarnation."

  • ^ It seems, on account of the isolation of the cult, that this fact wai

the cause of its ruin as well, because the eyes of that time were blinded to the beauty of nature. Augustine (Bk. X, Ch. 6) very justly remarks: " But they [men] were themselves undone throu^ love for her [crea- tion]."

  • ' Augustine (ibid.) : " But what do I love when I love Thee, Oh God?

Not the bodily form, nor the earthly sweetness, nor the splendor of the light, so dear to these eyes; nor the sweet melodies of the richly varied songs; not the flowers and the sweet scented ointments and aptcca of lovely fragrance; not manna and honey; not the limbs of the body whose embraces are pleasant to the flesh. I do not love these when I love my God, and yet the light, the voice, the fragrance, the food, the embrace of my inner man; when these shine into my soul, which no space contains, which no time takes away, where there is a fragrance which the wind does not blow away, where there is a taste which no gluttony diminishes and where harmony abides which no satiety can remove — ^that is what I love, when I love my God." (Perhapa a model for Zarathustra: "Die sieben Siegel," Nietzsche's works, VI, p. 33 £F.)

    • Cumont: "Die Mysterien des Mithra. Bin Beitrag zur Religions-

geschichte der romischen Kaiserzeit." Obersetzt von Gehricfa, Leipzig 1903, p. 109.

  • '4ist Letter to Lucilius.
    • Ibid.


' Complexes are apt to be of the greatest stability, altfaourii their outward forms of manifestation change kaleidoscopically. A large number of experimental studies have entirely convinced me ik this fact

'Julian the Apostate made the last^ unsuccessful attempt to cause the

triumph of Mithracism over Christianity.

' This solution of the libido problem was brought about in a sinular manner by the flight from the world during the first Christian century. (The cities of the Anchorites in the deserts of the Orient.) People mortified themselves in order to become spiritual and thus escape the extreme brutality of the decadent Roman civilization. Aacetidsm ii forced sublimation, and is always to be found where die animal impulses are still so strong that they must be violently exterminated. The masked self-murder of the ascetic needs no further biologic proof.

pp. 87-126] THE SONG OF THE MOTH 499

Chamberlain (*' Foundations of the Nineteenth Century") sees in the problem a biologic suicide because of the enormous amount of illegitimacy among Mediterranean peoples at that time. I believe that illegitimacy tends rather to mediocrity and to living for pleasure. It appears after all that diere were, at that time, fine and noble people who, disgusted with the frightful chaos of that period which was merely an expression of the disruption of the individual, put an end to their lives, and thus caused the death of the old civilization with its endless wickedness.

  • Aitof (Justice), daughter of Zeus and Themis, who, after the Golden

Age, forsook the degenerate earth.

'Thanks to this eclogue, Virgil later attained the honor of being t semi-Christian poet To this he owes his position as guide to Dante.

  • Both are represented not only as Christian, but also as Pagan. £•-

sener and Therapeuten were quasi orders of the Anchorites living in the desert. Probably, as, for instance^ may be learned from Apuleius ("Metamorphoses," lib. XI), there existed small settlements of mystict or consecrated ones around the sacred shrines of Isis and Mithnu Sexual abstinence and celibacy were also known.

  • " Below the hills, a marshy plain

Infects what I so long have been retrieving: This stagnant pool likewise to drain Were now my latest and my best achieving. To many millions following let me furnish soil.**

The analogy of this expression with the quotation above it striking.

'Compare Breuer and Freud: "Studien Gber Hysteric"; also Blenler: "Die Psychoanalyse Freuds," Jahrbuch, 1910, Vol. II, 2nd half.

' Faust (in suicide monologue) :

"Out on the open ocean speeds my dreaming! The glassy flood before my feet is gleaming I A new day beckons to a newer shore 1

A flery chariot, borne on buoyant pinions, Sweeps near me now; I soon shall ready be To pierce the ether's high, unknown dominiona, To reach new spheres of pure activity I This godlike rapture, this supreme existence Do I, but now a worm, deserve to track? Yes, resolute to reach some brighter distance; On Earth's fair sun I turn my oackl • « • . •

Ah, that no wing can lift me from the soil, Upon its tract to follow, follow soaring! Then would I see eternal Evening gild The silent world beneath me glowing.

. . . . •

And now before mine eyes expands the ocean, V^ith all its bays in shining sleep!

. a . • •

The newborn impulse firei my mind, I hasten on, his beams eternal drinking.**

We see it is the same longing and the same sun*

50O THE SONG OF THE MOTH [pp. 87-126

  • • Compare Jung: "Diapnost. Assoc. Stud."; also "The Psychology of

Dementia Praecox," Chs. II and III.

^^ According to the Christian conception God is Love,

" Apuleius ('* Met./' lib. XI, 257) : " At manu dextera gerebam flunmit adultam facem: et caput decora corona cinxerat palmae candidae foliit in modum radiorum prosistentibus. Sic ad instar solis exornato et in vicem simulacri constituto" (Then in my right hand I carried a burning torch; while a graceful chaplet encircled my head, the shining leaves of the palm tree projecting from it like rays of light. Thus arrayed like the sun, and placed so as to resemble a statue).

" The parallel in the Christian mysteries is the crowning with the crown of thorns, the exhibition and mocking of the Savior.

^* In the same way the Sassanian Kings called themselves " Brothers of the Sun and of the Moon." In Eg>'pt the soul of every ruler was m reduplication of the Sun Horus, an incarnation of the sud.

""The rising at day out of the Underworld." Erman: "Aegypten," p. 409.

" Compare the coronation above. Feather, a symbol of power. Feather crown, a crown of rays, halo. Crowning, as such, is an identi- fication with the sun. For example, the spiked crown upon the Roman coins made its appearance at the time when the Canars were identified with Sol invictus ("Solis invicti comes"). The halo is the same, that is to say, an image of the sun, just as is the tonsure, llie priests ctf Isis had smooth-shaven heads like stars. (See Apuleius, "Metamorphoses.")

^' Compare with this my statements in " Uber die Bedeutung des Vateri fiir das Schicksal des Einzelneu." Deuticke, VVien.

^" In the text of the so-called Mithra Liturgy are these lines: '"E76 tlfii (T{'fi'T?.ai'o^ i'fiiv aoTT/p Kai Ik tov /SaOotf avaXdftiruv — ravrd mv eiir&yro^ eiO^uf 6 dioKoc u7:?.tJiT/onTai" (I am a star wandering about with you and flam- ing up from the depths. When thou hast said this, immediately the disc of the sun will unfold). The mystic through his prayers implored the divine power to cause the disc of the sun to expand. In the same way Rostand's " Chantecler " causes the sun to rise by his crowing.

" For verily I say unto you. If ye have faith as a grain of mustard seed, ye shall say unto this mountain. Remove hence to yonder place; and it shall remove; and nothing shall be impossible unto 3rou" (Mat^ thew xviiizo).

^* Compare especially the words of the Gospel of John: "I and my Father are one" (John x:3o). "He that hath seen me hath seen the Father" (John xiv:9). "Believe me that I am in the Father, and the Father in me" (John xiv:ii). "I came forth from the Father, and am come into the world; again, I leave the world, and go to the Father" (John xvi:28). "I ascend unto my Father, and your Father; and to my God, and your God" (John xxiiy).

" See the footnote on p. 137 of text.

" Two-bodied : an obscure epithet, if one does not admit diat the dual life of the redeemed, taught in the mysteries of that time, was attributed to God, that is to say, to the libido. Compare the Pauline conception of the oufia aapKUi/tv and TrrevfiariKdv (carnal and spiritual body). In the Mithraic worship, Mithra seems to be the divine spirit^ while Helios

pp. 87-126] THE SONG OF THE MOTH 501

is the material god; to a certain extent the visible lieutenant of the divinity. Concerning the confusion between Christ and Sol, tee below.

"Compare Freud: "Three Contributions to the Sexual Theory."

"Renan ("Dialogues et fragments philosophiques," p. 168) uljm: "Before religion had reached the stage of proclaiming that God must be put into the absolute and ideal, that is to say, beyond this world, one worship alone was reasonable and scientific: that was the worship of the sun."

'^Buber: "Ekstat. Konfess.," p. 51 and on.

" " Liebesgesange an Gott/' cited by Buber: "Ekstat Konfess.," p. 40. An allied symbolism is found in Carlyle: "The great fact of exist- ence is great to him. Fly as he will, he can not ^t out of the awful presence of this reality. His mind is so made; he is great by that first of all. Fearful and wonderful, real is life, real is death, is this universe to him. Though all men should forget its truth, and walk in a vain show, he can not. At all moments the Flame-image glares in upon him" ("Heroes and Hcro-Worship").

One can select from literature at random. For example, S. Friedl&nder (Berlin-Halensee) says in Jugend, 1910, No. 35, p. 823: "Her longing demands from the beloved only the purest. Like the sun, it bums to ashes with the flame of excessive life, which refuses to be light," and so on.

"Buber: Ibid., p. 45.

" I emphasize this passage because its idea contains the psycholos^l root of the "Wandering of the soul in Heaven," the conception of wnidi is very ancient. It is a conception of the wandering sun which from its rising to its setting wanders over the world. The wandering godi are representations of the sun, that is, symbols of the libido. This comparison is indelibly impressed in the human phantasy as it shown by the poem of Wesendonck:


The sun, every evening weeping, Reddens its beautiful eyes for yon; When early death seizes you, Bathing in the mirror of the sea.

Still in its old splendor The glory rises from the dark world ; You awaken anew in the morning Like* a proud conqueror.

Ah, why then should I lament, WTicn my heart, so heavy^ sees you? Must the sun itself despair? Must the sun set?

And does death alone bear life? Do griefs alone give joys? O, how grateful I am that Such pains have given me nature I

Another parallel is in the poem of Ricarda Huch: As the earth, separating from the tun. Withdraws in quick flight into the itomiy ni|^t,

502 THE SONG OF THE MOTH [pp. 87-126

Starring the naked body with cold snow, Deafened, it takes away the summer joy. And sinking deeper in the shadows of winter, Suddenly draws close to that which it flees, Sees itself warmly embraced with rosy light Leaning against the lost consort. Thus I went, suffering the punishment of exile, Away from your countenance, into the ancient place. Unprotected, turning to the desolate north, Always retreating deeper into the sleep o^ death; And then would I awake on your heart, Blinded by the splendor of the dawn.

'*The whistling and snapping is a tasteless, archaic relic, an alluie- ment for the theriomorphic divinity, probably also an infantile rem- iniscence (quieting the child by whistling and snapping). Of aimilar significance is the roaring at the divinity. ("Mithr. Lit., P- 13): "You are to look at him and give forth a long roar, as with a horn, using all your breath, pressing your sides, and kiss the amulet . . . etc." "My soul roars with the voice of a hungry lion," says Mechthild von Magde- burg. "As the hart panteth after the water brooks, so panteth my soul after God." — Psalms xlii : 2. The ceremonial custom, as so often happeni, has dwindled into a figure of speech. Dementia praecoz, however, revivifies the old custom, as in the " Roaring miracle " of Schreber. See the latter's " Denkwiirdigkeiten eines Nervenkranken," by which he de- mands that God, i.e. the Father, so inadequately oriented with humanity, take notice of his existence.

The infantile reminiscence is clear, that is, the childish cry to attract the attention of the parent to himself; the whistling and smacking for the allurement of the theriomorphic attribute, the "helpful animal." (See Rank: "The Myth of the Birth of the Hero.")

'*The water-god Sobk, appearing at a crocodile, was identified with Re.

•• Erman : " Aegypten," p. 354.

    • £rman: Ibid., p. 355.

•* Compare above aaripac nevTadaicrvXiaiavg (" five-fingered ttan ").

" The bull Apis is a manifestation of Ptah. The bull ii a well-known

symbol of the sun.

■* Amon.

" Sobk of FaijunL

" The God of Dedu in the Delta, who was wonhipped as a piece of

wood. (Phallic.)

" This reformation, which was inaugurated with mndi f anatidiai,

soon broke down.

" Apulcius, " Met," lib. XI. p. 239.

    • It is noteworthy that the humanists too (I am thinking of an cxpret-

sion of the learned^ Mutianus Rufus) soon perceived that antiquity had but two gods, that is, a masculine god and a feminine god.

  • ° Not only was the light- or fire-substance ascribed to the dirinity

but also to the soul; as for example in the system of Mini, as well at

pp. 87-126] THE SONG OF THE MOTH 503

among the Greeks, where it was characterized as a fiery breath of air. The Holy Ghost of the New Testament appears in the form of flames around the heads of the Apostles, because the ^vvbfta was under- stood to mean "fiery" (Dieterich: Ibid., p. ii6). Very similar is the Iranian conception of Hvarend, by which is meant the "Grace of Heaven" through which a monarch rules. By "Grace" is understood a sort of fire or shining glory, something very substantial (Cumont: Ibid., p. 70). We come across conceptions allied in character in Kemer's " Seherin von Prevorst," and in the case published by me, " Psycholo^e und Pathologie sogenannter occulter Ph&nomene." Here not only the souls consist of a spiritual light-substance, but the entire world is con- structed according to the white-black system of the Manichcans— and this by a fifteen-year-old girl! The intellectual over-accomplishment which I observed earlier in this creation, is now revealed as a con- sequence of energetic introversion, which again roots up deep historical strata of the soul and in which I perceive a regression to the memorica of humanity condensed in the unconscious.

  • ^ I add to this a quotation from Firmicus Matemus (Mathes. I, 5, %

cit. by Cumont: "Textes et Monuments," I, p. 40): "Cui (animo) descensus per orbem solis tribuitur" (To this spirit the descent through the orb of the sun is attributed).

  • ' St. Hieronymus remarks, concernin|; Mitfara who was bom in a

miraculous manner from a rock, that this birth was the result of "solo aestu libidinis" (merely through the heat of the libido) (Camont: "Textes et Monuments," I, p. 163).

^'Mead: "A Mithraic Ritual." London 1907, p. aa.

    • I am indebted to my friend and co-worker. Dr. Riklin, for tiie

knowledge of the following case which presents an interesting symbolismii It concerns a paranoic who passed over into a manifest niegalomaiiiac in the following way: She suddenly saw a strong light, a vind blew upon her, she felt as if "her heart turned over," and from diat moment the knew that God had visited her and was in her.

I wish to refer here to the interesting correlation of mythological and pathological forms disclosed in the analytical investigation of Dr. 8. Spielrein, and expressly emphasize that she has discovered tiie syn^ bolisms presented by her in the Jahrbuch, through independent experi- mental work, in no way connected with my work.

  • ' According to the Chaldean teaching die tun oocapict tke middle

place in the choir of the seven planets.

    • The Great Bear consists of seven start.

^' Mithra is frequently represented with a knife In one hand and a torch in the other. The knife as an instrument of sacrifice playt an important rdle in his myth.

" Ibid.

  • ' Compare with this the scarlet mantle of Heliot in die Mithra lltargy.

It was a part of the rites of the various cults to be dressed in the bloody skins of the sacrificial animals, as in the Lupercalia, Dionyiia and Saturnalia, the last of which has bequeathed to us the Carnival, die typical figure of which, in Rome, was the priapic Puldnella.

504 THE SONG OF THE MOTH [pp. 87-126

"" Compare the linen-clad retinue of Heliot. Also the bull-headed gods wear white irept^6/tara (aprons).

•M^he title of Mithra in Vendidad XIX, 28; cit. by Cumont: "Textet et Monuments," p. 37.

" The development of the sun 8>Tnbol in Faust does not go fti far as an anthropomorphic vision. It stops in the suicide scene at the chariot of Helios ("A fiery chariot borne on buoyant pinions sweeps near me now"). The fiery chariot comes to receive the dying or departing heroj as in the ascension of Elijah or of Mithra. (Similarly Francis of Assisi.) In his flight Faust passes over the sea, just as does Mithra. The ancient Christian pictorial representations of the ascension of Elijah are partly founded upon the corresponding Mithraic representa- tions. The horses of the sun-chariot rushing upwards to Heaven leave the solid earth behind, and pursue their course over a water god, Oceanus^ lying at their feet. (Cumont: *' Textes et Monuments." Bruzellet 1899^ I, p. 178.)

" Compare my article, *' Psych, und Path. sog. occ. Phftn."

'* Quoted from Pitra: "Analecta sacra," cit. by Cumont: "Testes et Monuments," p. 355.

"Cited from Usener: " Weihnachtsfest," p. 5.

"The passage from Malachi is found in chap, iv, s: "But unto you that fear my name shall the Sun of Righteousness arise with healing in His wings" (feathers). This figure of speech recalls the Egyptian sua symbol.

"Cumont: "Textes et Monuments," t. I, p. 355. rtfi 6ffTpov6funf.

" The pictures in the Catacombs contain much symbolism of the son. The Swastika cross, for example — a well-known image of the sun, wheel of the sun, or sun's feet — is found upon the garment of Fossor Diogenes in the cemett*ry of Peter and Marcellinus. The symbols of the rising sun^ the bull and the ram, are found in the Orpheus fresco of die cemetery of the holy Domitilla. Similarly the ram and the peacock (which, like the phoenix, is the symbol of the sun) is found upon an epitaph of the Callistus Catacomb.

"Compare the countless examples in Gdrres: "Die chriitliche Mystik."

'** Compare Leblant : " Sarcophagea de la Gaule," i88a In the " Homi- lies" of Clement of Rot : ("Hom.," II, 23, cit. by Cumont) it is said: T^ KVfii(ft yeyovdmv ^6(^rKa airdoTn^ot Ttitv Tov ^Xiav 66SeKa fafifw fipmms rbv apiOfidif (The twelve apostles of the Lord, havinff the number of the twelve months of the sun). As is apparent, this idea it concerned with the course of the sun through the Zodiac. Without wishing to enter upon an interpretation of the Zodiac, I mention that, according to die ancient view (probably Chaldean), the course of the sun was represented by a snake which carried the sij^ns of the Zodiac on its back (similarly to the Leontocephalic God of the Mithra mysteries). This view is proven by a passage from a Vatican Codex edited by Cumont in another coo- nection (190, saec. XIII, p. 229, p. 85): "r^e 6 irdvoojtof d^/uavpy^ ttftf vevfmri rKivfjat tov fiiyav ApaKovra avv Tt^ KtKooiuiiitvt^ art^w^^ Xiytt d% rd i/P Cy- <J«i, /toaraCovra km tov vutov oiroii" (The all-wise maker of the world set in motion the great dragon with the adorned crowng with a

pp. 87-126] THE SONG OF THE MOTH 50S

at the end. I speak now of the twelve images borne on the back of thb).

lliis inner connection of the ^t/S^ta (small images) with the zodiacal snake is worthy of notice and gives food for thought. The Manichaean system attributes to Christ the symbol of the snake^ and indeed of the snake on the tree of Paradise. For this the quotation from John gives far-reaching justification (John iii:i4): "And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the son of man be lifted up." An old theologian, Hauff ("Biblische Real- und Verbalkonkordanz," 1834), makes this careful observation concemin|^ this quotation: Christ considered the Old Testament story an unintentional symbol of the idea of the atonement." The almost bodily connection of the followers with Christ is well known. (Romans xii:4) : "For as we have many members in one body, and all members have not the saine office, so we being many are one body in Christ, and every one members one of another." If confirmation is needed that the zodiacal signs are symbols of the libido, then the sentence in John i : 29, " Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world," assumes a significant meaning.

"According to an eleventh-century manuscript in Munich; Albrecht Wirth: "Aus orientalischen Chroniken," p. 151. Frankfurt 1894.

  • 'Abeghian: "Der armenische Volksglaube," p. 41, 1899.
  • 'Comparre Aigremont: "Fuss- und Schuhs3rmbolik," Leipzig 1909.
    • Attis was later assimilated with Mithra. Like Mithra he was

represented with the Phrygian cap (Cumont: "Myst des Mith^' P* 65). According to the testimony of Hieron3rmus, the manger (GeburtsnShle) at Bethlehem was originally a sanctuary (Spelaeum) of Attis (Usener: '* Weihnachtsfest," p. 283).

"Cumont ("Die Mysterien des Mithra^" p. 4) says of Christiuuty and Mithracism: "Both opponents perceived with astonishment how similar they were in many respects, without being able to aocoont for the causes of this similarity."

" Our present-day moral views come into conflict with diis wish in to far as it concerns the erotic fate. The erotic adventures necessary for so many people are often all too easily given up because of moral opposition, and one willingly allows himself to be discouraged becante of the social advantages of being moral.

" The poetical works of Lord Byron.

"Edmond Rostand: "Cyrano de Bergerac," Paris 1898.

"The projection into the "cosmic" is the primitive privilege of the libido, for it enters into our perception naturally throu^ all the avenues of the senses, apparently from without, and in the form of pain and pleasure connected with the objects. This we attribute to the object without further thought, and we are inclined, in spite of our philosophic considerations, to seek the causes in the object, which often has very little concern with it. (Compare this with the Freudian conception of Transference, especially Firenczi's remarks in his paper, " Introjebion und Ubertragung, Jahrbuch, Vol. I, p. 4aa.) Beaudfol ezamplet of direct libido projection are found in erotic songs:

" Down on the strand, down on die shores A maiden washed the kerchief of her lover; And a soft west wind came. blowing over tiie ihoNb

5o6 THE SONG OF THE MOTH [pp. 87-126

Lifted her skirt a little with its breeze

And let a little of her anklet be seen.

And the seashore became as bright as all the world.**

(Neo-Grecian Folksong from Sanders: "Daa Volki- leben der Neugriechen," 1844, p. 81, cit ZHh scrift des Vereines fur Folkskunde, Jahrgang XII, 1902, p. 166.)

m _

" In the farm of G3rmir I saw

A lovely maiden coming toward me;

From the brilliance of her arm glowed

The sky and all the everlasting sea."

(From the Edda, tr. (into Ger.) by H. Gcring; p» 53; Zeitschrift fur Volkskunde, Jahrgang XII, 190a, p. 167.)

Here, too, belong all the miraculous stories of cosmic events, phenomena occurring at the birth and death of heroes. (The Star of Bethlehem; earthquakes, the rending asunder of the temple hangings, etc, at the death of Christ.) The omnipotence of God is the mimifest omnipotence of the libido, the only actual doer of wonders which we know. The symptom described by Freud, as the "omnipotence of thought" in Com- pulsion Neuroses arises from the sexualizing " of the intellect The historical parallel for this is the magical omnipotence of die myitic^ attained by introversion. The "omnipotence of thought" corresponds to the identification with God of the paranoic, arrived at similarly through introversion.

    • Comparable to the m3rthological heroes who after thdr greateit

deeds fall into spiritual confusion.

'^ Here I must refer you to the blasphemous piet^ of Zinzendorf, which has been made accessible to us by the noteworthy investigation of Pfiater.

  • 'Anah is really the beloved of Japhet, the son of Noah. She leavea

him because of the angel.

  • ' The one invoked is really a star. Compare Miss Miller's poem.
    • Really an attribute of the wandering sun.
  • ' Compare Miss Miller's poem.

" My poor life is gone,

then having gained

One raptured glance. Til die content;

For I the source of beauty, warmth and life

Have in his perfect splendor once beheld."

    • The light-substance of God.
    • The light-substance of the individual soul.

    • The bringing together of the two light-substancei ihowi their

common origin; they are the symbols of the libido. Here they are figures of speech. In earlier times they were doctrines. According to Mechthild von Magdeburg the soul is made out of love (" Das flieiaende Lidit der Gottheit,*' herausgegeben von Escherich, Berlin 1909).

  • ' Compare what is said above about the snake qrmbol of the UbidOb

pp. 87-126] THE SONG OF THE MOTH 507

The idea that the climax meant at the same time the end, even death, forces Itself here.

    • Compare the previously mentioned pictures of Stuck: Vice, Sin and

Lust, where the woman's naked body is encircled by the snake. Fonda* mentally it is a sjrmbol of the most extreme fear of death. The deadi of Cleopatra may be mentioned here.

    • Encircling by tiie serpent



  • This is the way it appears to us from tiie pqrchologioil ttandpoiiiL

Sec below.

  • Samson as Sun-god. See Steinthal: "Die Sage von Simson," ZWi-

schrift fur Volkerpsychologie, Vol. II.

' I am indebted for the knowledge of this fragment to Dr. Van

Ophuijsen of The Hague.

^ Rudra, properly father of the Maruts (winds), a wind or sun god, appears here as the sole creator God, as shown in the course of the text. The role of creator and fructifier easily belongs to him ns wind god. I refer to the observations in Part I concerning Anazagoras and to what follows.

'This and the following passages from the Upanishads are quoted from: "The Upanishads," translated by R. G. S. Mead and J. C. Chat- topadhyaya. London 1896.

' In a similar manner, the Persian sun-god Mithra is endowed with an immense number of eyes.

' Whoever has in himself, God, the sun, is immortal, like the inn. Compare Pt. I, Ch. 5.

  • He was given that name because he had introduced the phallic cult

into Greece. In gratitude to him for having buried the mother of the serpents, the young serpents cleaned his ears, so that he became clairnudt- ent and understood the language of birds and beasts.

' Compare the vase picture of Thebes, where the Cabiri are repre- sented in noble and in caricatured form (in Roscher: ^'Lacicon^'* t.

Megaloi Theoi).

  • " The justification for calling the Dactyl! thumbs is given in n note

in Pliny: 37, 170, according to which there were in Crete predons atonea of iron color and thumblike shape which were called Idaean Dactyli.

    • Therefore, the dactylic metre or verse.

"See Roscher: "Lexicon of Greek and Roman Mydiology," t. Dactyli.

"According to Jensen: " Kosmologie," p. 292, Oannea-Ea ia the edu- cator of men.

"Inman: Ancient Pagan and Modern Christian Symboliam.**

" Varro identifies the fiey6^ Btoi with the Penates. The Cabiri might be simulacra duo virilia Castoris et Pollucis in the harbor of Samotfarace.

" In Brasiae on the Laconian coast and in Pephnoi aome atatnei only a foot high with caps on their heads were found.


pp. 127-138] ASPECTS OF THE LIBIDO 509

^^That the monks have again invented cowls seems of no slight importance.

" Zentralblait fur Psychoanalyse, II, p. 187.

  • 'The typical motive of the youthful teacher of wisdom has also

been introduced into the Christ myth in the scene of die twelve-year-old Jesus in the temple.

'"'Next to this, there is a female figure designated at KPATBIA, which means "one who brings forth" (Orphic).

"Roscher: "Lexicon," s. v. Megaloi Theoi.

" Roscher : " Lexicon,'? s. v. Phales.

"Compare Freud's evidence, Zentralblait fUr Psychomialfti, I, p. 188. I must remark at this place that etymologically ^nis lUid penates are not srouped together. On the contrary, jrwf, irdmf, Sanskrit pdsa-f, Latm penis, were given with the Middle Hij^ German visel (penis) and Old High German fasel the significance of fcetui, proles, (Walde: "Latin Etymologic," s. Penis.)

  • 4

Stekel in his " Traumsymbolik " has traced out tiiis sort of repre- sentation of the genitals, as has Spielrein also in a case of dementia praecox. 1912 Jahrbuch, Vol. Ill, p. 369.

" The figure of KpAreta^ the one who " brings forth," placed bedde it is surprising in that the libido occupied in creating religion hu apparently developed out of the primitive relation to the mother.

"In Freud's paper (" Psychoanalytische Bemerkungen fiber einen Fall von Paranoia usw.," 1912 Jahrbuch, VoL III, p. 68), whidi ap- peared simultaneously with the first part of my book, he makes an observation absolutely parallel to the meaning of my remarks con- cerning the " libido theory " resulting from the phantasies of the intane Schreber : Schreber's divine rays composed by condensation of sun's rayii nerve fibres and sperma are really nothing else but the libido fizationa projected outside and objectively represented, and lend to his delusion a striking agreement with our theory. That the world must come to an end because the ego of the patient attracts all the rays to himself; that later during the process of reconstruction he must be very anxious lest God sever the connection of the rays with him: these and certain other peculiarities of Schreber's delusion sound very like the foregoing endopsychic perceptions, on the assumption of whidi 1 hare basea the interpretation of paranoia.

" " Tuscalanarum quaestionum," lib. IV.

" " Pro Quint," 14.

"Walde: "Latin Etymological Dictionary/' 191a See libet Ubiri (children) is grouped together with libet by Nazari C^Riv. di Fil.," XXXVI, 573). Could this be proven, then Liber, the lulian god of procreation, undoubtedly connected with liberi, would also be grouped with libet, Libitina is the goddess of the dead, who would have nothing in common with Lubentina and Lubentia (attribute of Venus), which belongs to libet; the name is as yet unexplained. (Compare the later conunents in this work.) Libare = to pour (to sacrifice?) and is sup- posed to have nothing to do with liber. The etsrmology of libido shows not only the central setting of the idea, but also the connection with


ihe German Liebr { love

are obliged to sty undeT ihne I, but ulso tbe word libijn it well choiCD for the aubjccl under discuiiion.

" A corrected view on the conurvalion of energy in tht lEghl pf iht theory of cognition might olTer the comment thai thii picture ii tbe pro- jrclion of an endopsychic perception of the equivalei of ihe libido.

CHAPTER n Three Contribution! to ihe Sexual Theory," p. 29. Tran*-

t triiiBfoniutiont


' Fieud UtioD by Brill. "In a noD-aexual ' in of motor iource9 ne can distioguiah receiving organ, such bb (he skin, organs. This we shall here designate organ the Mimulua of which beslowa

1 thi

-iginaling from impuliu Tibution from a Kimulus- 1 membrane, and leosory erogenous zone; it it thai impulie (he lexual cbar-

ntiguily, coniiiting of I of tfae lipi ID the ons received a textial >t belong 10 the mzubI

'Freud; Ibid., p. 14. "One definite kind of c inutual approximation of the raucous membrani form of a kiss, has among the most civilized na value, though the parts of the body concerned do 1 apparatus but form the entrance to the digestive tract.-

■See Freud: Ibid.

' Ad old view which Mcibiua endeavored to bring again to its owa. Among the newcomers it is Fouill^ Wundi, Beneke, Spencer, Ribol and others, who grant the psychologic primate to the impulte syiteRi.

'Freud: Ibid., p, 35. "I must repeat that these psycho neuroses, a* far as my experience goes, are based on sexual motive powers. 1 do not mean that the energy of the lexual impulse contributes to Ihe forcet aupporting the morbid manifestations (aymptoma), but 1 wish distinctly to mainlaia that this tupplics the only constant and the most importanl source of energy it) the neurosis, so that the sexual life of such perwnt manifesta itself either exclusively, preponderaiely, or partially Id theae symptoms."

'That BchoJaaticiam is still firmly rooted in mankind it only too easily proven, and an Illustration of this is the fact that not the leait of the reproaches directed against Freud, is that he has clilDged certain of hia earlier conceptions. Woe to those who compel maDuad to learn anew I "Les aavants ne sont pal euritux."

'Jahrbuch, Vol. Ill, p. 65.

' Schreber's caie is not a pure paranoia la the tnodera scale.

  • AIao in " Der Inhali der Psycbose," 190).

" Compare Jung: " The Psychology of Dementia Praecvi," p. 114,

" For example, in a frigid woman fiha u ■ result of a tp«Ific laraal repreiaion does not succeed in btinftiji||^K^Iihidti sexualla H the hut- band, the parent ImaKo is pre belong to that environment.

" Similar transgrestion of the M hysterical psychoses; that Indeed i*' psychotia and mean* DothlDK but a n


'"'Die psychosezuellen Differenzen der Hysteric und der Demendft praecox," Zgniralblatt fur Nervenheilkundg und Psychiatrii, 190S.

    • " Introjekdon und tJbertragung," Jahrhuch, Vol. I, p. 422.

'"See Avenarius: "Menschliche Weltbegriffe," p. as*

" " Welt als Wille und Vorstellung," Vol. I, p. 54.

  • ' " Theogonic."
  • ' Compare Roscher: "Lexicon," p. 9348.
  • ' Drews: "Plotinus," Jena 1907, p. lay.

'*Ibid., p. 133.

"Ibid., p. X35.

"Plotinus: "Enneades," II, 5, 3.

"Plotinus: "Enneadcs," IV, 8, 3.

" " Enneadca," III, 5, 9-

"Ibid., p. 141.

"Naturally this does not mean that the function of reality owca itt existence to die differentiation in procreative instincts exclusively. I am aware of the undetermined great part played by the fuoctioo of nutrition.

'* Malthusianism is the artificial setting forth of die natural tendency. '* For instance, in the form of procreation as in general of the will.

"Freud in his work on paranoia has allowed himself to be carried over the boundaries of his original conception of libido by the facts of this illness. He there uses libido even for the function of reality, which cannot be reconciled with the standpoint of the "Three Contributiont.

^ " Bleuler arrives at this conclusion from the ground of other con- siderations, which I cannot always accept See Bleuler, "Dementia Fraecox," in Aschaffenburg's "Handbuch der Psychiatric.^

"See Jung: "Kritik fiber E. Bleuler: Zur Theorie dci ichisophrenen Negativismus." Jahrhuch, Vol. Ill, p. 469.

"Spielrein: "Ober den psychologischen Inhalt einci Falici ▼00 Schizophrenic." Jahrhuch, Vol. Ill, p. 339.

"His researches are in my possession and their publication it in preparation.

    • Honegger made use of this example in his lecture at the private

PQfcboanalytic congress in Nurnberg, X9xa

    • Spielrein: Ibid., pp. 338, 353, 387. For soma as the "effusion of

dw iMd," see what follows.

"^ Compare Berthelot: "Les Alch^mistes Grecs," and Spielrein: Ibid., P

moc refrain from observing that this vision reveals the original

' alchemy. A primitive magic power, for generation, diat it

t^ which children could be produced withoat the rnqtber*

512 THE TRANSFORMATION [pp. 157-190

"Spielrein: Ibid., pp. 338, 345.

" I must mention here those Indians who create tiie first people from the union of a sword hilt and a shuttle.

    • Ibid., p. 399.


  • Naturally a precursor of onanism.

'This true catatonic pendulum movement of tiie head, I taw ariie in the case of a catatonic patient, from the coitus movementi gradually shifted upwards. This Freud has described long ago as a thiftiog from below to above.

  • She put the small fragments which fell out into her month and ate


  • " Dreams and Myths." Vienna 1909. Translated by Wm. A. White.


'A. Kuhn: Mythologische Studien," Vol. I: "Die Herabkunft dea Feuers und des Gottertrankes.'* Giitersloh 1886. A very readable resume of the contents is to be found in Steinthal: "Die ursprQngliche Form der Sage von Prometheus," Zeitschrift fur Folkerpsyckohgii und Sprachv:'usenschaft, Vol. II, 1862; also in Abraham: Ibid.

'Also mathnami and mathayati. The root manth or maih hai a

special significance.

  • Zeitschrift fiir vergleichende Sprachforschung, Vol. II, p. 395, and

Vol. IV, p. 124.

  • Bapp in Roscher's " Lexicon," Sp. 3034.
  • Bhrgu=.^7jtyv, a recognized connection of sound. See Rotcfaer: Sp.

3034» 54-

^'For the eagle as a fire token among the Indians, tee Roicher: Sp. 30341 60.

" The stem manth according to Kuhn becomes in German mangeln, roll en (referring to washing). Manthara is the butter paddle. When the gods generated the amrta (drink of immortality) by twirling the ocean around, they used the mountain Mandara as die paddle (see Kuhn: Ibid., p. 17). Steinthal calls attention to the Latin expression in poetical speech: mentuta=:ma\t member, in which meMi (manth) was used. I add here also, mentula is to be taken as diminu- tive for menta or mentha {tiLv^a)^ Minze, In antiquity the Minue was called "Crown of Aphrodite" (Dioscorides, II, 154). Apuleius called it " mentha venerea " ; it was an aphrodisiac. (The opposite meaning it found in Hippocrates: Si quis eam saepe comedat, ejus genitale temen ita colHquescit, ut effluat, et arrigere prohibet et corpus imfcwcillum reddit, and according to Dioscorides, Minze is a means of preventing conception. (See Aigremont: " Volkserotik und Pflanzenwelt," Vol. I, p. 127). But the ancients also said of Menta: "Menta autem appellata, quod tuo odore mentem feriat — mentae ipsius odor animum excitat." This leads ut to the root ment — in Latin mens; English, mind — with which the parallel development to pramantha, Il/uo/i^cif, would be completed. Still to be added is that an especially strong chin is called mento {mgnium)* A special development of the chin is given, as we know, to the priapie

pp. 157-190] THE TRANSFORMATION 513

figure of PulcinellOf also the pointed beard (and ears) of the satyrs and the other priapic demon, just as in general all the protruding parts of the body can be given a masculine significance and all the receding parts or depressions a feminine significance. This applies also to all other animate or inanimate objects. See Maeder: Pjycho.-NeuroL Wochtnschr., X. Jahrgang. However, this whole connection it more than a little uncertain.

  • ' Abraham observes that in Hebrew the significance of the wordi

for man and woman is related to this ssrmbolism.

  • '"What is called the gulya (pudendum) means the 3roni (the birth-

place) of the God ; the fire, which was born there, is called ' beneficent ' " ('*K&tyfiyanas Karmapradipa," I, 7; translated by Kuhn: "Herab- kunft des Feuers," p. 67). The etymologic connection between bokren^ geboren is possible. The Germanic hSron (to bore) is primarily related to the Latin foran and the Greek ^ap6u = to plow. Possibly it it an Indo-Germanic root bher with the meaning to bear; Sanscrit bhaf, Greek ^p-; Latin fer-; from this Old High German beran, English to bear, Latin fero and fertilis, fordus (pregnant) ; Greek fop6c, Walde (" Latin Etym.," s. Ferio) traces forare to the root bher-. Compare with this the phallic s3rmboIism of the plough, which we meet later on« 

^* Weber: "Indische Studien," I, 197; quoted by Kuhn: Ibid., p. 71.

  • • " Rigveda," HI, a9— i to 3.

^* Or mankind in general. Vi^patni is the feminine wood, vicpati, tn attribute of Agni, the masculine. In the instruments of ^ fire lies the origin of the human race, from the same perverse logic as in the before- mentioned shuttle and sword-hilt. Coitus as the means of origin of the haman race must be denied, from the motive, to be more fully dit- cussed later, of a primitive resistance against sexuality.

  • 'Wood as the s3rmboI of the mother is well known from the dream

investigation of the present time. See Freud: "Dream Interpretation.** Stekel ("Sprache des Traumes,*' p. 128) explains it as the symbol of the woman. Wood is also a German vulgar term for the breast ("Wood before the house.") The Christian wood s3rmboIitm needs a chapter by itself. The son of lU: lU is the daughter of Manut, die one and only, who with the help of his fish has overcome the deluge» and then with his daughter again procreated the human race.

    • See Hirt: "Etymologic der neuhochdeutsdien Sprache," p. $48.
  • 'The capitular of Charlemagne of 943 forbade "those sacrile^oat

fires which are called Niiedfyr." See Grimm: " Mythologie," 4^ edition^ p. 503. Here there are to be found descriptions of timilar fire cere- monies.

'^Kuhn: Ibid., p. 43.

"Preuss: "Globus," LXXXVI, 1905, S. 358.

'* Compare with this Friedrich Schultze: "Psychologic der Natmy volker," p. 161.

    • This primitive play leads to the phallic symbolism of the plough.
  • Apjvv means to plough and possesses in addition the poetic meaning

of impregnate. The Latin arare means merely to plough, but the phrase "fundum alienum arare" means "to pluck cherriet in a nei^hbor*t

514 THE TRANSFORMATION [pp. 157-190

garden." A striking representation of the phallic plough is found on a vase in the archeological museum in Florence. It portrays a row of six naked ithyphallic men who carry a plough represented phallically (Dieterich: "Mutter Erde," p. 107). The "carrus navalis" of our spring festival (carnival) was at times during the Middle Agea a plough (Hahn: " Demeter und Baubo," quoted by Dieterich: Ibid., p. 109). Dr. Abegg of Zurich called my attention to the clever work of R. Meringer ("Worter und Sachen. Indogermanische Forschungen,** 16, 179/84, 1904). We are made acquainted there with a very far-reaching amalgamation of the libido symbols with the external materials and external activities, which support our previous considerations to an extraordinary degree. Meringer's assumption proceeds from the two Indo-Germanic roots, uen and ueneti, Indo-Germanic *uen H9I*, ai. ist. van, vana, Agni is garbhas vandm, *' fruit of the womb of the woods.*'

Indo-Germanic ^ueneti signifies *'he ploughs": by that is meant the penetration of the ground by means of a sharpened piece of wood and the throwing up of the earth resulting from it. This verb itself ii not verified because this very primitive working of the ground was given up at an early time. When a better treatment of the fields was learned, the primitive designation for the ploughed field was given to the pasture^ therefore Gothic vinja,vofi^^ Old Icelandic vin, pasture, meadow. Per- haps also the Icelandic Vanen, as Gods of agriculture, came from that

From acker n (to plough) sprang coire (the connection might have been the other way); also Indo-Germanic * uenos (enjoyment of love)i Latin venus. Compare with this the root 7<'if==wood. Cofr#z= pas- sionately to strive; compare Old High German vinnan, to rave or to storm; also the Gothic vins; fA7r/f = hope; Old High German noSmzsz expectation, hope; Sanscrit van, to desire or need; further, Wonne (de- light, ecstasy) ; Old Icelandic vinr (beloved, friend). From the meaning ackern (to plough) arises ^ivohnen (to live). This transition hat been completed only in the German. From vjohnen-^gevobhnen, grwoknt jein (to be accustomed). Old Icelandic vanr z=. ge*iKohnt (to be accustomed); from ackern further-^jiVA miihen, plagen (to take much trouble, wearing work), Old Icelandic rlnna, to work: Old High Gernian vtinnan (to toil hard, to overwork); Gothic vinnan, rraaxfiv;vunns,va^iifia. From ackern comes, on the other hand, gevsnnnen erlangen (to win, to attain). Old High German gifwinnan, but also verletzen (to injure) : Gothic vunds {<ivund)f wound. Wund in the beginning, the most primal lenie, was therefore the ground torn up by the wooden implement. From verleiMiM (to injure) come schlagen (to ^inV^)^ besiegen (to conquer): Old High German *unnna (strife) ; Old Saxon vnnnan (to battle).

'* The old custom of making the " bridal bed " upon the field, whkh was for the purpose of rendering the field fertile, contains the primitive thought in the most elementary form; by that the analogy was expressed in the clearest manner: Just as I impregnate the woman, so do I impreg- nate the earth. The symbol leads the sexual libido over to the cultiva- tion of the earth and to its fruitfulness. Compare with that Mani^ardt: " Wald- und Feldkulte, where there are abundant illustrations.

"Spielrein's patient {Jahrbuch, III« p. 371) associates fire and gtmxfr tion in an unmistakable manner. She says as follows concerning it«* " One needs iron for the purpose of piercing the earth and for the purpose of creating fire." This is to be found in the MIthra liturgy tl well. In the invocation to the fire god, it is said: ^ aw6^aaf wvof^

pp. 157-190] THE TRANSFORMATION 5^5

T^ irbfMva kXeidpa tov ovpavov (Thou who hast closed up the fiery locks of heaven, with the breath of the spirit, — open to rae). "With iron one can create cold people from the stone. The boring into the earth has for her the meaning of fructification or birth. She says: "With the glowing iron one can pierce through mountains. The iron beoomct glowing when one pushes it into a stone."

Compare with this the etymology of bohren and geh&ren (see above). In the " Bluebird '* of Maeterlinck the two children who seek the bluebinl In the land of the unborn children, find a boy who bores into his nose. It is said of him: he will discover a new fire, so as to warm the earth again, when it will have grown cold.

'* Compare with this, the interesting proofs in Bilcher: "Arbeit ond Rhythmus," Leipzig 1899.

'* Amusement is undoubtedly coupled with many rites, but by no meana with all. There are some very unpleasant things.

"The Upanishads belong to the Brahmana, to the theology of tiie Vedic writings, and comprise the theosophical-speculative part of the Vedic teachings. The Vedic writings and collections are In part of very uncertain age and may reach back to a very distant past becauie for a long period they were handed down only orally.

"The primal and omniscient being, the Idea of whom, translated into psychology, is comprehended in the conception of libido.

•t "

Atman is also considered as originally a bisexual bein|^— correipoiid- infi[ to the libido theory. The world sprang from desire. Compare Bphaddranyaka-Upanishad, I, 4, i (Deussen):

"(i) In the beginning this world was Atman alone— he looked

around: Then he saw nothing but himself, "(a) Then he was frightened; therefore, one is afraid, when one b

alone. Then he thought: Wherefore should I be afraid^

since there is nothing beside myself? "(3) But also he had no joy, therefore one has no joy when one

is alone. Then he longed for a companion."

After this there follows the description of his division quoted above. Plato's conception of the world-soul approaches very near to tiie Hindoo idea. "The soul in no wise needed eyes, because near it there was nothing visible. Nothing was separate from it, nothing approached it^ because outside of it there was nothing" ("Timaios").

'^Compare with this Freud's "Three Contributions to the Sexual Theory."

" What seems an apparently close parallel to the position of tiie hand in the Upanishad text I observed in a little child. The child held one hand before his mouth and rubbed it with the other, a movement which may be compared to that of the violinist It was an early infantile habit whidi persisted for a long time afterwards.

" Compare Freud : " Bemerkungen uber einen Fall Ton Zwanfli- neurose." 1912 Jahrbuch, Vol. I, p. 357.

'* As shown above, in the child the libido progrenei from the mouth zone into the sexual zone.

5i6 THE TRANSFORMATION [pp. 157-190

" Compare what has been said above about Dactyli. Abundftot ex- amples are found in Aigremont: *'Fus8- und Schuhsymbolik."

'* When, in the enormously increased sexual resistance of the present day, women emphasize the secondary signs of tex and their erotic charm by specially designed clothing, that is a phenomenon whidi belongs in the same general scheme for the heightening of allurement.

" It is well known that the orifice of the ear has also a sexual value. In a hymn to the Virgin it is called " quae per aurem concepisti." Rabelais' Gargantua was born through his mother's ear. Bastian ("Beitrage z. vcrgl. Psychologie,'* p. 238) mentions the following passage from an old work, "There is not to be found in this entire kingdom, even among the very smallest girls, a maiden, because even in her tender youth she puts a special medicine into her genitals, also in the orifice of her ears; she stretches these and holds them open continuously."— Also the Mongolian Buddha was born from the ear of his mother.

    • The driving motive for the breaking up of the ring might be soughl;

as I have already intimated in passing, in the fact that the secondaiy sexual activity (the transformed coitus) never is or would be Adapted to bring about that natural satiety, as is the activity in its real place. With this first step towards transformation, the first step towards the characteristic dissatisfaction was also taken, which later drove man from discovery to discovery without allowing him ever to attain satiety. Thus it looks from the biological standpoint, which however is not the only one possible.

  • ' Translated by Mead and ChattopSdhyfiya. Sec. i, Pt. II.
  • ^ In a song of the Rigveda it is said that the hymns and sacrifidal

speeches, as well as all creation in general, have proceeded from the "entirely fire consumed" Purusha (primitive man-creator of the world).

  • ' Compare Brugsch: "Religion und Myth. d. alt Aegypter/' p. 255 £.»

and thr £g>'ptian dictionary.

    • The German word " Schwan " belongs here, therefore it flings when

dying. It is the sun. The metaphor in Heine supplements this veiy


" Es singt der Schwan im Weiher Und rudert auf und ab, Und immer leiser singend, Taucht er ins Flutengrab."

Hauptmann's Sunken Bell" is a sun myth in which bell = sun =: life =


  • ' Loosely connected with ag-ilis. See Max Muller: "Vorl. fiber dea

Ursprung und die Entwicklung der Religion," p. 337.

    • An Eranian name of fire is Nmryo^agha = masculine word. The

Hindoo Kara^amsa means wish of men (Spiegel: "Erfin. Altertumakunde," II, 49). Fire has the significance of Logos (compare Ch. 7, "Sie^ fried "). Of Agni (fire), Max Muller, in his introduction to "The Science of Comparative Religions," says: "It was a conception familiar to India to consider the fire upon the altar as being at the same tine subject and object. The fire burned the sacrifice and was thereby similar to the priest, the fire carried the sacrifice to the p^ods, and was thereby an intercessor between men and the gods: fire itself, however, reprc-

pp. 157-190] THE TRANSFORMATION 517

sented also tomethiDg divine, a god, and when honor was to be shown to this god, then fire was as much the subject as the object of the sacrifice. Hence the first conception, that Agni sacrificed itself, i.e. that it produced for itself its own sacrifice, and next that it brings itself to the sacrifice." The contact of this line of thouj^t with the Christian symbol is plainly apparent. Krishna utters the same thoufi^t in the Bhagayad-Gitft," b. IV (translated by Arnold, London 1910) :

" Airs then God ! The sacrifice is Brahra, the ghee and grain Are Brahm, the fire is Brahm, the flesh it eati Is Brahm, and unto Brahm attaineth he Who, in such office, meditates on Brahm."

The wise Diotima sees behind this symbol of fire (in Plato's «jrm- posium, c as). She teaches Socrates that Eros is "the intermediate being between mortals and immortals, a great Demon, dear Socrates; for everything demoniac is just the intermediate link between God and man." Eros has the task "of being interpreter and messenger from men to the gods, and from the gods to men, from the former for dieir prayers and sacrifices, from the latter for their commands and for their compensations for the sacrifices, and thus filling up the gap between both, so that through his mediation the whole is bound together with itself." Eros is a son of Penia (poverty, need) generated by Poros intoxicated with nectar. The meaning of Poros is dark; ir^poc meant w«r and hole, opening. Zielinski : ** Arch, f . Rel. Wissensch.," IX, 43 £L places him with Phoroneus, identical with the fire-bringer, who is held in doubt; others identify him with primal chaos, whereas others read arbitrarily E^pof and Mdpoc, Under these circumttancei, the quettion arises whether there may not be sought behind it a relatively aimple sexual symbolism. Eros would be then simply the ion of Need and of the female genitals, for this door is the beginning and birthplace of fire. Diotima gives an excellent description of Eros: "He is manly, daring, persevering, a strong hunter (archer, compare below) and an incessant intriguer, who is constantly striving after wisdom,— a powerful sorcerer, poison mixer and sophist; and he is respected neither aa an immortal nor as a mortal, but on the same day he first blooms and blossoms, when he has attained the fulness of the itriving, then dies in it but always awakens again to life because of the nature of his father (rebirth!); attainment, however, always tears him down again." For this characterization, compare Chs. V, VI and VII of this work.

  • ' Compare Riklin: "Wish Fulfilment and Symbolism in Fairy Tales,"

translated by Wm. White, M.D., where a child is produced by the parents placing a little turnip in the oven. The motive of the furnace where the child is hatched is also found again in the type of the whale- dragon myth. It is there a regularly recurring motive because the belly of the dragon is very hot, so that as the result of the heat the hero loses his hair — that is to say, he loses the characteristic covering of hair of the adult and becomes a child. (Naturally the hair is related to the sun's rays, which are extinguished in the setting of the sun.) Abundant examples of this motive are in Frobeniui: "Das Zeitalter des Sonnengottes," Vol. I. Berlin 1904.

    • This aspect of Agni is similar to Dionysus, who bean a remarkable

parallel to both the Christian and the Hindoo mydiology.




[pp. igi-ajiJ^

""Now evtryihing in the world which ii damp, he rrealcd ftoin tperina, but this is (he soma." BfihadArarifalia-Upanifliad, 1-4.

    • The queiiioo i« whethf i ibis significance was a secondary develop-

■Dent. Kuho seems (o ssaume this. He says (■' Hetabltunfi de» Feuers," p. tS): "However, together with the mcBDing of the coot mantk already evolved, there has also developed in the Vcdas the conception of 'tearing off ' due naluiatly 10 the mode of piocedure."

"Examples in Frobenius: "Das Zeiialiet des Sonnengottes-"

"Sec in this conoection Stekel: "Die sexucile Wurzel Aa Klepto- tnanie," ZeilsrArifi jiir Stxaal'viisienichofl, 1908,

" Even in the Roman Catholic church at various places llle cutl prevailed for the priest to produce once a year tlie ceremonial fire.

"I must remark that the designation of onanism as a "great dis- covery " is 001 merely a play with words on my part. I one it to two young patients vtho pretended that ihey mere in possession of a terrible Hcret; that they bad diKOvered something horrible, which no one had ever known before, because bad it been knovtn great misery would have overtaken mankind. Their discovery was onaniim.

" Ooe must in fairness, however, consider thai the demands of li(^ . rendered still more severe by out moral code, arc bo heavy that te «imply is impossible for many people to attain that goal which can be begrudged to no one, namely the possibility of love. Under the cruel compulsion of domestication, what is left but onanism, for those peoplt possessed of an active sexuality? It is well known that the it— '^ useful and best men owe their ability la a powerful libido. This ai gelic libido longs for lomelhing more than merely a Cbrisliin love iot the neighbor.

'* I am fully conscious that onanism ii only an initrmedlate pht' Domenon. There always remains the problem of the original divisioa of the libido.

chapter, I g


with my terminology mentioned In Ihe previout isme of autoerolic to this stage follovrins (be Inoe*- rmphasfze the erotic as a regressive pbetMrneoun: the libido blocked by the incest barrier regrestivtly takes poae»ion i ' older nay of functioning anterior to the incesiuous object of love, may be comprehended by Bleulcr'i terminology. Autiimiu. tlitt iiv ll function of pure self -preservation, whtcb u especially distiogtiitlwd. Ig the function of nutrition. However, Ihe lermino)i>Kr " aiMtM very well be longer applied to the ptncxual material, already u«ed in reference to ih< uteMcl «|Mc "' dtoitnilB p h has to include autoerotism plut \ Autismua designates first of all a p*tfN«  character, the prescxual material, i)q> cbrysali* Hagc; •


  • Therefore that beaattful name of

mcnidi (pa]D-J«y human being). 8n h kcrc (he inlet cstiog rcH

pp. 191-232] THE ORIGIN OF THE HERO 519

' See Bleuler: Psychiatr,-neurol, Wochenschnft, XII. Jthrgtng, Nr. 18 to 21.

  • G>mptre with this my explanttions in Jahrhuch, Vol. Ill, p. 469.

'G>mptre the exhortation by Krishnt to the irresolute Arjuna in Bhagavad-Gitfi: "But thou, be free of the pairs of opposites!" Bk. II, " The Song Celestial," Edwin Arnold.

  • " Pens^es," LI V.
  • See the following chapter.

'Compare John Muller: " Uber die phantastischen Getichtiertdici- nungen," Coblenz 1826; and Jung: "Occult Phenomena, in Collected Papers on Analytic Psychology.

  • Also the related doctrine of the Upanishad.

'*Bertschinger: " Illustrierte Halluzinationen,** Jahrhuik, Vol. Ill, p. 69.

How very important is the coronation and sun identification, it shown not alone from countless old customs, but also from the corre- sponding ancient metaphors in the religious speech: the Wisdmn of Solomon v:i7: "Therefore, they will receive a beautiful crown from the hand of the Lord. I Peter v:4: "Feed the flock of God . . . and when the chief shepherd shall appear ye shall receive a crown of glory that fadeth not away."

In a church hymn of Allendorf it is said of the soul: "The soul It liberated from all care and pain and in dying it has come to the crovm of joy*' she stands as bride and queen in the glitter of eternal splendor, at the side of the great king/' etc. In a hymn by Laurentius Laurentii it is said (also of the soul): "The crown is entrusted to the brides because they conquer." In a song by Sacer we find the passage: "Adorn my coffin with garlands just as a conqueror is adorned, — from those springs of heaven, my soul has attained the eternally green crown: the true glory of victory, coming from the son of God who has so cared for me." A quotation from the above-mentioned song of Allendorf is added here, in which we have another complete expression of the primi- tive psychology of the sun identification of men, which we met in the Egyptian song of triumph of the ascending soul.

IGonceming the soul, continuation of the above passage:) "It [die

• I • B clear countenance [sun] : his [the sun'sj j(^ul loving nature

- rt ct it through and dirough : it is a light tn kts /if Af^^-Now the

jfif tke father: He feels the gentle emotion of love. Now he

nd the word of Jesus. He himself, the father, has loved

ble sea of benefits, an absrss of eternal waves of

mcu <o the enlightened spirit: he beholds the countenance

ws what signifies the inheritor of God in light and the

^— The feeble body rests on the earth: it sleeps until

Then will the dnst become the sun, which now is

rk cavern: Then shall we come together with all the

bow soon, and will be for eternity with the Lord." I

significant passages by italics: they speak for

% deed add nothing.

1 misunderstanding I mast add that this was abso* patient

520 THE ORIGIN OF THE HERO [pp. 191-232

  • 'The tnalysit of an eleven-year-old girl also confirmi this. I gave

a report of this in the I Congr^s International de Pidologie, 1911, 10 Brussels.

'*The identity of the divine hero with the mystic is not to he doubted. In a prayer written on papyrus to Hermes, it is said: ov yap c)(j Kai iyti av' rd abv bvoua kfibv not rb i/ibv ebv' iy^ y^ elfu rd elBoX6v aov (For thou art I and I am thou, thy name is mine, and mine is thine; for I am thy image). (Kenyon: Greek Papyrus, in the British Museum, 1893, p. 116, Pap. CXXII, 2. Cited by Dieterich: " Mithrasliturgie," p. 79.) The hero as image of the libido is strikingly illustrated in the head of Dionysus at Leiden (Roscher, I, Sp. iiaS), where the hair rises like flame over the head. He is — like a flame: "Thy savior will be a flame. Firmicus Maternus (" De Errore Prof. Relig.," 104, p. 38) ac- quaints us with the fact that the god was saluted as bridegroom, and "youn^ light." He transmits the corrupt Greek sentence, ^ vm^t xaipr. tt'i'^e vtov 9<jf. with which he contrasts the Christian conception: Nulhim apud te lumen est nee est aliquis qui sponsus mereatur audire: unum lumen est, unus est sponsus. Nominum honim gratiam Christai accepit.** Today Christ is still our hero and the bridegroom of the son!. These attributes will be confirmed in regard to Miss Miller's hero io what follows.

"The giving of a name is therefore of significance in the so-called spiritual manifestations. See my paper, 190a, "Occult Phenomenat" Col' lectfd Papers on Analytical Psychology.

"The ancients recognized this demon as cnwcnrad^, the companion and


^^ A parallel to these phantaiiei are the well-known interpretatieiif of the Sella Petri of the pope.

"When Freud called attention through his analsrtic researches to the connection between excrements and gold, many ignorant persons found themselves obliged to ridicule in an airy manner this connection. The mythologists think differently about it. De Gubematis sa3rs that excre- ment and gold are always associated together. Grinmi tells us of the fol- lowing magic charm : " If one wants money in his house the whole year, one must eat lentils on New Year's Day." This notable connection is explained simply through the physiological fact of the indigestibility of lentils, which appear again in the form of coins. Thus one becomes a mint.

    • A French father who naturally disagreed with me in regard to diis

rest i of cacao.

interest in his child mentioned, nevertheless, that when the cfcild speaks >, he always adds "lit"; he means caca-au-lit

'^ Freud: Jahrbuch, Vol. I, p. i. Jun^: Jakrbuck» VoL II, p. 33. See third lecture delivered at Clark University, 1909.

I refer to the previous etymologic connection.

  • ' Compare Bleuler: Jahrbuch, Vol. Ill, p. 467.

" " Genius and Insanity."

'* Here again is the connection with antiqui^, the infandlt past

"This fact is unknown to me. It might be possible that in sooe way the name of the legendary man who invented die cuncifonn dtfi^

pp. 191-232] THE ORIGIN OF THE HERO 521

acters has been preserved (as, for example, Sinlikiunnini ts the poet of the Gilgamesh epic). But I have not succeeded in finding anything of that sort. However, Ashshurbanaplu or Asurbanipal has left behind that marvellous cuneiform library, which was excavated in Kujundschik. Perhaps " Asurubama ** has something to do with this name. Further there comes into consideration the name of Aholibamah, which we have met in Part I. The word " Ahamarama betrays equally some connec- tions with Anah and Aholibamah, those daughters of Cain with the sinful passion for the sons of God. This possibility hints at Chiwantopel as the longed-for son of God. (Did Byron think of the two titter whoret, Ohola and Oholiba? Ezeck. xxiii:4.)

'*The race does not part with its wandering tun-heroet. Thut it was related of Cagliostro, that he once drove at the tame time four white horses out of a city from all the city gatea aimultaneoutly (Helios!).

" Mysticism.

"Agni, the fire, also hides himself at times in a cavern. Therefore he must be brought forth again by generation from the cavity of the female wood. Compare Kuhn: "Herabk. det Fevers.'*

" We = Allah.

'*The "two-horned." According to the commentariet, thii refert to Alexander the Great, who in the Arabian legends playt nearly the tame r61e as the German Dietrich von Bern. Tne "two-horned" refert to the strength of the sun-bull. Alexander is often found upon coina widi the horns of Jupiter Anmion. It is a question of identification of the ruler around whom so many legends are clustered, with the tun of apring in the signs of the bull and the ram. It is obviout that humanity had a great need of effacing the personal and human from their heroes, so as finally to make them, through a fterdaTaetc (eclipse), die equal of the sun, that is to say, completely into a libido-sjrmbol. If we thought like Schopenhauer, then we would surely say, Libido-tymbol. But if we thought like Goethe, then we would lay, Sun; for we exitt, becaute the sun sees us.

"Vollers: " Chidher. Archiv fur Refigiontwiisentchaft,*' p. 335, Vol. XII, 1909* This is the work which it my authority on die Koran com- mentaries.

  • 'Here the ascension of Mithra and Christ are closely related. See

Part I.

  • ' A parallel is found in the Mithra mjrsteries ! See below.

'^Parallel to this are the conversations of Mohammed with Ellas, at which the sacramental bread was served. In the New Testament the awkwardness is restricted to the proposal of Peter. The infantile char- acter of such scenes is shown by similar features, thus by the gigandc stature of Elias in the Koran, and also the tales of the commentary, in which it is stated that Elias and Chidher met each year in Mecca^ conversed and shaved each other's heads.

" On the contrary, according to Matthew zvii:ii, John the Baptist it to be understood as Elias.

'* Compare the Kyffhiuser legend.

522 THE ORIGIN OF THE HERO [pp. 191-232

"Vollers: Ibid.

    • Another account says that Alexander had been in India on the

mountain of Adam with his " minister " Chidher.

    • These mythological equations follow absolutely the rule of dreamib

where the dreamer can be resolved into many analogous forms.

    • "IIe must grow, but I must waste away." — John iiiisa
    • Cumont: "Textcs et Monuments," p. 17a.

^'The parallel between Hercules and Mithra may be drawn even more closely. Like Flercules, Mithra is an excellent archer. Judging from certain monuments, not only the youthful Hercules appears to be threatened by a snake, but also Mithra as a youth. The meaning of the aO?u)g of Hercules (the work) is the same as the Mithraic myitexy of the conquering and sacrifice of the bull.

  • ' These three scenes are represented in a row on the Klagenfurt

monument. Thus the dramatic connection of these mutt be •urmxted (Cumont: " Myst. des Mithras").

    • Also the triple crown.
    • The Christian sequence is John — Christ, Peter — ^Pope.

^*The immortality of Moses is proven by the parallel lituation with

Elias in the transfiguration.

  • ' See Frobenius: "Das Zeitalter des Sonnengottes."

^'Therefore the fish is the symbol of the "Son of God"; at the tame time the fish is also the symbol of the approaching world-cycle.

"Riklin: "Wish Fulfilment and Symbolism."

  • " Inman : " Ancient Pagan and Modern Christian Symbolism.**

■* The amniotic membrane(?).

•'The Ktrurian Tages, who sprang from the "freshly ploughed fur- row/' is also a teacher of wisdom. In the Litaolane myth of the Basutot, there is a description of how a monster devoured all men and left only one woman, who gave birth to a son, the hero, in a stable (instead of a cave: see the etymology of this myth). Before she had arranged a bed for the infant out of the straw, he was already grown and spoke "words of wisdom." The quick growth of the hero, a frequently recurring motive, appears to mean that the birth and apparent childhood of the hero arc so extraordinary because his birth really means his rebirth, therefore he becomes very quickly adapted to hit hero rdle. Compare below.

" Battle of Re with the night serpent.

'* Matthew iii: ii.

Das Gilgameshcpos in der Weltliteratur," Vol. I, p. 50.

'"The difTerencc between this and the Mithra sacrifice leemi to be extraordinarily significant. The Dadophores are harmless gods of light who do not participate in the sacrifice. The animal is lacking in the sacrifice of Christ. Therefore there are two criminali who suffer the same death. The scene is much more dramatic. The inner connectioo

SB <(

pp. 191-232] THE ORIGIN OF THE HERO 523

of the Dadophores to Mithra, of which I will speak later, allows us to assume the same relation of Christ to the criminals. The scene with Barabbas betrays that Christ is the god of the ending year, who ii represented by one of the thieves, while the one of the coming year is free.

" For example, the following dedication is found on a monument: D. I. M. (Deo Invicto Mithrae) Cautopati. One discovers sometimes Deo Mithrae Caute or Deo Mithrae Cautopati in a similar alternation as Deo Invicto Mithrae — or sometimes Deo Invicto— or, merely, Invicto. It also appears that the Dadophores are fitted with knife and bow, the attributes of Mithra. From this it is to be concluded that the three figures represent three different states of a single persoD. Compare Cumont: Textes et Monuments," p. 208.

" Cited by Cumont: "Textes et Monuments," p. ao8.

•• Ibid.

  • ^ Taurus and Scorpio are the equinoctial signs for the period from

4300 to 2150 B.C. These signs, long since superseded, were retained ereo in the Christian era.

  • ^ Under some circumstances, it is also sun and moon.
    • In order to characterize the individual and the all-soul, the personal

and the super-personal, Atman, a verse of the Shvetishvatara-Upamikmd (Deussen) makes use of the following comparison:

"Zwei schon beflugelte verbundne Freunde Umarmen einen und denselben Baum; Einer von ihnen speist die susse Beere, Der andre schaut, nicht essend, nar herab."

(Two closely allied friends, beautifully winged, embrace one and the same tree ; One of them eats the sweet berries, the other not eating merely looks downwards.)

  • ' Among the elements composing man, in the Mithraic liturgy, fire is

especially emphasized as the divme element, and described as r^ sSf CM7V Kpaatv Sto66pfrrov (The divine gift in my composition). Dietridi: Ibid., p. 58.

  • ^ It is sufficient to point to the loving interest which mankind and

also the God of the Old Testament has for the nature of the penis, and how much depends upon it.

  • 'The testicles easily count as twins. Therefore in yulgar speech

the testicles are called the Siamese twins. (" Anthropophyteia,*' VII, p. 20. Quoted by Stekel : " Sprache des Traumes," p. 169.)

    • " Recherches sur le culte, etc., de Vinus," Paris, 18)7. Qooted by

Inman: "Ancient Pagan and Modern Christian Symbolism," New Torl^

p. 4.

  • 'The androgynous element is not to be undervalued in the faces of

Adonis, Christ, Dionysus and Mithra, and hints at the bisexuality of the libido. The smooth-shaven face and the feminine dodiing t^ the Catholic priest contain a very old female constituent from the Attis-Cybele colt.

  • ' Stekel ("Sprache des Traumes") has again and again noted tho

Trinity as a phallic symbol. For example, see p. 27*

524 SYMBOLISM OF THE MOTHER [pp. 233-306

"Sun's ravs = Phalli.

  • " In a Bakairi myth a woman appeari, who hat sprung from a com

mortar. In a Zulu myth it is said: A woman is to catch a drop of blood in a vessel, then close the vessel, put it aside for eight months and open it in the ninth month. She follows the advice, opens the vessel in the ninth month, and finds a child in it. (Frobenius: "Das Zeitalter dct Sonnengottes " [The Age of the Sun-God], I, p. 237.)

^' Inman : Ibid., p. 10, Plate IX.

^'Roscher: "Lexicon," Sp. 2733/4. See section, Men.

  • ' A well-known sun animal, frequent as a phallic qrmbol.

'^ Like Mithra and the Dadophores.

"The castration in the service of the mother explains this quotation in a very sij^nificant manner: Exod. iv:25: " Then. Zipporah took a sharp stone, and cut off her son's foreskin and cast it at his feet and laid, Surt-Iy, a bloody husband art thou to me." This passage thowa what circumcision means.

^* Gllgamesh, Dionysus, Hercules, Christ, Mithra, and to on.

^^ Compare with this, Graf: " R. Wagner im Fliegenden Hollflnder:

Schriftcn zur anpewandten Seelenkunde."

" I have pointed out above, in reference to the Zotimoi Titiona that the altar meant the uterus, corresponding to the baptiimal font


  • Freud: "Dream Interpretation."

' I am indebted to Dr. Abegg in Zurich for the knowledge off Indra and Urvara, Domaldi and Rama.

' Medieval Christianity also considered the Trinity at dwelling In die womb of the holy Virgin.

  • " Symbolism," Plate VII.

' Another form of the same motive is the Persian Idea of the tree of life, which stands in the lake of rain, Vourukasha. The aeedi of diit tree were mixed with water and by that the fertility of the eardi was maiiitnined. " Vendidad," 5, 57, says: The waters flow "to the lake Vourukasha, down to the tree Ilvapa; there my trees of many kinds all grow. I cause these waters to rain down as food for the pure man, as fodder for the well-born cow. (Impregnation, in terms of the pre- sexual stage.) Another tree of life is the white Haoma, which grows in the spring Ardvic^ura, the water of life." Spiegel: "Erftn. Alter- tumskunde," I, 465, 467.

"Excellent examples of this are given in the work of Rank, "Tie Myth of the Birth of the Hero," translated by Wm. White.

  • Shadows probably mean the soul, the nature of which is the same as

libido. Compare with this Part I.

'But I must mention that Nork ("Realworterbuch," sub. Thebcn nnd Schif!) pleads that Thebes is the ship city; his arguments are modi

i)p. 233-306] SYMBOLISM OF THE MOTHER 525

attacked. From among his arguments I emphasize a quotation from Diodorus (I, 57), according to which Sesostris (whom Nork associates with Xisuthros) had consecrated to the hiehest god in Thebes a vessel 280 els long. In the dialogue of Lucius (Apuleius: "Metam.," lib. II, 28), the night journey in the sea was used as an erotic figure of speech:

    • Hac enim sitarchia navigium Veneris indiget sola, ut in nocte pervigili

et oleo lucerna et vino calix abundet" (For the ship of Venus needs this provision in order that during the night the lamp may abound with oil and the goblet with wine). The union of the coitus motive with the motive of pregnancy is to be found in the "night journey on the sea " of Osiris, who in his mother's womb copulated with his sister.

  • Very illuminating psychologically is the method and the manner in

which Jesus treats his mother, when he harshly repels her. Just as strong and intense as this, has the longing for her imago grown in hit unconscious. It is surely not an accident that the name Mary accom* panies him through life. Compare the utterance of Matthew x:35: " I have come to set a man at variance with his father, a daughter with her mother. He who loves father and mother more than me is not worthy of me." This directly hostile purpose, which calls to mind the legendary r61e of Bertran de Born^ is directed against the incestuous bond and compels man to transfer his libido to the Saviour, who, dying, returning into his mother and rising again, is the hero Christ.

  • • Genitals.
  • ^The horns of the dragon have the following attributes: They will

prey upon woman's flesh and they will bum with fire.*' The horn, a phallic emblem, is in the unicorn the symbol of the Holy Ghost (Logos). The unicorn is hunted by the archangel Gabriel, and driven into the lap of the Virgin, by which was understood the immaculate conception. But the horns are also sun's rays, therefore the sun-gods are often horned. The sun phallus is the prototype of the horn (sun wheel and phallus wheel), therefore the horn is the symbol of power. Here the home " burn with fire " and prey upon the flesh ; one recognizes in this a representation of the pains of hell where souls were burnt by Che fire of the libido (unsatisfied longing). The harlot it " coniumed " or burned by unsatisfied longing (libido). Prometheus tnifers a similar fate, when the eagle, sun-bird (Hbido), tears his intestines: one might also say, that he was pierced by the "horn. I refer to the phallic meaning of the spear.

    • In the Babylonian underworld, for example. The souls hart a

feathery coat like birds. See the Gilgamesh epic

" In a fourteenth-century Gospel at Bruges there is a miniature where the "woman" lovely as the mother of God stands with half her body in a dragon.

^*Td affvtov, little ram, diminutive of the obsolete ^p^=rram. (In Theophrastus it occurs with the meaning of "young scion.") The related word ofnic designates a festival annually celem'ated in honor of Linos, in which the ^vo$>, the lament called Linos, was sung as a lamentation for Linos, the new-born son of Psamathe and Apollo, torn to pieces by dogs. The mother had exposed her child out of fear of her father Krotopos. But for revenge Apollo sent a dragon, Poine, into Krotopos' land. The oracle of Delphi commanded a year^f lament by women and maidens for the dead Lmos. A part of the honor was


526 SYMBOLISM OF THE MOTHER [pp. 233-306

K'lvrn to Ptamalhf. The Linos UmcM ii, as Herodolui ihom (11, 79), iilrnllriil wiih the Phinijcian, Cyprisn and Egyplian i-intom of (he Adonis- (Tainmuz) lament. As Heiodotua obirrvei, Linos is called Manero) in Egypt' Bmgich points out that Manerns comes from the EkvpI'ih ciy of lamenlaiion, maa-n-tkru : "come to the call." Poice it characicriHd by her tearing the children from (he nornb of all motbcrs. Thli ensemMe of motives is found again in ihe Apocal)-psc, xii:t'5, nhere il treali of the woman, nhose child nss Threaiencd by a dra^n but was snatched anay into the heavens. Tht child-murdeT of He'od is ■» anthropomorphism of this "primitive" idei- The lamb means the •on. (See Brugich: " Die Adoniiklnge un<J dai Linoslied," Berlin i8<iJ.) Dittcrich {Ahraiia»: " Stud i en «u< Reltgionsgeschirhic dM spHteren Alicrtums," itgt) refer) for an explanation of this pasiige to the myth of Apollo and Pythnn, nhich he reprod'vcei as follnws- "To Python, the >on of earth, the great dragon, it was prophesied that the son of Leto would kill hJm; Leio was pregnnnl by Zeos: but Hera brought it about that «he ceulJ givr birth oaly thert ifhrrt iht iub did nal lAinr. When Python saw that Leto was pregnant, he began to purine her in ordet 10 kill her, but Boreai brought I^to to Poseidon. The taller brought her to Ortygia and rovered the island with the waves of Ihe tea. When Python did not find Leto, he returned lo Parnatsut. Leto brought forth upon Ihe island thrown up by Poseidon. The foutth day after the birth, Apollo look revenge and killed (he Pythoo. The bir(h upon the hidden island belongs to the motive of the " night journey on Ihe sea." Tlie typical character of tlie "island phantasy" has for the first time been correctly perceived by Riklin (1912 J4ifirbath, Vol. II, p. 34£). A beautiful parallel for this is to be found, toitether with the necessary incestuous phantasy material, in H. de Vere Stacpool: "The Blue Lagoon." A patallel to "Paul and Virginia."

"Revelation Tmv.i: "And the holy city, the new Jerusalem, I saw coming^ down from the heaven of God, firtfarrd ai a bride adorntd f»t kir bridegroom."

"The legend of Saklideva, in Somadeva Bhatta, relnles that the hero, ifter he had escaped from being devoured by a huge fish (terrible mother), finally sees the golden city and marries his beloved priaccw (Frobenius, p. 175).

" In the Apocryphal acta of St. Thomas (»nd cetitury) the churcli il taken to be the virgin mother-spouse of Christ. Id an invocatlgit of tSu apostle, it is said:

Come, holy name of Christ, thoti who art abov* all asuin.

Come, power of the highest and griatrii mercy.

Come, dispenser of the greatest blessing*.

Come, gracious mother.

Come, economy of (he maicutinf.

Come, woman, thou who disclosesi Ibi hiittlcs fnyneria . . . In another invocation It is said:

Come, greatest mercy,

Come, spouse (literal r..-nminiii»l trf the -nil-

Com*, ivotnan, Ihciu ■■■ ' ■!■ 1 1..-,

Come, woman, thnu

And who levealtii

Dove, thou who brln,

Come, myitcrlous mu:.

pp. 233-306] SYMBOLISM OF THE MOTHER 527

F. C. Conybcarc: "Die jungfriulichc Kirchc und die jangfrauliche Mutter." Archiv fiir Religions*wissenschaft, IX, 77. The connection of the church with the mother is not to be doubted, also the conception of the mother as spouse. The virgin is necessarily introduced to hide the incest idea. The "community with the male" points to the motive of the continuous cohabitation. The "twin nestlings" refer to the old legend, that Jesus and Thomas were twins. It plainly expresses the motive of the Dioscuri. Therefore, doubting Thomas had to place his finger in the wound at the side. Zinzendorf has correctly perceived the sexual significance of this symbol that hints at the androgynous nature oiF the primitive being (the libido). Compare the Persian legend of the twin trees Meschia and Mechiane, as well as the motive of the Dioscuri and the motive of cohabitation.

"Compare Freud: "Dream Interpretation." Also Abraham: "Dreama and Myths," pp. 22 f .

^'Isaiah xlviii:i. "Hear ye this, O house of Jacob, which are called by the name of Israel and are come forth out of the waters of Judah."

" Wirth : " Aus orientalischen Chroniken."— The Greek " Materia " is vAj7, which means wood and forest; it really means moist, from the Indo-Germanic root su in t*<j, "to make wet, to have it rain"; ^crdc = rain; Iranian ji/M = sap, fruit, birth; Sanscrit Ji2r^ = brandy ; sutus=z pregnancy; suie, suyate = to generate; stttas =^9on; /dra/ = ioma; w6t

=son; (Sanscrit, sunus; gothic, sunus),

Ko//i7//a means cohabitation, Kot/irfT^ptov bedchamber, hence coemeterium = cemetery, enclosed fenced place.

" Nork : " Realworterbuch."

" In a myth of Celebes, a dove maiden who wat caught id the manner of the swan maiden m3rth, was called Utahagi after a white hair which grew on its crown and in which there was magic itrength.

Frobenius, p. 307.

    • Referring to the phallic symbolism of the finger, ice the remarki

about the Dactyli, Part II, Chap. I: I mention at this place the following from a Bakairi m>th: " Nimagakaniro devoured two finger bonet, many of which were in the house, because Oka used them for his arrow headi and killed many Bakairi whose flesh he ate. The woman became preg- nant from the finger bone and only from this, not from Oka " (quoted by Frobenius, p. 236).

    • Further proof for this in Prellwitz: '* Griechische Etymologie."
    • Siecke: "Der Gott Rudra in Rigveda": Archiv fur Rili§i9ntms$em'

schafi, Vol. I, p. 237.

    • The fig tree is the phallic tree. It is noteworthy that Dionyaui

planted a fig tree at the entrance to Hades, just at ** Phalli ** are placed on graves. The Cyprus tree consecrated to Aphrodite grew to be entirely a token of death, because it was placed at the door of the house dt death.

"Therefore the tree at times is also a representation of the tun. A

~'v8tian riddle related to me by Dr. Van Ophuijscn reads: What it

"' tree which ttandt in the middle of the village and it Titible Iq

SYMBOLISM OF THE MOTHER Iff. 133-306 jti and iu li^t." A Nami^An riddk

" A tree standi on the mountain of Billingi,

It bends over > like,

lis branches shine like gold:

You won't guess ihat (o-dar- In (hr evening tlie Jaughier of the sun collected the gald«D brjinchci, nhich hud been broken from the wondeifiil osk.

Bitterly weeps the little sun

In the ipplc orehncd.

From the apple tree has fillea

The gioldcn apple,

Do not neep. little sun,

God will make another'

Of gold, of bronie, of silver." The picking of the apple from the paradise tree may be compared with ihe Arc theft, the drawing back of the libido from the mo^ier. (Stt the ciplanations which follow couccruing the specific deed of the hern.)

" The relation of the son to the mother was the piychologic batii of many religions. Ii) the ChristiaD legend the relation of the son to (he mother i* extraordinarily clear. Robertson ("Evangelical M>Th»") h«» hit upon the relation of Christ to the Marys, oud he <-on)ecturc« that this relation probably refers to an old myth "where a pod of Palestine, perhaps of the name Joshua, appears in the changing relation of lover and son towards a mythical Mary. This is a natural process in (be oldest iheosophy and one which appears with variations in the myths of Miihra, Adonis, Attis, Osiris and Dionysus, all of whom were b(oii][h( into relation (or combination) with mother goddesses and who appear either as a consort or a feminine eidolon in so far as the molhrri and consorts were identified as occasion offered."

"Rank has pointed out a beautiful example of thi« in (he mytb of the swan maiden. " Die Lohen grin sage: Schriften lui angevirandlts Seelenkunde."

" Muthcr (" Geschichte der Malerci," Vol. 11) say* la the cliaptcr; "Tlie First Spanish Classic": "Ticck once wrote; Sexuality is the great mystery of our being. Sensiialitv is the first moving wheel i» our machinery. It stirs our being and makes it joyous and living. Every- thing we dream of as beautiful and noble Is included here. Soniality and sensuousness are the spirit of music, of painting and of all art. .MI wishe* of mankind rotate around this center like moths around a burning light. The sense of beauty and the feeling for art iri only other expressions of it. They signify nothing more than the impulse of mankind towards expression, I consider devoutness itself as a diverted channel of the sexual desire." Here it is openly declared lliat one abould never forget when judging the ancient ecclesiastic art thai iba liDd (o efface the boundaries between earthly and divine love, to falrad theni into each other imperceptibly, has always been the ^dtng thought, ikt strongest factor in the propaganda of the Catholic church.

'■ W* will not diiaus here ilie reasons (or the strength of ihc p)iaiit*«r. But it does not seem difiicDii te (m to imigbc what ton at powcn wt hidden behind the above farmulai

pp. 233-306] SYMBOLISM OF THE MOTHER 529


Lactantius says: "When all know that it is customary for ceruin animals to conceive through wind and breath of air, why should any one consider it miraculous for a virgin to be impregnated by the spirit of God?" Robertson: "Evang. Myth.," p. 31.

'* Therefore the strong emphasis upon affiliation in the New Testament

"The mystic feelings of the nearness of God; the so-called pcnonal inner experience.

'*The sexual mawkishness is ever3rwhere apparent in the lamb aym* holism and the spiritual love-songs to Jesus, the bridegroom of the aooL

" Usener: " Der heilige Tychon," 1907.

" Compare W. P. Knight: "Worship of Priapus."

'* Or in the compensating organizations, which appear in the place of


    • The condition was undoubtedly ideal for early timet, where man-

kind was more infantile in general: and it still is ideal for that part of humanity which is infantile; how large is that parti

  • ^ Compare Freud: Jahrhuch, Vol. Ill, p. i.
  • ' Here it is not to be forgotten we are moving entirely in the territ o ry

of psychology, which in no way is allied to transcendentalism, either in positive or negative relation. It is a question here of a relentless fulfil* ment of the standpoint of the theory of cognition, established by Kant^ not merely for the theory, but, what is more important, for the practice. One should avoid playing with the infantile image of the world, because all this tends only to separate man from his essential and higfaett ethical goal, moral autonomy. The religious symbol should be retained after the inevitable obliteration of certain antiquated fragments, as |KMtalato or as transcendent theory, and also as taught in precepts, but it to be filled with new meaning according to the demand of die culture of the present day. But this theory must not become for the adult*' a positive creed, an illusion, which causes reality to appear to him in a false light. Just as man is a dual being, having an intellectual and an animal nature, so does he appear to need two forms of reality, tht reality of culture, that is, the symbolic transcendent theory, and the reality of nature which corresponds to our conception of die true reality." In the same measure that the true reality is merely a figurativt interpretation of the appreciation of reality, the religious qrmbolic theoiy is merely a figurative interpretation of certain endopaychic apperoeptiona. But one very essential difference is that a transcendental aupport^ inde- pendent in duration and condition, is assured to the transubjecdve reality through the best conceivable guarantees, while for the pqrchologic pb^ nomena a transcendental support of subjective limitation and weakneti must be recognized as a result of compelling empirical data. Therefore true reality is one that is relatively universally valid; die paycholoi^ reality, on the contrary, is merely a functional phenomenon contained in an epoch of human civilization. Thus does it appear to-day from the best informed empirical standpoint If, however, the paydiologie were divested of its character of a biologic epiphenomenon in a manner neither known nor expected by me, and thereby was giTen the place of a physical entity, then the psychologic reality would be reeolyed into the true reality; or much more, it would be revened^ because dua the

530 SYMBOLISM OF THE MOTHER [pp. 233-306

psychologic would lay claim to a greater worth, for the ultimate theory, because of its directness.

" " De Isid. et Osir."

"Erman: " Aeg>pten," p. 360.

  • "I!cre I must apain recall that I give to the word "incest" more sig-

nificance than properly belongs to the term. Just as libido is the onward driving force, so incest is in some manner the backward urge into child- hood. For the child, it cannot be spoken of as incest. Only for the adult who possesses a completely formed sexuality does the backward urge be- come incest, because he is no longer a child but possesses a sexuality which cannot be permitted a regressive application.

    • Compare Frobenius: "Das Zeitalter des Sonnengottes."
  • ^ Compare the '* nightmare legends " in which the mare is t beautifnl


    • This recalls the phallic columns placed in the temples of Astarte.

In fact, according to one version, the wife of the king was named Astarte. This symbol brings to mind the crosses, fittingly called iynd/ffia (pregnant crosses), which conceal a secret reliquary.

    • Spielrein (Jahrbuch, Vol. Ill, p. 358) points out numerous indica-

tions of the motive of dismemberment in a demented patient. Fragments of the most varied things and materials were " cooked " or " burnt.** " The ash can become man." The patient saw children dismembered in glass coffins. In addition, the above-mentioned "washing,** "cleaning,** "cooking" and "burning" has, besides the coitus motive, also the pregnancy motive; the latter probably in a predominating measure.

  • " Later offshoots of this primitive theory of the origin of children are

contained in the doctrines of Karma, and the conception of the Mendelian theory of heredity is not far off. One only has to realize that all apper- ceptions are subjectively conditioned.

    • Demctcr assembled the limbs of the dismembered Dionjrsus and

from tlicni produced the god anew.

■' Compare Diodorus: III, 62.

" Yet to be added is the fact that the cynocephalic Anubis as the restorer of the corpse of Osiris (also genius of the dog star) had a com- pensatory siiinificanre. In this sic:nificance he appears upon many sar- cophagi. The dog is aUri a regular companion of the healing Asclepius. The following quotation from Petronius best supports the Creuzer hypothesis (" Sat.,"c. 71) : " Valde te rogo, ut secundum pedes statuae mcae catellain pingas — ut niihi rontingat tuo beneficio post mortem vivere" (I beseech you instantly to fasten beside the feet of my statue a dog, so that bemuse of your beneficence I may attain to life after death). See Nork: Ibid., about dog.)

Nforeover, the relation of the dog to the dog-headed Hecate, the goddess of the underworld, hints at its being the symbol of rebirth. She received as Canicula a sacrificial dog to keep away the pest. Her close relation to Artemis as godcicss of the moon permits her opposition to fertility to be glimpsed. Hecate is also the first to bring to Demeter the news of her stolen child (the role of Anubis!). Also the goddess of birth Ilithyia received sacrifices of dogs, and Hecate herself is, 00 oocasitfi% goddess of marriage and birth.

pp. 233-306] SYMBOLISM OF THE MOTHER 531

•* Frobcnius (Ibid., p. 393) observes that frequently the godt of fire (sun-heroes) lack a member. He gives the following parallel: "Juit as the god wrenches out an arm from the ogre (giant), 10 does Odysseus pluck out the eye of the noble Polyphemus, whereupon the sun creeps up mysteriously into the sky. Might the fire-making, twisting and wrenching out of the arm be connected ? " This question is by this clearly illumined if we assume, corresponding to the train of thought of the ancients, that the wrenching out of the arm is really a castration. (The Sjrmbol of the robbery of the force of life.) It is an act corresponding to the Attis castration because of the mother. From this renunciation, which is really a symbolic mother incest, arises the discovery of fire, as previously we have already suspected. Moreover, mention must be made of the fact that to wrench out an arm, means first of all merely "overpowering," and on that account can happen to the hero as well at to hit opponent. (Compare, for examples, Frobenius: Ibid., pp. iia, 395*)

'" Compare especially the description of the ciip of Thebet.

  • ' Professor Freud has expressed in a personal discussion the idea that

a further determinate for the motive of the dissimilar brothers it to be found in the elementary observance towards birth and the after-birth. It is an exotic custom to treat the placenta as a child 1

"Brugsch: "Religion und Mythologie der alten Aegypter," p. 354. " Ibid., p. 310.

    • In the conception of Atman there is a certain fluid quality in to

far as he really can be identified with Purusha of the Rigveda. "Puratha covers all the places of the earth, flowing about it ten nngert high."

•"Brugsch: Ibid., p. 112.


In Thebes, where the chief god is Chnum, the latter repretents die breath of the wind in his cosmic component, from which later on "the spirit of God floating over the waters" has developed; the primitive idea of the cosmic parents, who lie presj«ed together until the ton teparatef them. (Compare the symbolism of Atman above.)

  • 'Brugsch: Ibid., p. 128.
    • Servian song from Grimm't " Mythology," II, p. 544.

"Frobenius: Ibid.

    • Compare the birth of the Germanic Aschanes, where rode, tree and

water are present at the scene of birth. Chidher too wat found titting on the earth, the ground around covered with flowert.

    • Most singularly even in this quotation, V. 288, the description it

found of Sleep sitting high up in a pine tree. '* There he sat turrounded by branches covered with thorny leaves, like the tinging bird, who by night flutters through the mountains." It appears as if the motive belonga to a hierosgamos. Compare also the magic net with which Hephaettot enfolds Ares and Aphrodite " in flagranti " and kept them for the tport of the gods.

  • The rite of enchaining the statues of Hercules and the Tyrian Mel-

karth is related to this also. The Cabiri too were wrapt in ooveringt.

Creuzer: " Symbol ik," II, 350.

"'Fick: " Indogermanisches Worterbuch," I, p. 13a.



    • Compare I he " Tcnaiindiiig )ua."

"The motivt of the "wrikinB rucks" belongs alio to thr inntrve irf devouring (Frobcniui: Ibid., p. 405). The hero id hit thip muit piM betv*een two rocks which slrlke togeiher. (Similar 10 ihe hitine doDf, to the Irtc trunk vrhicb snaps logtlher.) Id the pMttgc. generally the I*i1 of the bird ia pinched off (or (he "poop" of the »hip, rtc.) ; ib«  cattralion motive ii once more clearly revealed here, for the cailradoa takes the place of mother inceit. The castration is a *ub*tirul!oD fOT coitui. SchcBel employs this idea in his well-knono poem: "A btning loved an oyjtcr, etc." The poem ends with the oj-JIer biting off the herring's head for a kiss. The dovrj which bring Zeu4 ambrotia have also to pass through the rocks nhich strike together. The "doves" bring the food of iramoriality to Zeus by means of incest {entrance into the mother) very similar to Freya's apples (breasis), Frobrnius alto mentions ihe rocks or caves nhich open only at a magic word snd tit very closely conneaed wiih the roeki which strike tngethet. Most illuminating in this rcspeci is a South African myth (Frobenius. p. 407): "One must call the rock by name and cry loudly; Rock Uiuniambiti, open, so that I may enter." But the rock answers when ii will not open to the call. "The lock will not open to children, ii will open to the which fly in ihc airl " The remarkable thing is, that no hutnan n open the rock, only a formula has that power — or ■ bird. 'his wording merely says that the opening of the rock is an uodertakiag nhich cannot really be accomplished, but which one wiihe* to accom-

(In Middle High German, to wish is really "to have ibe power » create something extraordinary.") When a man dies, then only the wish that he might liv^ remains, an unfulfilled wish, a flultering wish, wherefore souls arc birds. The soul i» wholly only libido, as Is illus- trated in many pans of this work; it is " to wish." Thus ihe helpful bird, who assists the hero in Ihe whale to come agalti iiilo the li^U, who opens the rocks, is the wish (or reblith' (For the hlrd ai a wish, see the beautiful painting by Thoma. where the youth longingty alteiches out his arms to the birds who pass over hit heU.)

"Gtimm: "Mythology," I, p. 474.

"Id Athens there was a family of AlytipATo/au :=bfwii from poplara

"Hermann: " Nordischc Mythologic," p. 5S9.

"Javanese tribes commonly set np their images of God in an anifielil cavity of a tree. This fits in with the " little hole " nhanlasy of Zioien- dorf and his sect. See Piister: " FrSmmigkelt des Grafco tod Ziniendorf " Id a Persian myth, the white Haoma ia a divine Iiee, growing in thf lake VouriJcasha, the fish Khar-mshi circlei protccttngjy araaitd Ii and defends it against the toad Ahriman. It gives elemal life, cbildten 10 women, husbands to girl* and horses to men. In (he Mindkhtred the tret is called "the preparer of the corpse" {Spiegel; "Erlo. Altenumtkutuk." II, lis).

" Ship of the tun, which accumpanict Ihe sun and the tool ovrr At lea of death to the rising.

"Brugsch: Ibid,, p. 177.

" Similarly Isaiah Ii: i : ", . . look unto the rock whence ye are hewa, and to the hole of (he pit whence ye are digged." Further proof ii found

pp.* 233-306] SYMBOLISM OF THE MOTHER 533

in A. von Lowis of Menar : ** Nordkaukasische Steingeburtssagen," ArchiV fur Religionsvnssenschaft, XIII, p. 509.

  • ■ Grimm : " Mythology," I, p. 474.

'* " Das Kreuz Christi. Rel.-hist.-kirchl.-archaeol. Uiitersiidiiingea»'* X875.

  • ^ The legend of Seth is found in Jubinal : " Mystires inWti do XV«

si^Ie," Part II, p. z6. Quoted from Zockler: Ibid^ p. 241.

'^ The guilt is as always, whenever possible, thrown upon the mother. The Germanic sacred trees are also under the law of an absolute taboo: no leaf may be taken from them, and nothing may be picked from the ground upon which their shadows fall.

"According to the German legend (Grimm: Vol. II, p. 809) » the redeeming hero will be born when the tree, which now grows as a weak shoot from the wall, has become large, and when from its wood the cradle can be made in which the hero can be rocked. The formula reads: "A linden shall be planted, which shall bear on high two bought from the wood of which a "poie" shall be made; the child who will be the first to lie therein is destined to be taken by the sword from life to death, and then salvation will enter in." In the Germanic leg|endt» the appearance of a future event is connected most remarkably with «  budding tree. Compare with this the designation of Christ as a " branch ** or a " rod."

"Herein the motive of the "helpful bird" is apparent. Angela are really birds. Compare the bird clothing of the souls of the onderworldy " soul birds." In the sacrificium Mithriacum the messenger of the godt (the " angel ") is a raven, the winged Hermes, etc.

"See Frobenius: Ibid.

" The close connection between 6tX^ = Dolphin and 4eX#r =:aterai If emphasized. In Delphi there is the cavity in the earth and the Trijpod deTu^ivl^ = a delphic table with three feet in ^e form of a Dolphin). See in the last chapter Melicertes upon the Dolphin and die fiery

sacrifice of Melkarth.

'* See the comprehensive collection of Jonet. On the nightmare.

" Riklin : " Wish Fulfilment and Symbolism hi Fairy Tales."

"Laistner: "Das Ratsel der Sphinx."

"Freud: Jahrbuch, Vol. I, June: "Mental Conflict! in Children": Col- lected Papers on Analytical Psychology.

  • ^"£pistola de ara ad Noviomagum reperta," p. 15. Quoted hf

Grimm : " Mythology," Vol. II.

    • Grimm : Ibid., Vol. II, p. 1041.
  • ' Compare with that the horses whose tread causes epringa to flow.

"Compare Herrmann: " Nord. Myth.," p. 64, and Fick: "Vergleidi. Worterb. d. indogerm. Sprache," Vol. I.

    • Parallel is the mantic significance of the delphic chasm, Mlmir't

brook, etc. " Abyss of Wisdom," see last chapter. Hippo^ytosb with whom

534 SYMBOLISM OF THE MOTHER [pp. 233-306

his stepmother was enamoured, was placed after death with the wise nymph, K^cria.

'* Example in Bertschinger: Jahrbuch, Vol. Ill, Part I.

    • Compare the exotic myths given by Frohenius ("Zeitalter des SoD-

nenf^ottes"), where the belly of the whale is clearly the land of death.

    • One of the fixed peculiarities of the Mar is that he can only get

out of the hole, through which he came in. This motive belongs evi- dently as the projected wish motive in the rebirth myth.

•"According to Gressmann: " Altorient. Text, und Bild./' Vol. I, p. 4.

    • Abyss of wisdom, book of wisdom, source of phantasies. See below.
  • "** Cleavage of the mother, see Kaineus; also rift, chasm = division

of the earth, and so on.

"* " Schcipfung und Chaos." Gottingen, 1895, p. 3a

"'Brugsch: Ibid., p. i6i.

"* In a Pyramid text, which depicts the battle of the dead Pharaoh for the dominance of heaven, it reads: Heaven weeps, the stars tremble, the guards of the gods tremble and their servants flee, when they see the king rise as a spirit, as a god, who lives upon his fathers and conquers his mothers." Cited by Dieterich: " Mithrasliturgy/' p. 100.

  • "* Book II, p. 61.

^•By Ares, the Egyptian Typhon is probably meant.

^"^ In the Polynesian Maui myth, the act of the sun-hero is very plain: he robs his mother of her girdle. The robbery of the veil in myths of the type of the swan maiden has the same significance. In an African myth of Joruba, the sun-hero simply ravishes his mother (Frobenias).

^"^ The previously mentioned myth of Halirrhotios, who destroyed himself when he wished to cut down the holy tree of Athens, the Moria, contains the same psycliology, also the priestly castration (Attis castra- tion) in the service of the great mother. The ascetic self-torture in Christianity has its origin, as is self-evident, in these sources because the Christian form of symbol means a very intensive regression to the mother incest.

^"* The tearing of! from the tree of life is just this sin.

"•Compare Kuhn: " Herabkunft des Feuers."

""Nork: " Wiirtcrbuch s. v. Mistel."

^" Therefore in England mistletoe boughs were hung ap at Christmas. Mistletoe ns rod of life. Compare Aigremont: " Volkierotik und


  • "Just as the tree has the phallic nature as well as a maternal sig-

nificance, so in myths the demonic old woman (she may be favorable or malicious) often has phallic attributes, for example, a long toe, a long tooth, long lips, long fingers, pendulous breasts, large hands, fed^ and so on. This mixture of male and female motive has reference to the fact that the old woman is a libido symbol like the tree, generally determined as maternal. The biscxuality of the libido is expressed in

pp. 233-306] SYMBOLISM OF THE MOTHER 535

its clearest form in the idea of the three witches, who collectiyely pos- sessed but one eye and one tooth. This idea is directly parallel to the dream of a patient, who represented her libido as twins, one of which is a box, the other a bottle-Iike object, for eye and tooth represent male and female genitals. Relative to eye in this connection, see especially the Egyptian myths: referring to tooth, it is to be observed that Adonis (fecundity) died by a boar's tooth, like Siegfried by Hagen's spear: compare with this the Veronese Priapus, whose phallus was bitten by • snake. Tooth in this sense, like the snake, is a " negative " phallus.

  • '* Compare Grimm: Vol. II, Chap, iv, p. 802. The same motive in

another application is found in a Low-Saxon legend: Once a young ash tree grew unnoticed in the wood. Each New Year's Eve a white knight upon a white horse rides up to cut down the young shoot. At the same time a black knight arrives and engages him in combat After a lengthy conflict, the white knight succeeds in overcoming the black knight and the white knight cuts down the young tree. But sometime the white knight will be unsuccessful, then the ash will grow, and when it becomes large enough to allow a horse to be tied under it, then a powerful king will come and a tremendous battle will occur (destruction of the world).

^** Chantepie de la Saussaye: "Lehrbuch der Religionsgeschichtei'* VoL II, p. 185.

  • '* Further examples in Frobenius: Ibid., passim.
      • See Jensen : " Gilgameshepos."

^" In a Schlesian passionale of the fifteenth century Christ dies on the same tree which was connected with Adam's sin. Cited from Z9d[ler: Ibid., p. 24Z.

^" For example, animal skins were hung on the sacrificial trees and afterwards spears were thrown at them.

'** ** Geschichte der amerikanischen Urreligionen," p. 498.

"^Stephens: "Central America" (cited by Muller: Ibid., p. 498).

"'Zockler: "Das Kreuz Christi," p. 34.

"'H. H. Bancroft: "Native Races of the Pacific States of North America,'* II, 506. (Cited by Robertson: "Evang. Myths," p. 139.)

'"Rossellini: " Monumenti dell* Egitto, etc" Tom. 3. Tav. as* (Cited by Robertson: Ibid., p. 142.

"^Zockler: Ibid., p. 7. In the representation of the birth of a king in Luxor one sees the following: The logos and messenger of the gods, the bird-headed Thoth, makes known to the maiden Queen Mautmes that she is to give birth to a son. In the following scene, Kneph and Athor hold the Crux ansata to her mouth so that she may be impreg- nated by this in a spiritual (symbolic) manner. Sharp: "Egypdnn Mythology," p. i8. (Cited by Robertson: "Evangelical Myths," p. 43.)

"' The statues of the phallic Hermes used as boundary stones were often in the form of a cross with the head pointed (W. Payne Knight:

  • ' Worship of Priapus," p. 30). In Old English the cross is called


^Robertson (Ibid., p. 140) mentions the fact that the Mexican priesta and sacrificcrs clothed themselves in the skin of a slain woman, and


placed themselves with arms stretched out like a cross before the god of war.

  • " " Indian Antiquities," VI, 49.

'"The primitive Egyptian cross form is meant: L

*ZdckIer: Ibid., p. 19. The bud is plainly phallic. See the above- mentioned dream of the young woman.

^'*I am indebted for my information about these researches to Pro- fessor Fiechter of Stuttgart.

•"Zockler: Ibid., p. 33-

    • ' The sacrifice is submerged in the water, that is, in the mother.
  • '* Compare later the moon as gathering place of souls (the devour-

ing mother).

^** Compare here what Abraham has to say in reference to papilla ("Dreams and Myths").

  • " Retreat of Re upon the heavenly cow. In a Hindoo rite of purifica-

tion, the penitent must creep through an artificial cow in order to be born anew.

^'*Schu]tze: "Psychologic der Naturvolker." Leipzig 1900^ p. 338.

^" Brugsch : Ibid., p. 290.

^'* One need not be amazed at this formula because it is the animal in us, the primitive forces of which appear in religion. In this con- nection Dieterich*s words ('* Mithrasliturgie," p. zo8) take on an espe- cially important aspect. " The old thoughts come from beiow in new force in the history of religion. The revolution from beiovf creates a new life of religion in primitive indestructible forms."

^"Dispute between Nfary and the Cross in R. Morris: "Legends of the Holy Rood." London 1871.

^** A very beautiful representation of the blood-red ran linking into the sea.

^*^ Jesus appears here as branch and bud in the tree of life. Compare here the interesting reference- in Robertson: " Evangelical Myths," p. $1, in regard to "Jesus, the Nazarene," a title which he derives from Nazar or Netzer = branch.

^*' In Greece, the pale of torture, on which the criminal was stretched or punished, was termed Udrtf (Hecate), the subterranean mother of death.

    • 'Diez: "Etym. Worterbuch der romanischen Sprachen," p. 9a


  • Witches easily change themselves into horses, therefore the nail-

marks of the horseshoe may be seen upon their hands. The devil rides on witch-horses, priests' cooks are changed after death into honc% etc. Negelein, Zeitschrift des Vertines fur Foikskundg, XI, p. 410&


' Just SO does the mythical ancient king Tahmuraht ride upon Ahrimui^ the devi].

' The she-asses and their foals might belong to the Christian sun nqFth* because the Zodiacal sign Cancer (Summer solstice) was designated in antiquity as an ass and its young. (Compare Robertson: "Evangelical Myths," p. 19.)

  • Also a centaur.

' Compare the exhaustive presentation of this theme in J&hn'a " Ross und Reiter."

  • Sleipnir is eight-footed.

' Negelein: Ibid., p. 4x2. 'Negelein: Ibid., p. 4x9.

  • I have since learned of a second exactly similar case.

"Preller: " Griech. Mythologie," I, I, p. 432.

^^ See further examples in Aigremont: "Fuss- und Sdiuhsymbolik.'^

^'Aigremont: Ibid., p. 17.

  • • Negelein: Ibid., p. 386.
    • Ample proofs of the Centaurs as wind gods are to be fdnnd in

E. H. Meyer: " Indogermanische Mythen," p. 447.

^'This is an especial motive, which must have something typical in it. My patient ("Psychology of Dementia Praecox," p. 16}) alto declared that her horses had "half-moons'* under their skin, like " little curls." In the songs of Rudra of the Rigveda, of the boar Radra it is said that his hair was " wound up in the shape of shells." Indra*a body is covered with eyes.

^*This change results from a world catastrophe. In mythology tlM verdure and the upward striving of the tree of life signify also tlia turning-point in the succession of the ages.

" Therefore the lion was killed by Samson, who later hairetted tha honey from the body. The end of sununer is the plenteousness of tbe autumn. It is a close parallel to the sacrificium Mithriacum. For Samson, see Steinthal: "Die Sage von Simson," ZeiUckrift fUr Filkif^ psych./' Vol. II.

"Philo: "In Genesim, I, xca (Cited by Cumont: ** Testes at

Monuments," I, p. 82.)

" Spiegel : " Eran. Altertuniskunde, Vol. II, p. 193. In the wridntB ascribed to Zoroaster, Uepl ^iaeoc, the Ananke, the necessity of fate, it represented by the air. Cumont: Ibid., I, p. 87.

  • ^ Spiel rein's patient (Jahrbuch, III, p. 394) speaks of honef^ wIm

eat men, also exhumed bodies.

'* Negelein: Ibid., p. 416.

P. Thomas a Villanova Wegener: "Das wunderbare lusiere and innere Leben der Dienerin Gottes Aima Catherina Emnkericfa.** DQlmtn

i. W. 1891.


  • ' The h«art of ihr mother of God i» pierced by a iword.

'* Correipondine tu the idea in Piilm xi:l, "For )o, tbc mdvd bind tbtir bnw, ihey make reidy their oi-rom upon the itrtng, that tbey maj privily »hoot at the upright in heart."

" K, E. Neuraanot "The Speeches of Gautama Buddha," traniUtcd from the German collection of (he fragments of Suttanipato of At Pili-Kanon, Munchen 1911.

" With the aame idea of an cndogenout pain Theocritus (17, aS) call* the birth throe* "Arrows of the Ililhyia. In the sense ol a wish the same cornpariann i« found in Jesus Siiach 19:12. "When a word penetrates a fool it is the same as if so arrow pierced his loim." Thai is lo say, it E'Ves him do rest until it is out.

  • ' One mi^hl be lempied to say that these were merely fjgiiralJTely

expressed coitus scenes. Bui thai would be a iiitle too strong and an unjuslifiable accentuation cf ihe material at issue. Wc e.annni forstf (bat the saints have, figuratively, taught the painful domealilicarion al the brme. The rctult of this, which is the progrest of civiljaailoii, hu also to be recogoixed as a motive for ibis action.

" Apuleius (" Meiam.," Book It, jt) made use of the synbolieiB of how and arrow in a very drasiic manner, " Ubi primam saginan saevi Cupidinis in ima praecoidia mea delapaam eicepi, arcum meim en! Ipse vigor aitendit et oppido formido, ne nervus rigntis otmieiate rumpalur " (When I pulled out the first arrow of fierce Cupid that had entered into my Inmost breast, behold my bow! Its very vigor Mretchei it and makes me fear lest the suing be broken by the cxcenivc laaliieu).

"Spielrein'i patient {Jakrbuch. III. p. 371) had alio the Me* of ihl cleavage of the earth in a similar connection. "Iroo b iiieid for ib purpose of penetrating into the earih. . . . with iron man CKO - . - create men . . . the earth i« split, hurst open, man fi divided . . . ia severed and reunited. In order to make an end of the hurial of ^ living, Jesus Christ calls hie disciples 10 penetrate into the earth."

The motive of "cleavage" is of general significance. Tttt Persia! hers Tishtriya, who also appeared as a white horte. openi the tain lake, and thus makes the earth fruitful. He is called Tit = arrow. He was also represented as feminine, with a bow and arrow. Mithra with his arrow shot Ihe water from the rocit, so as to rnd the drau^. The knife is sometimes found aluck in the earih. In Mitliraii: tnonumentt •omeiimei it is the sacrificial instrument which kills the hull. [Cumaol: Ibid., pp. tij, iiiS, ■£;.)

  • ' Spielrein's patient ats. ._

God. (j shots;) "then came a resurrection of the epltit. aymholism of introversion.

','^*.'. " "Pr"«n'ed mythologically In the legend of 1^1(1101 and Peinihoos, who wished lo capture the sublernnean ProEierpina. With this aim ihey enter a chasm in the earth in Ihe Rrove Ketwios, "> Jfder to get down to Ihe underworld : when they wtre below ibrT wished to teat,^ but being enchanted they hung on Ihe rocks, that it i» ■ay, they remained fixed in the raotber and were ihercfod loit f<n the


upperworld. Later Theseus was freed by Hercules (revenge of Honii for Osiris), at which time Hercules appears in the r61e of the deatli- conquering hero.

This formula applies most directly to dementia praeooz.


'* See Roscher: s. v. Philoktetes, Sp. 2318, 15.

  • 'When the Russian sun-hero Oleg steppeci on the skull of the slain

horse, a serpent came out of it and bit him on the foot. Then he became sick and died. When Indra in the form of Cyena, the falcon, stole the soma drink, Kri^anu, the herdsman, wounded him in his foot with his arrow ("Rigveda," I, 155; IV, 322).

    • Similar to the Lord of the Grail who guards the chalice, the mother

symbol. The myth of Philoctetes is taken from a more involved connec- tion, the Hercules myth. Hercules has two mothers, the benevolent Alcmene and the pursuing Hera (Lamia), from whose breast he haa absorbed immortality. Hercules conquered Hera's serpent while yet in the cradle ; that is to say, conquered the ** terrible mother," the Lamia. But from time to time Hera sent to him attacks of madness, in one of which he killed his children (Lamia motive). According to an inter- esting tradition, this deed occurred at the moment when Hercules refused to perform a great act in the service of Eurystheus. As a result of the refusal, the libido, in readiness for the work, regressed in a typical manner to the unconscious mother-imago, which resulted in madness (as to-day), during which Hercules identifies himself with Lamia (Hera) and murders his own children. The delphic oracle communicates to him the fact that he is named Hercules because he owea his immortal fame to Hera, who through her persecution compelled him to great deeds. It can be seen that " the great deed " really means the conquering of the mother and through her to win immortality. His characteristic weapon, the club, he cuts from the maternal olive tree. Like the sun, he possessed the arrows of Apollo. He conquered the Nemean lion in his cave, which has the signification of "the grave in the mother's womb" (see the end of this chapter). Then follows the combat with the Hydra, the typical battle with the dragon; die complete conquering of the mother. (See below.) Following this, the capture of the Cerynean doe, whom he wounded with an arrow in the foot. This is what generally happens to the hero, but here it is reversed. Hercules showed the captured Erymanthian boar to Enrysthens, where- upon the latter in fear crept into a cask. That is, he died. The Stymphalides, the Cretan bull, and the man-devouring horse of Diomedes are symbols of the devastating powers of death, among which the tatter's relation to the mother may be recognized especially. The battle for the precious girdle of the Amazon queen Hippolyte permits ns to see once more very clearly the shadow of the mother. Hippolyte is ready to give up the girdle, but Hera, changing herself into the form ef Hippolyte, calls the Amazons against Hercules in battle. (Cbmpare Horus, fighting for the head ornament of Isis, about which there is more later. Chap. 7.) The liberation of Hesione results from Her- cules journeying downwards with his ship into the belly of die monster^ and killing the monster from within after three days labor. (JoniA motive; Christ in the tomb or in hell; the victory over death by creeping into the womb of the mother, and its destruction in the form of the mother. The libido in the form of the beautiful maiden again con- quered.) The expedition to Erythia is a parallel to Gilgamesn, also to

540 BATTLE FOR DELIVERANCE [pp. 3oy-3i*40

MoicB in the Koran, whose goal wai the confluence of ihc two icm: It i* the journey of ihe lun to the We»itrn *r», nhrre Hrmilei discoid ■ ered the iiraiti of Gibraltar ("lo that pasiage": Fsuit), and with ih^.J

  • hip of Helios set out towards Erytbia, There h« avercane the gieanticl

[uardian Burytion (Chumbabs in the Gilgamnh epic. ih« symbol ofa the father), then the triune Geryon (a moniler of phallic libido lyn- I boliara), and at the lame lime nounded Hera, battening to the help of Geryon by an arrow shot. Then the robbery of the herd folloirtd. "The ireajure attained with difficulty" is here pfnenifd in nirioundinp which make it truly unmistakable. Hercules, like the sun, gpn to death, down into the mother (Wesiem sea), but conquer* the libido attached To the mother and returns witb the wonderful kinr; he hii won hack his libido, his life, the mighty possession. We discover tbr aame ihoUKht In the robbery of the goldtn apples of HrtperJdes, whidi are defended by the hundred-headed dragon. The victory over Cer- berus if also easily understood as the victory over death by entrance into the mother (underworld). In order lo come to hi* wife Delaniti, he has lo undergo a terrible battle with a water god. Acbeloui (with the mother). T^e ferryman Nessui (a centaur) violate* Deianiri. With his sun arrows Hercules killed this adversary, but Netsus advixd Deianira to preserve hia poisoned blood as a love chano. When aftef the insane murder of Iphilus Delphi denied him the speech of the oracle, he took possession of the sacred tripod. The delphic nracte i)i<n compelled him to become a slave of Omphate, mho made him like a child. After this Hercules relurned home to Peianira, who presented him with the garment poisoned with Nessus' blood (ihr lali «nake)i which immediately clung so closely to his skin that he in vain attempted lo tear it off. (The casting of the skin of the aging sun-god; Seipent, as symbol of rejuvenation.) Hercules then ascended the funeral pyre in order la destroy himself by lite like the phmix, that It to say. in give birth to himself again from hii own egg. No one but ynong Philocieles dared to sacrifice the god. Therefore Philnctetes receives the arrows of the sun and the libido myth waa rcoewed wilb (hi*

" Apes, also, have an instinctive fear of snake*,

"How much alive are slill such primitive associatlaiu it abown it Setcantini's picture of the two mothers; cow and calf, mother and thiU in the same stable. From this symbolism the surrouodinics of the birth- place of the Savior are eiploincd.

"The myth of Hippolytos shows very beautifully all the typical parts of the problem: His stepmother Phaedra wantonly falls in Jove wilh him. He repulse* her, she complain* to her husband of vintaiion: the latter implores the water god Poseidon lo punish Hippolvtoi, Then I monster comes out of the sea. Hippolj^o** horses shy and drae nippnlTtio lo death. But he it rcsuscilaied by Aesculapius and is piactsi hy the gods wilh the wise nymph, Egeria, the couniellot of Numa Pmopiliii*- Thus the wilh i* fulliUed; from iscest, wisdom ha* oatM.

" Compare Hercules and Omphale.

" Compare the reproach of Gilgamelh against Ithtar.

"Spielrein's patSent i* also sick ftom "a snake bite." is

rely inlro veiled patient of SpielrtLa uae* siiBiUr liBJgQl'



she speaks of *' a rigidity of the soul on the cross," of " stone figures ** which must be " ransomed/*

I call attention here to the fact that the symbolisms mentioned above are striking examples of Silberer's functional category." They depict the condition of introversion.

    • W. Gurlitt says: "The carrying of the bull is one of the diflBcult

&BXa (services) which Mithra performed in the service of freeing humanity; "somewhat corresponding, if it is permitted to compare the small with the great, with the carrying of the cross by Christ" (Camont: "Textes et Monuments," I, 7a). Surely it is permissible to compare the two acts.

Man should be past that period when, in true barbaric mmnneri he haughtily scorned the strange gods, the "dii minonim gentium." But man has not progressed that far, even yet.

    • Robertson ("Evangelical Myths," p. 130) gives ao interesting oon-

tribution to the question of the symbol of the carrying of the cron. Samson carried the "pillars of the gates from Gaza and died between the columns of the temple of the Philistines." Hercules, weighted down by his burden, carried his columns to the place (Cades), where he alio died according to the Syrian version of the legend. The columns of Hercules mark the western point where the sun sinks into the sea. In old art he was actually represented carrying the two columns under his arms in such a way that they exactly formed a crosa. Here we perhaps have the origin of the myth of Jesus, who carries hit own cross to the place of execution. It is worth noting that the three synoptics substitute a man of the name of Simon from Qrrene at bearer of the cross. Cyrene is in Libya, the legendary scene upon whldl Hercules performed the labor of carrying the columns, as we have seen, and Simon (Simson) is the nearest Ureek name-form for 8amsol^ which in Greek might have been read Simson, as in Hebrew. But in Palestine it was Simon, Semo or Sem, actually a name of a godp who represented the old sun-god Semesch, who was identified with Baa!| from whose myth the Samson myth has doubtless arisen. The god Simon enjoyed especial honor in Samaria. " The cross of Hercules might well be the sun's wheel, for which the Greeks had the symbol of the crosa. The sun's wheel upon the bas-relief in the small metropolis at Athens contains a cross, which is very similar to the Maltese cross." (See TUele: "Antike Himmelsbilder," 1898, p. 59.)

    • The Greek myth of Ixion, who was bound to die foor^poked

wheel," says this almost without disguise. Ixion first murdered his stepfather, but later was absolved from guilt by Zeus and blessed with his favor. But the ingrate attempted to seduce Hera, the mother. Zens deceived him, however, allowing the goddess of the clouds, Nepfaele^ to assume Hera's form. (From this connection the centaurs haye arisen.) Ixion boasted of his deed, but 2^us as a punishment plunged him into the underworld, where he was bound to a wheel continually whirled around by the wind. (Compare the punishment of Franceses da Rinuni in Dante and the " penitents " by Segantini.)

  • ^ Cited from Zentralblatt fur Psychoanalfse, Jahrgang II, p. 365.
    • The symbolism of death appearing in abundance in dreams hat

emphasized by Stekel (" Sprache des Traumes," p. s>7)-

    • Compare the Cassius scene above.

542 THE DUAL MOTHER ROLE [pp. 341-427


' A direct unconstrained expression of sexuality is a natural occurrence and as such neither unbeautiful nor repulsive. The "moral" repression makes sexuality on one side dirty and hypocritical, on the other shamelest and obtrusive.

  • Compare what is said below concerning the motive of fettering.
  • The sacrilegious assault of Horus upon Isis, at which Plutarch

(" De Isis et Osiris") stands aghast; he expresses himself as followi concerning it. " But if any one wishes to assume and maintain that all this has really happened and taken place with respect to blessed and imperishable nature, which for the most part is considered as corre- sponding to the divine; then, to speak in the words of Aeschylus, 'he must spit out and clean his mouth.* " From this sentence one can form a conception of how the well-intentioned people of ancient society may have coiuiemned the Christian point of view, first the hanged God, then the management of the family, the "foundation" of the state. The psychologist is not surprised.

  • Compare the typical fate of Theseus a