분석심리학 논문집/Chapter15

위키문헌 ― 우리 모두의 도서관.
둘러보기로 이동 검색으로 이동



챕터15 무의식의 이해

I 개인적 무의식과 비개인적 무의식과의 차이
II 무의식의 동화에따른 결과
III 집단프시케의 뱔현으로서의 개인성
IV 집단프시케로부터 개인성을 해방하기위한 고군분투
V 집단정체성을 다루는 선도적 원칙들

I.—The Distinction between the Personal and the Impersonal Unconscious[편집]

I 개인적 무의식과 비개인적 무의식과의 차이

Since the breach with the Viennese school upon the question of the fundamental explanatory principle of analysis—that is, the question if it be sexuality or energy—our concepts have undergone considerable development. After the prejudice concerning the explanatory basis had been removed by the acceptance of a purely abstract view of it, the nature of which was not anticipated, interest was directed to the concept of the unconscious.

분석의 근본적인 설명 원리, 즉 그것이 성인지 에너지인지에 대한 문제에 대한 비엔나 스쿨과의 파경 이래로 우리의 개념은 상당한 발전을 겪어 왔다. 설명의 기초에 관한 편견이 순수하게 추상적인 견해의 수용에 의해 제거된 후에, 그 성격은 예상되지 않았으며, 주된 관심은 무의식의 개념에 관한 것이되었다.

According to Freud's theory the contents of the unconscious are limited to infantile wish-tendencies, which are repressed on account of the incompatibility of their character. Repression is a process which begins in early childhood under the moral influence of environment; it continues throughout life. These repressions are done away with by means of analysis, and the repressed wishes are made conscious. That should theoretically empty the unconscious, and, so to say, do away with it; but in reality the production of infantile sexual wish-fantasies continues into old age.

프로이트(Sigmund Freud)의 이론에 따르면 무의식의 내용은 유아의 소원 성향에서 한계되어 있으며, 이는 자신의 성격의 양립성 문제로 인해 억압된다. 억압은 환경의 도덕적 영향하에 유아기부터 시작되는 과정이다. 그것은 평생 동안 계속된다. 이러한 억압은 분석이라는 방법을 통해 허물어지고 억압된 소원을 의식하게된다. 그것은 이론적으로 무의식을 비워야하고, 말하자면, 그것을 버려야한다. 그러나 현실적으로 유아성 성적 욕구 - 환상의 생산은 노년기까지 계속된다.

According to this theory, the unconscious contains only those parts of the personality which might just as well be conscious, and have really only been repressed by the processes of civilisation. According to Freud the essential content of the unconscious would therefore be personal. But although, from such a view-point the infantile tendencies of the unconscious are the more prominent, it would be a mistake to[446] estimate or define the unconscious from this alone, for it has another side.

이 이론에 따르면, 무의식은 단지 의식뿐만 아니라 문명의 과정에 의해서만 억압된 성격의 부분들만을 포함한다. 프로이트에 따르면 무의식의 본질적인 내용은 개인적일 것이다. 그러나 그러한 견지에서 무의식의 유아 성향이 더 두드러지지만, 이것으로만 무의식을 추정하거나 정의하는 것은 실수일 것이다. 왜냐하면 그것은 또 다른 측면을 가지고 있기 때문이다.

Not only must the repressed materials be included in the periphery of the unconscious, but also all the psychic material that does not reach the threshold of consciousness. It is impossible to explain all these materials by the principle of repression, for in that case by the removal of the repression a phenomenal memory would be acquired, one that never forgets anything. As a matter of fact repression exists, but it is a special phenomenon. If a so-called bad memory were only the consequence of repression, then those persons who have an excellent memory should have no repression, that is, be incapable of being neurotic. But experience teaches us that this is not the case. There are, undoubtedly, cases with abnormally bad memories, where it is clear that the main cause must be attributed to repression. But such cases are comparatively rare.

억압된 물질은 무의식의 범주에 포함되어야 할 뿐만 아니라 의식의 한계점에 이르지 못하는 모든 정신적인 물질도 포함되어야 한다. 이 모든 물질들을 억압의 원리로 설명하는 것은 불가능한데, 그 경우에는 억압을 제거함으로써 경이로운 기억, 즉 결코 잊혀질수없는 기억이 획득될 것이기 때문이다. 사실 억압은 존재하지만, 그것은 특별한 현상이다. 소위 나쁜 기억력이 억압의 결과일 뿐이라면, 기억력이 뛰어난 사람은 억압이 없어야 한다, 즉 신경과민(신경증)이 될 수 있다. 그러나 경험은 우리에게 그렇지 않다는 것을 가르쳐준다. 의심할 여지 없이, 주된 원인이 억압에 기인해야 한다는 것이 명백한 비정상적으로 않좋은 기억을 가진 사례가 있는데, 그러나 그러한 경우는 비교적 드물다.

We therefore emphatically say that the unconscious contains all that part of the psyche that is found under the threshold, including subliminal sense-perceptions, in addition to the repressed material. We also know—not only on account of accumulated experience, but also for theoretical reasons—that the unconscious must contain all the material that has not yet reached the level of consciousness. These are the germs of future conscious contents. We have also every reason to suppose that the unconscious is far from being quiescent, in the sense that it is inactive, but that it is probably constantly busied with the formation and re-formation of so-called unconscious phantasies. Only in pathological cases should this activity be thought of as comparatively autonomous, for normally it is co-ordinated with consciousness.

그러므로 우리는 무의식에는 억압된 물질 외에 무의식적인 감각 인식도 포함하여 한계점(경계) 아래에서 발견되는 모든 정신의 부분이 포함되어 있다고 단호하게 말한다. 우리는 또한 (누적된 경험뿐만 아니라 논리적인 이유로도) 무의식이 아직 의식 수준에 이르지 못한 모든 물질을 포함해야 한다는 것을 알고 있다. 이것들은 미래를 의식하는 내용의 싹들이다. 우리는 또한 무의식이 정지 상태와는 거리가 멀다고 가정할 만한 충분한 이유가 있는데, 그것은 소극적이며 그다지 활동적이지 않다고 여겨지지만 아마도 무의식적인 환상의 형성과 재형성에 끊임없이 바쁠 것이다. 병리학적 경우에만 이 활동이 비교적 자율적인 것으로 생각되어지는것은 보통 이 활동은 의식과 함께 조정되기 때문이다.

It may be assumed that all these contents are of a personal nature in so far as they are acquisitions of the individual life. As this life is limited, the number of acquisitions of the unconscious must also be limited, wherefore an exhaustion of the contents of the unconscious through analysis might be held to be possible. In other words, by the analysis of the unconscious the inventory of unconscious contents might be[447] completed, possibly in the sense that the unconscious cannot produce anything besides what is already known and accepted in the conscious. Also, as has already been said, we should have to accept the fact that the unconscious activity had thereby been paralysed, and that by the removal of the repression we could stop the conscious contents from descending into the unconscious. Experience teaches us that is only possible to a very limited extent. We urge our patients to retain their hold upon repressed contents that have been brought to consciousness, and to insert them in their scheme of life. But, as we may daily convince ourselves, this procedure seems to make no impression upon the unconscious, inasmuch as it goes on producing apparently the same phantasies, namely, the so-called infantile-sexual ones, which according to the earlier theory were based upon personal repressions. If in such cases analysis be systematically continued, an inventory of incompatible wish-phantasies is gradually revealed, whose combinations amaze us. In addition to all the sexual perversions every conceivable kind of crime is discovered, as well as every conceivable heroic action and great thought, whose existence in the analysed person no one would have suspected.

이러한 모든 콘텐츠는 개인 생활의 획득이라는 점에서 개인 본성의 것이라고 가정할 수 있다. 이 생명은 제한적이기 때문에, 무의식의 획득 갯수도 제한되어야 하며, 여기에서 분석을 통한 무의식의 내용물의 소진도 가능할 수 있다. 즉 무의식의 분석에 의해 무의식적인 내용의 목록이 완성될 수도 있는데, 아마도 의식 속에서 이미 알려져 있고 받아들여지고 있는 것 외에 무의식은 아무것도 생산할 수 없다는 의미에서 그럴 수도 있다. 또한 이미 말한 바와 같이, 우리는 무의식적인 활동이 그렇게함으로써 마비되었고, 억압을 제거함으로써 의식적인 내용이 무의식으로 내려가는 것을 막을 수 있었다는 사실을 받아들여야 한다. 경험은 우리에게 아주 제한적으로만 가능한 것을 가르쳐준다. 우리는 환자들이 의식을 되찾은 억압된 내용들에 대한 그들의 통제력을 유지하고 그들의 삶의 계획에 그것들을 삽입할 것을 촉구한다. 그러나, 우리가 매일 우리 자신을 납득시킬 수 있듯이, 이 절차는 무의식적인 사람들에게는 아무런 인상을 주지 않는 듯하며, 이는 분명히 같은 판타지, 즉 이전의 이론에 따르면, 개인적인 억압에 기반을 둔 소위 유아 성애적인 것을 계속해서 만들어내기 때문이다. 그러한 경우에 체계적으로 분석이 계속된다면, 양립할 수 없는 희망사항의 목록이 점차 공개되며, 이들의 결합은 우리를 놀라게 한다. 게다가 상상할 수 있는 모든 종류의 범죄가 발견되는 것은 물론, 분석된 사람 속에 존재하는 그들의 존재는 누구도 의심하지 않았을 모든 상상 가능한 영웅적 행동과 위대한 생각까지 발견된다.

In order to give an example of this, I would like to refer to Maeder's Schizophrenic patient who called the world his picture-book. He was a locksmith's apprentice who fell ill very early in life; he had never been blessed with intellectual gifts. As regards his idea that the world was his picture-book and that he was turning its pages over when he looked about in the world, it is just Schopenhauer's world, conceived as will and representation, expressed in primitive picture-language. This idea has just as universal a character as Schopenhauer's. The difference consists in the fact that the patient's notion has stood still at an embryonic stage in a process of growth, whereas with Schopenhauer the same idea has been changed from a mere image into an abstraction expressed in terms that are universally valid.

이것의 예를 들자면 세상을 그의 그림책이라고 부른 메더의 정신분열증 환자를 참고하고 싶다. 그는 매우 일찍 병에 걸린 자물쇠 수리공이었다. 그는 지적인 재능을 가진 적이 없었다. 세상이 그의 그림책이었고 그가 세상을 돌아다닐 때 페이지를 넘기고 있었다는 그의 생각에 대해 말하자면, 그것은 단지 원시적인 그림 언어로 표현된 의지와 표현으로 잉태된 쇼펜하우어의 세계일 뿐이다. 이 아이디어는 쇼펜하우어의 것만큼 보편적인 특징을 가지고 있다. 차이점은 환자의 관념이 성장 과정에서 배아 단계에 머물러 있었다는 사실에 있는 반면, 쇼펜하우어의 경우 같은 생각이 단순한 이미지에서 보편적으로 유효한 용어로 표현되는 추상화로 바뀌었다는 데 있다.

It would be false to assume that the patient's idea had a personal character and value. That would be to attribute to[448] him the dignity of a philosopher. But he alone is a philosopher who raises an image that has naturally sprung up into an abstract idea, thereby translating it into terms of universal validity. Schopenhauer's philosophical conception is his personal value, whereas the notion of the patient has merely an impersonal value of natural growth, in which personal proprietary rights can only be acquired by making an abstraction of the images, and translating them into terms that are universally valid. But it would be wrong if an exaggerated sense of the value of this achievement led us to ascribe to the philosopher the merit of having made or conceived the original image itself. The primordial image has also sprung up naturally in the philosopher, and is nothing but a part of the universal human heritage in which, theoretically at least, every one has a share. The golden apples come from the same tree whether they are gathered by a locksmith's apprentice or a Schopenhauer.

환자의 생각이 개인적인 성격과 가치를 가지고 있다고 가정하는 것은 거짓일 것이다. 그것은 철학자의 존엄성을 그에게 귀속시키는 것이다. 그러나 그 혼자서는 자연스레 추상적인 관념으로 싹트게 된 이미지를 일으켜 보편적 타당성의 말로 번역하는 철학자다. 쇼펜하우어의 철학적 관념은 개인의 가치인 반면, 환자의 관념은 이미지를 추상화하여 보편적으로 유효한 용어로 번역해야만 개인의 소유권을 획득할 수 있는 자연적 성장의 비인격적 가치를 지니고 있을 뿐이다. 그러나 이 성취의 가치에 대한 과장된 감각이 우리가 원래의 이미지 그 자체를 만들거나 구상했던 장점을 철학자에게 귀인시키도록 유도한다면 그것은 잘못된 것이다. 원시적인 이미지도 철학자에게서 자연스럽게 생겨났으며, 이론적으로는 적어도 모든 사람이 몫을 갖는 보편적인 인류유산의 한 부분일 뿐이다. 황금사과는 자물쇠 수리공이나 쇼펜하우어가 모여든 같은 나무에서 나온다.

The recognition of such primordial images obliges me to differentiate between the contents of the unconscious; a differentiation of another kind than that between the pre-conscious and unconscious, or between the subconscious and unconscious. The justification for those distinctions cannot be discussed here; they have a value of their own and probably merit to be carried further as affording a point of view. The differentiation which I propose follows obviously from what has previously been said, namely, that in the so-called unconscious we must differentiate a layer which may be termed the personal unconscious. The materials contained in this layer are of a personal kind, inasmuch as on the one hand they may be characterised as acquisitions of the individual existence, and on the other as psychological factors which might just as well be conscious. It is, for instance, comprehensible that incompatible psychological elements succumb to repression on the one hand and are therefore unconscious, but on the other hand there exists the possibility of bringing the repressed contents into consciousness and keeping them there, once they are known and recognised. We recognise these materials as personal contents, because we can prove[449] their effects, their partial appearance, or their origin to lie in our personal past. They are integral constituents of the personality, and belong to a complete inventory of the same. They are constituents whose omission in consciousness implies an inferiority in one respect or another, not indeed an inferiority bearing the psychological character of an organic deformity or a natural defect, but rather the character of a neglect which arouses a moral reaction. The feeling of moral inferiority always indicates that in the portion omitted is something that according to the feelings should not be missing; or in other words, could be conscious if we took sufficient trouble about it. The sense of moral inferiority is not the result of a collision with the universal, in a certain sense arbitrary, moral law, but rather the result of a conflict with the personal ego, which by reason of the psychic economy demands an adjustment of the deficiency. Wherever a feeling of inferiority appears, it reveals not only the presence of a demand for the assimilation of an unconscious constituent, but also the possibility of such an assimilation. It is, after all, a person's moral qualities that make him assimilate his unconscious self and retain it in consciousness, whether he be forced to it by a recognition of its necessity, or by a painful neurosis. He who continues to tread this path of the realisation of his unconscious self, necessarily transposes the content of the personal unconscious into consciousness, whereby the periphery of the personality is considerably enlarged.

그러한 원시적인 이미지의 인식은 나에게 무의식적인 내용, 즉 사전의식과 무의식의 차이, 또는 잠재의식과 무의식의 차이를 구별할 의무가 있다. 그러한 구별에 대한 정당성은 여기서 논할 수 없다. 그들은 그들 자신의 가치를 가지고 있고, 아마도 관점을 고수할 가치가 있을 것이다. 내가 제안하는 차별성은 분명히 이전에 말한 것, 즉 소위 무의식에서 우리는 개인적인 무의식으로 불릴 수 있는 한 층을 구별해야 한다는 것을 쫓아가는 것이다. 이 층에 포함된 물질은 개인적인 종류로, 한편으로는 개별적인 존재의 획득으로 특징지어질 수 있고, 다른 한편으로는 의식하는 것만큼 심리적인 요소로 특징지어질 수 있다. 예를 들어 양립할 수 없는 심리적 요소들이 한편으로는 억압에 굴복하고 따라서 무의식적으로 된다는 것은 이해할 수 있는 일이지만, 다른 한편으로는 억압된 내용들을 의식 속으로 끌어들여 일단 알고 인식하게 되면 그대로 간직할 가능성이 존재한다. 우리는 이러한 자료들을 개인적인 내용으로 인식한다. 왜냐하면 우리는 그들의 영향, 그들의 부분적인 모습 또는 그 기원을 우리의 개인적인 과거 속에 있다는 것을 증명할 수 있기 때문이다. 그것들은 성격에 필수적인 구성 요소들이며, 같은 것의 완전한 목록에 속한다. 그들은 의식의 생략이 한 가지 점에서 열등감을 내포하고 있는 구성 요소로서, 실제로 유기적 기형이나 자연적 결함의 심리적 특성을 내포하고 있는 것이 아니라 오히려 도덕적 반발을 불러일으키는 방치의 성격을 내포하고 있다. 도덕적 열등감은 항상 생략된 부분에 있어서 감정에 따라 누락되어서는 안 되는 것, 다시 말해서 우리가 그것에 대해 충분히 고민한다면 의식할 수 있다는 것을 나타낸다. 도덕적 열등감은 보편과 충돌한 결과라기보다는, 어떤 의미에서는 자의적이고 도덕적인 법칙으로, 오히려 결핍의 조정을 요구하는 심리 경제의 이유에 의한 개인의 자아와 충돌한 결과이다. 열등감이 나타나는 곳마다 무의식적인 성분의 동화에 대한 요구의 존재는 물론, 그러한 동화의 가능성도 드러낸다. 결국 그 필요성에 대한 인식에 의해서, 혹은 고통스런 노이로제에 의해 강요당하든지 간에, 무의식적인 자아를 동화시켜 의식 속에 간직하게 하는 것은 사람의 도덕적 자질이다. 무의식적인 자아의 실현이라는 이 길을 계속 밟는 사람은 반드시 개인의 무의식의 내용을 의식으로 옮겨 놓는데, 여기서 인격의 주변은 상당히 확대된다.

II—The Consequences of the Assimilation of the Unconscious[편집]

II 무의식의 동화에따른 결과

This process of assimilating the unconscious leads to remarkable results. Some people build up from it an unmistakable, even unpleasantly increased self-consciousness or self-confidence; they "know everything," and are completely aware of everything so far as their unconscious is concerned. They think themselves accurately informed about everything that comes up from the unconscious. Others are[450] increasingly oppressed by the contents of the unconscious, they lose their self-reliance or their self-consciousness more and more, and come near to a state of depressed resignation in regard to all the extraordinary things the unconscious produces. The former undertake in the exuberance of their self-confidence, a responsibility for their unconscious that goes much too far, beyond every reasonable possibility; the latter ultimately decline to accept any responsibility in the depressing recognition of the powerlessness of the ego confronted by relentless Destiny, working through the unconscious.

무의식을 동화시키는 이 과정은 놀라운 결과를 낳는다. 어떤 사람들은 그것으로부터 틀림없는, 심지어 불쾌하게 증가된 자의식이나 자신감을 쌓는다; 그들은 '모든 것을 알고 있다' 그리고 그들은 그들의 무의식이 영향을 미치는 모든것을 전적으로 안다. 그들은 스스로 무의식 속에서 나오는 모든 것에 대해 정확하게 알고 있다고 생각한다. 다른 사람들은 무의식적인 것의 내용에 점점 더 짓눌려 있고, 그들은 점점 더 자립심이나 자의식을 잃고, 무의식이 만들어내는 모든 비상한 것에 관해서 우울한 체념 상태에 가까워진다. 전자는 모든 합리적인 가능성을 넘어서 너무 지나친 그들의 무의식적인 책임인 자신감의 충만함 속에서 떠맡는다. 후자는 결국 비타협적인 일을 하면서 가차없는 운명에 직면하는 자아의 무력함을 우울한 인식 속에서 어떠한 책임도 받아들이려 하지 않는다.

If we give the two types close analytical consideration, we shall discover that behind the optimistic self-confidence of the former there is hidden a just as deep, or rather a far deeper, helplessness; a helplessness to which the conscious optimism acts as an unsuccessful effort at compensation. Behind the pessimistic resignation of the latter there is hidden a defiant desire for power, far exceeding in self-confidence the conscious optimism of the former type.

만약 우리가 두 가지 유형을 면밀하게 분석적으로 고려한다면, 전자에 대한 낙관적인 자신감 뒤에는 똑같이 깊은, 아니 오히려 훨씬 더 깊고 무력한, 즉 의식적인 낙관주의가 보상에서 성공하지 못한 노력으로 작용하는 무력감이 숨겨져 있다는 것을 발견하게 될 것이다. 후자의 비관적인 체념 뒤에는 전자의 의식적인 낙관론을 훨씬 능가하는 반항적인 권력욕이 숨어 있다.

This condition of the personality may well be expressed by the idea of "God-Almightiness" (Gottähnlichkeit),[250] to which Adler has particularly drawn our attention.

이러한 개인 인격의 상태는 알프레트 아들러(Alfred W. Adler)가 특히 우리의 관심을 끌었던 '하나님-전능'(God-Almightiness,Gottähnlichkeit)이라는 관념에 의해 잘 표현될 수 있을 것이다.

When the devil wrote the serpent's words in the student's album, 'Eritis sicut Deus scientes bonum et malum', he added:

악마가 그 학생의 앨범에 뱀의 말 'Eritis sicut Deus scientes bonum et malum'(너는 선과 악을 알고, 하나님과 같이 될 것이다)[1]을 썼을 때, 그는 다음과 같이 덧붙였다.[2]

"Follow the ancient text and the snake thou wast ordered to trample! With all thy likeness to God, thou'lt yet be a sorry example." The idea of "likeness to God," or "God-Almightiness," is not a scientific one, although it characterises the psychological state of affairs most exactly. Still we must examine whence this attitude comes, and ask why it merits the name of "God-Almightiness." As the expression denotes, the patient's[451] abnormal condition is constituted by the fact that he ascribes to himself qualities or values which obviously do not belong to him, for "God-Almightiness" means being like the spirit which is set above the human spirit.

'고대의 텍스트와 너가 짓밟도록 명령되어진 뱀을 따라가라! 모든 그대의 하나님을 닮은것에서, 너는 아직 유감스러운 모범이 될 것이다.'[3][4] '하나님과의 유사성'(likeness to God,하나님을 닮은것) 또는 '하나님-전능'(God-Almightiness,전능하신 하나님)의 아이디어는 심리학적 상태를 가장 정확하게 특징 짓기는하지만 과학적인 것은 아니다. 우리는 이 태도가 언제 어디에서 발생 하는지를 조사해야하며, 왜 그것이 "하느님-전능"의 이름을 얻는가를 질문해야한다. 이 표현이 나타내는 바와 같이, 환자의 이상 상태는 "하나님 -전능"이 인간 정신 위에 놓여있는 정신과 같음을 의미하기 때문에 자신이 자신에게 속하지 않은 자질이나 가치에 자신이 속한 사실로서 구성된다.

If for psychological purposes we abstract from the hypostasis of the God-idea, we find that this expression does not only include every dynamic fact discussed in my book on "The Psychology of the Unconscious,"[251] but also a certain mental function having a collective character, which is of another order from that of the individual character of the mind. In the same way as the individual is not only an isolated and separate, but also a social being, so also the human mind is not only something isolated and absolutely individual, but also a collective function. And just as certain social functions or impulses are, so to speak, opposed to the ego-centric interests of the individual, so also the human mind has certain functions or tendencies which, on account of their collective nature, are to some extent opposed to the personal mental functions. This is due to the fact that every human being is born with a highly differentiated brain, which gives him the possibility of attaining a rich mental function that he has neither acquired ontogenetically nor developed. In proportion as human brains are similarly differentiated, the corresponding mental functions are collective and universal. This circumstance explains the fact that the unconscious of far-separated peoples and races possesses a remarkable number of points of agreement. One example among many others which has been demonstrated is the extraordinary unanimity shown by the autochthonous forms and themes of myths.

심리학적인 목적을 위해 우리가 신개념(God-idea)의 위격로부터 추상화한다면, 우리는 이 표현이 '무의식의 심리학'(Psychology of the Unconscious , 1916) [5][6][7]에 관한 나의 책에서 논의된 모든 역동적인 사실을 포함할뿐만 아니라, 마음의 개별적인 성격과는 다른 질서의 집합적 성격을 갖는 명확한 정신적 기능도 포함함을 찾아낸다. 개인이 고립되고 분리된 존재일뿐만 아니라 사회적 존재인 것과 같은 방식으로 인간의 마음도 고립되고 절대적으로 개인적일뿐만 아니라 집단적 기능이기도하다는것이다. 그리고 특정한 사회적 기능이나 충동이 말하자면 개인의 자기 중심적 이익에 반하는 것과 마찬가지로, 또한 인간의 정신도 그들의 집단적 성격 때문에 어느 정도 개인의 정신적 기능에 반하는 어떤 기능이나 경향을 가지고 있다. 개인적인 정신 기능 이것은 모든 인간이 고도로 분화된 두뇌로 태어 났기 때문에 인간으로서는 개체발생적으로 획득하거나 개발해서는 얻을수없는 풍부한 정신 기능을 얻을 수있는 가능성을 부여하기 때문이다. 인간의 두뇌가 유사하게 차별화됨에 따라, 상응하는 정신 기능은 집단적이고 보편적이다. 이 상황은 멀리 떨어져있는 민족과 인종의 무의식이 현저한 수의 합의점을 갖고 있다는 사실을 설명한다. 시연된 많은 다른 것들 중 하나는 자연히 신의 형태와 신화의 주제가 보여주는 특별한 전원일치형이다.

The universal similarity of brains results in a universal possibility of a similar mental function. This function is the collective psyche, which is divided into collective mind and collective soul.[252] In so far as there exist differentiations[452] corresponding to race, descent, or even family, so, beyond the level of the "universal" collective psyche, we find a collective psyche limited by race, descent, and family. To quote P. Janet, the collective psyche contains the "parties inférieures" of the mental function, that is, the part of the mental function which, being fixed and automatic in its action, inherited and present everywhere, is therefore super-personal or impersonal. The conscious and the personal unconscious contain as personal differentiations the "parties supérieures" of the mental function, therefore the part that has been acquired and developed ontogenetically.

뇌의 보편적 유사성은 비슷한 정신적 기능의 보편적 가능성을 초래한다. 이 기능은 집단정신으로, 집단정신과 집단영혼으로 나뉜다. 인종, 혈통 또는 심지어 가족에 해당하는 차이가 존재하는 한, 그래서 '보편적'(universal) 집단 정신의 수준을 넘어서, 우리는 인종, 혈통, 그리고 가족에 의해 제한되는 집단 정신을 발견한다. 피에르 자네(Pierre Janet)의 말을 인용하자면, 집단적 정신은 정신 기능의 "부분적 침해" 즉, 그 행동에서 고정적이고 자동적으로, 어디서나 계승되고 존재하는, 따라서 초개인적이거나 비개인적인 정신 기능의 부분을 포함하고 있다. 의식과 개인적인 무의식은 개인적인 차이로서 정신 기능의 "부분은 분리된다"라는 것을 포함하며, 따라서 유전적으로 획득되고 발전된 부분을 포함한다.

An individual therefore who joins the a priori and unconsciously-given collective psyche on to his ontogenetically acquired assets, enlarges thereby the periphery of his personality in an unjustifiable way, with the corresponding consequences. In as much as the collective psyche is the "partie inférieure" of the mental function, and therefore is the fundamental structure underlying every personality, it weighs heavily upon and depreciates the personality; a fact that is expressed in the afore-mentioned stifling of self-confidence, and in the unconscious increase of the ego-emphasis up to the point of a morbid will to power. In as much as the collective psyche ranks even above the personality, because it is the mother foundation upon which all personal differentiations are based, and because it is the common mental function of the sum total of the individual, therefore its incorporation in the personality may evoke inflation of self-confidence, an inflation which is then compensated by an extraordinary sense of inferiority in the unconscious.

그러므로 선험적이고 무의식적으로 정해진 개체발생적으로 획득된 자신의 자산에 대한 집단적 정신을 갖는 한 개인은 그렇기때문에 그에 상응하는 결과들과 함께 정당성이 결여된 방법으로 그의 인격의 주변성을 확대한다. 집단적 정신은 정신 기능의 "기본설계의 기저"이며, 따라서 모든 인격의 근간이 되는 근본적인 구조인 만큼, 그것은 인격을 무겁게 짓누르고 평가절하한다. 앞에서 말한 자신감의 숨막힘에서 표현되는 사실, 그리고 자아의 무의식적인 증가에서 표현되는 사실은 권력에 대한 병적인 의지의 지경에까지 이른다. 집단적 정신이 인격보다 더 높은 순위를 차지하기 때문에 왜냐하면 그것은 모든 개인적 파생이 바탕이 되는 어머니같은 토대이고, 그리고 그것은 개인의 전체 총합에 대한 일반적인 정신적 기능이기 때문에, 따라서 성격에 그것의 통합은 자신감의 인플레이션,그 후 무의식 속의 비정상적인 열등감에 의해 보상되는 인플레이션을 불러일으킬 수 있다.

A dissolution of the pairs of opposites in the personality sets in if, through the assimilation of the unconscious, the collective psyche be included in the inventory of the personal mental functions. Alongside the pairs of opposites already alluded to that are so particularly evident in the neurotic, viz. megalomania and sense of inferiority, there are also many other pairs, of which I will only mention the specifically moral pair, that is, good and evil (scientes bonum et malum). They accompany the increase or depreciation of self-confidence.[453] The specific virtues and vices of humanity are contained in the collective psyche, just as everything else is. One man ascribes all the collective virtue to himself as his own personal merit; another accounts as personal guilt what is but collective vice. Both are just as illusionary as the sense of greatness and of inferiority, for imaginary virtues as well as imaginary vices are only the pairs of moral opposites contained in the collective psyche, which have become perceptible or have artificially been made conscious. How far the collective psyche contains these pairs of opposites is shown by primitive peoples, whose great virtue is praised by one observer; whereas another observer of the same race reports only the worst impressions. Both views are true of primitive man, whose personal differentiation is only beginning; his mental function is essentially collective. He is more or less identified with the collective psyche, and therefore without any personal responsibility or inner conflict; his virtues and vices are collective. Conflict only begins when a conscious personal development of the mind has already started, whereby the reason becomes aware of the irreconcilable nature of the pairs of opposites. The struggle to repress is the consequence of this realisation. Man wants to be good, therefore the bad must be repressed; this puts an end to the paradise of the collective psyche.

성격상 대립되는 쌍의 해체는, 무의식적인 것의 동화를 통해, 집단적 정신이 개인의 정신적 기능의 목록에 포함되는 경우에 설정된다. 이미 그것을 암시하고 있는 반대되는 쌍들과 함께, 신경증, 과대망상증, 열등감에서 특히 뚜렷하게 나타나는 다른 쌍들도 많이 있는데, 그 중 특별히 도덕적인 쌍, 즉 선과 악(선과악의 구별)이 있겠다. 그들은 자신감의 증가나 가치저하를 수반한다. 인류의 구체적인 선함과 악함은 다른 모든 것과 마찬가지로 집단적 정신속에 담겨 있다. 어떤 사람은 모든 집단적 선함을 자기 자신의 개인적 공로라고 하고, 또 다른 사람은 집단적 악함에 지나지 않는 것을 개인적인 죄로 여긴다. 둘 다 위대함과 열등감만큼 착각에 빠져 있는데, 상상의 선뿐만 아니라 상상의 악도 집단적 정신에 포함된 도덕적 대립의 쌍에 불과하기 때문에 지각이 되거나 인위적으로 의식하게 된 것이다. 집단적 정신에 이러한 대립쌍이 어디까지 포함되어 있는가는 원시 사회의 사람들에 의해 보여지는데, 그들 인종의 위대한 선함을 한 관찰자가 칭찬하는 반면, 같은 인종의 또 다른 관찰자는 최악의 인상만을 보고한다. 두 가지 견해는 모두 원시인에 대한 사실인데 그의 개인적인 분화는 단지 시작이라는것과 그의 정신 기능은 본질적으로 집단적이라는것이다. 그는 집단적 정신에 어느 정도 동일시되어 있고, 따라서 개인적인 책임이나 내적 갈등 없이, 그의 선과 악은 집단적이다. 갈등은 의식적인 정신의 개인적 성장이 이미 시작되었을 때 비로소 야기되는데, 그에 의해 이성은 대립하는 두 쌍의 화해할 수 없는 본성을 인식하게 된다. 억압하기 위한 투쟁은 이 현실화의 결과물이다. 인간은 선해지기를 원하기 때문에 나쁜 것은 억압되어야 한다. 이것은 집단 정신의 낙원을 종식시킨다.

The repression of the collective psyche, in so far as it was conscious, was a necessity for the development of the personality, because collective psychology and personal psychology are in a certain sense irreconcilable. In the history of thought, whenever a fresh psychological attitude acquires collective value the formation of schisms begins. Nowhere is this more clearly seen than in the history of religion. A collective point of view, although it may be necessary, is always dangerous for the individual. It is dangerous because it is apt to choke and smother personal differentiation. It has derived this capacity from the collective psyche, which is itself a result of psychological differentiation of the strong gregarious instincts of humanity. Collective thought and feeling, and collective accomplishment, are relatively easy in[454] comparison with individual function and performance; a fact that is only too prone to lead to a fining down to the collective level, and is peculiarly disastrous to personal development. The concomitant loss of personality is replaced—as is always the case in psychology—by an unconscious all-compelling binding to and identification with the collective psyche. It cannot be denied, and should be warningly emphasized that in the analysis of the unconscious, the collective psychology is merged into the personal psychology, with the afore-mentioned unpleasant consequences. These consequences are either bad for the individual's vital feeling (Lebensgefühl), or they injure his fellow-beings if he have any power over his environment. Being identified with the collective psyche he will inevitably try to force the claims of his unconscious upon others, for identification with the collective psyche is accompanied by a feeling of universal validity ("God-Almightiness"), which disregards the different psychology of his fellows.

집단적 정신의 억압은, 그것이 의식하는 한, 집단적 심리학과 개인적 심리학은 어떤 의미에서는 화해할 수 없는 것이기 때문에, 인격 발달의 필요성이었다. 생각의 역사에서 새로운 심리적 태도가 집단적 가치를 획득할 때마다 분열의 형성이 시작된다. 종교의 역사에서보다 더 분명하게 보이는 곳은 없다. 집단적인 관점은 필요할지라도 개인에게는 항상 위험하다. 그것은 개인성의 분화를 질식시키고 억제시키는 경향이 있기 때문에 위험하다. 그것은 이러한 능력을 집단적 정신에서 파생시켰는데, 그 자체가 인간성의 강한 사교적 본능의 심리적 분화의 결과인 것이다. 집단적 사고와 느낌, 집단적 성취는 개인성의 기능 및 성과와 비교했을 때 상대적으로 용이하다. 사실, 너무 쉽게 집단적 수준으로 곧 잘 이끌려 내려간다. 특히 이는 개인의 발전에 치명적이다. 심리학의 경우 항상 그렇듯이 성격 상실은 집단적 정신에 대한 무의식적인 전면적 구속과 식별에 의해 대체된다. 부인할 수 없으며, 무의식의 분석에서 집단심리학이 개인심리학으로 병합되어 앞에서 말한 불쾌한 결과가 나타난다는 것을 경고해야 한다. 이러한 결과는 개인의 (살아있는)활력감에 좋지 않거나, 자신의 환경에 대한 힘이 있다면 동료들에게 상처를 입히기도 한다. 집단적 정신으로 확인되면 그는 필연적으로 자신의 무의식의 주장을 다른 사람들에게 강요하려고 할 것이다. 집단적 정신과의 동일성은 그의 동료들의 다른 심리를 무시하는 보편적 타당성("신-전능")의 감정을 동반하기 때문이다.

The worst abuses of this kind may be removed by a clear understanding and appreciation of the fact that there are totally different psychological types, and that a psychology of one type cannot be forced into the mould of another. It is indeed almost impossible for one type to understand the other completely, and a perfect comprehension of another's individuality is impossible. Due regard for another's individuality is not only advisable but is absolutely essential in analysis, if the development of the other's personality is not to be stifled. It should not be forgotten that the one type thinks that he is leaving another person free when he grants him freedom of action, and the other type when he grants him freedom of thought. In analysis both must be conceded, in so far as reasons of self-preservation permit the analyst to accord them. An excessive desire to understand or explain things is just as useless and injurious as a lack of comprehension.

이런 종류의 최악의 남용은 완전히 다른 심리적인 유형이 있다는 사실을 분명히 이해하고 공감함으로써 제거될 수 있다. 그리고 한 유형의 심리는 다른 유형의 주형에 강요될 수 없다. 한 유형이 다른 유형을 완전히 이해하는 것은 정말 거의 불가능하며, 다른 유형의 개성을 완벽하게 이해하는 것은 불가능하다. 상대방의 개성을 충분히 배려하는 것은 바람직할 뿐만 아니라, 상대방의 개성의 발전을 억제하지 않는다면 분석에 절대적으로 필요하다. 다른 사람의 개성을 충분히 고려하는 것은 바람직할 뿐만 아니라 분석에 절대적으로 필요하다. 상대방의 인격의 발달이 억제되지 않는다는 전제하에 그가 행동의 자유에서 그를 인정할때 그는 자유로워 진다는것을 생각하는 것과 그리고 그가 그를 생각의 자유로움에서 인정할때 그것은 서로 다른 것임을 잊어서는 안된다. 분석에서 두 가지 모두 인정되어야 하며, 자기보존의 이유로 인해 분석가는 이를 동의할 수 있다. 사물을 이해하거나 설명하려는 지나친 욕망은 이해의 결여만큼이나 쓸모없고 해롭다.

The collective natural propensities and primary forms of idea and feeling which analysis of the unconscious has shown to be effective are an acquisition for the conscious personality which cannot be admitted unreservedly without prejudicial results.[455]

무의식의 분석이 효과적인 것으로 나타나는 집단적인 자연적 성향과 그리고 아이디어와 감정의 주요한 형태는 해로운 결과 없이는 전적으로 인정될수없는 의식적 성격을 위한 획득이다.

In practical treatment[253] it is therefore of the utmost importance to keep the aim of individual development constantly before us. If for instance the collective psyche be conceived as a personal possession or as a personal burden, an unbearable weight or strain is put upon the personality. Hence we must make a clear distinction between the personal and the collective psyche. In practice this distinction is not easy because the personal grows out of the collective psyche, and is most closely joined with it. It is therefore difficult to say which materials are to be termed collective and which personal. There is no doubt, for instance, that the archaic symbols so often found in phantasies and dreams are collective factors. All primary propensities and forms of thought and feeling are collective; so is everything about which men are universally agreed, or which is universally understood, said or done. Upon close consideration it is astonishing to note how much of our so-called individual psychology is really[456] collective; so much that the individual element quite disappears. Individuation, however, is an indispensable psychological requirement. The crushing predominance of what is collective should make us realise what peculiar care and attention must be given to the delicate plant "individuality," if it is to develop.

그러므로 실용적 치료에서는 개인 발전의 목표를 우리 앞에 끊임없이 유지하는 것이 가장 중요하다. 예를 들어, 집단적 정신이 개인적인 소유물이나 개인적인 부담으로 간주된다면, 견디기 힘든 무게나 부담이 성격에 가해진다. 그러므로 우리는 개인과 집단적 정신의 명확한 구별을 해야 한다. 실제로 이러한 구별은 개인이 집단적 정신에서 성장하며, 그것과 가장 밀접하게 결합되기 때문에 쉽지 않다. 따라서 어떤 재료를 집단적이라고 부르고 어떤 재료를 개인적이라고 말하기는 어렵다. 예를 들어, 환상과 꿈에서 흔히 발견되는 고대 상징이 집단적인 요소라는 것에는 의심의 여지가 없다. 모든 일차적인 성향과 사고와 느낌의 형태는 집합적이다. 또한 남자들이 보편적으로 동의하거나, 말하거나, 또는 행해지는 모든 것에 대해서도 그렇다. 면밀하게 따져보면 우리의 소위 개인심리학이 얼마나 집단적인지 놀랍다. 그래서 개별적인 요소가 상당히 사라진다. 그러나 분리는 없어서는 안 될 심리적 요건이다. 집단적인 것의 압도적인 우세함은 만약 그것이 발전하기 위해서라면, 우리가 연약한 식물 "개인성"에 어떤 독특한 관심과 주의를 기울여야 하는지를 깨닫게 해야 한다.

Human beings have a capacity which is of the utmost use for purposes of collectivism and most prejudicial to individuation, and that is the capacity to imitate. Collective psychology cannot dispense with imitation, without which the organization of the State and Society would be impossible. Imitation includes the idea of suggestibility, suggestive effect, and mental infection.

인간은 집단주의의 목적에 가장 유용하고 분리에 가장 해로운 능력을 가지고 있으며, 그것이 바로 모방할 수 있는 능력이다. 집단심리학으로는 모방을 생략할 수 없으며, 그렇지 않으면 국가와 사회의 조직은 불가능할 것이다. 이미테이션(모방)은 암시성, 연상 효과, 정신적 전염성의 개념을 포함한다.

But we see daily how the mechanism of imitation is used, or rather abused, for the purposes of personal differentiation; some prominent personality, or peculiar trait or activity is simply imitated, which at least brings about an external differentiation from the environment. As a rule this delusive attempt to attain individual differentiation by means of imitation comes to a standstill as mere affectation, the individual remaining on the same plane as before, only a few degrees more sterile than formerly, and under an unconscious compulsory bondage to his environment.

그러나 우리는 모방의 메커니즘이 개인적인 차별화를 위해 어떻게 이용되거나 오히려 남용되는지를 매일 본다; 어떤 두드러진 성격이나 특이한 특징이나 활동들은 단순히 모방되어, 적어도 환경과 외부적인 차별화를 가져온다. 일반적으로 모방 수단에 의한 개인의 차별화(파생)를 달성하려는 이 기망하는 시도는 단지 감정으로서 멈춤상태가 되고, 개인은 이전과 같은 평면(차원)에서 남아 예전보다 약간 어느정도 더 살균 상태일 뿐이며, 그의 환경에서 무의식적이고 강제적인 속박 하에 있게 된다.

In order to find out what is really individual in us, we should have to give the matter deep thought, and we should certainly become aware how exceedingly difficult such a discovery is.

우리 속에 있는 진짜 개성이 무엇인가를 알아내기 위해서는 그 문제에 대해 깊은 생각을 해야 하고, 그러한 발견이 얼마나 대단히 어려운 것인가를 확실히 인식해야 한다.

III.—The Individual as an Excerpt of the Collective Psyche[편집]

III 집단 프시케[8]의 뱔현으로서의 개인성

We now come to a problem the overlooking of which would cause the greatest confusion.

우리는 이제 가장 큰 혼란을 야기할 것을 마주보는 문제에 봉착했다.

As I said before, the immediate result of the analysis of the unconscious is that additional personal portions of the unconscious are incorporated into the conscious. I called those parts of the unconscious which are repressed but capable of being made conscious, the personal unconscious. I[457] showed moreover that through the annexation of the deeper layers of the unconscious, which I called the impersonal unconscious, an extension of the personality is brought about which leads to the state of God-Almightiness ("Gottähnlichkeit"). This state is reached by a continuation of the analytical work, by means of which we have already re-introduced what is repressed to consciousness. By continuing analysis further we incorporate some distinctly impersonal universal basic qualities of humanity with the personal consciousness, which brings about the aforesaid enlargement, and this to some extent may be described as an unpleasant consequence of analysis.

앞에서 말했듯이 무의식에 대한 분석의 즉각적인 결과는 무의식의 추가적이고 개인적인 부분이 의식에 통합된다는 것이다. 나는 억압되지만 의식될 수 있는 무의식의 부분, 즉 이것을 개인의 무의식이라고 불렀다. 나는 더 나아가 내가 비개인적 무의식이라고 부르는 무의식의 더 깊은 층과의 병합을 통해 인격의 확대가 생겨나 '신-전능'(Gottänlichkeit)의 상태로 이어진다는 것을 보여주었다. 이러한 상태는 분석 작업의 지속에 의해, 우리가 이미 의식에 억눌려 있는 것을 재검토하는 수단에 의해 도달된다. 더 나아가 분석을 계속함으로써 우리는 인간성의 어떤 뚜렷하게 비개인적인 보편적 기본적 자질을 개인적 의식과 통합하고, 이것은 앞에서 언급한 확대를 가져오며, 이것은 어느 정도 분석의 불편한 결과로 묘사될 수 있다.

From this standpoint, the conscious personality seems to be a more or less arbitrary excerpt of the collective psyche. It appears to consist of a number of universal basic human qualities of which it is à priori unconscious, and further of a series of impulses and forms which might just as well have been conscious, but were more or less arbitrarily repressed, in order to attain that excerpt of the collective psyche, which we call personality. The term persona is really an excellent one, for persona was originally the mask which an actor wore, that served to indicate the character in which he appeared. For if we really venture to undertake to decide what psychic material must be accounted personal and what impersonal, we shall soon reach a state of great perplexity; for, in truth, we must make the same assertion regarding the contents of the personality as we have already made with respect to the impersonal unconscious, that is to say that it is collective, whereas we can only concede individuality to the bounds of the persona, that is to the particular choice of personal elements, and that only to a very limited extent. It is only by virtue of the fact that the persona is a more or less accidental or arbitrary excerpt of the collective psyche that we can lapse into the error of deeming it to be in toto individual, whereas as its name denotes, it is only a mask of the collective psyche; a mask which simulates individuality, making others and oneself believe that one is individual, whilst one is only acting a part through which the collective psyche speaks.[458]

이런 관점에서 보면 의식적인 성격은 집단적 정신의 다소 임의적인 발췌인 것 같다. 그것은 우리가 인격이라고 부르는 집단적 정신의 발췌를 얻기 위해서, 그것은 선행적으로 무의식적인 여러 가지 보편적인 기본적 인간성, 그리고 일련의 충동들과 형태들로 구성되어 있는 것으로 보인다. '페르소나'(persona)[9]라는 용어는 정말 훌륭한 것이다. 왜냐하면 '페르소나'(persona)라는 용어는 원래 배우가 쓰고 있는 마스크였으며 그가 등장했던 캐릭터를 나타내는 역할을 하기 때문이다. 우리가 어떤 정신적 물질이 개인적인 것으로 간주되어야 하거나 또는 어떤 비개인적인 것으로 간주되어야 하는지를 결정하는 일을 정말로 모험적으로 한다면, 우리는 곧 대단히 당혹스러운 상태에 이르게 될 것이기 때문이다. 왜냐하면, 사실, 우리는 이미 비개인적인 무의식에 관해서 말한 것과 같은 인격의 내용에 관한 주장을 해야 하기 때문이다. 즉, 이것은 집합적이라고 할 수 있는 반면에 우리는 개인성을 인격의 한계, 즉 개인적 요소의 특정한 선택에서만 양보할 수 있으며, 그것은 극히 제한된 범위에서만 허용된다. 그것은 단지 그 인격체가 집단 정신의 다소 우발적이거나 임의적으로 발췌한 것이라는 사실 때문에 우리는 그 이름을 가리킬 수 있는 반면, 그 인격의 이름은 그것을 개인에게 있다고 간주하는 오류로 빠져들 수 있다. 그것은 단지 집단 정신(집단 프시케)의 가면일뿐이다. 개성을 모방한 마스크, 다른 사람으로부터 자신을 개인이라고 믿게 만드것, 한 사람이 집단 심리가 말하는 부분만을 연기하는 마스크인것이다.

If we analyse the persona we remove the mask and discover that what appeared to be individual is at bottom collective. We thus trace "the Little God of the World" back to his origin, that is, to a personification of the collective psyche. Finally, to our astonishment, we realise that the persona was only the mask of the collective psyche. Whether we follow Freud and reduce the primary impulse to sexuality, or Adler and reduce it to the elementary desire for power, or reduce it to the general principle of the collective psyche which contains the principles of both Freud and Adler, we arrive at the same result; namely, the dissolution of the personal into the collective. Therefore in every analysis that is continued sufficiently far, the moment arrives when the aforesaid God-Almightiness must be realised. This condition is often ushered in by peculiar symptoms; for instance, by dreams of flying through space like a comet, of being either the earth, the sun, or a star, or of being either extraordinarily big or small, of having died, etc. Physical sensations also occur, such as sensations of being too large for one's skin, or too fat; or hypnagogic feelings of endless sinking or rising occur, of enlargement of the body or of dizziness. This state is characterised psychologically by an extraordinary loss of orientation about one's personality, about what one really is, or else the individual has a positive but mistaken idea of that which he has just become. Intolerance, dogmatism, self-conceit, self-depreciation, contempt and belittling of "not analysed" fellow-beings, and also of their opinions and activities, all very frequently occur. An increased disposition to physical disorders may also occasionally be observed, but this occurs only if pleasure be taken therein, thus prolonging this stage unduly.

만약 우리가 그 인물을 분석한다면, 우리는 마스크를 제거하고 개인으로 보이는 것이 맨 아래에서 집합적이라는 것을 발견한다. 따라서 우리는 "세계의 작은 신"을 그의 기원, 즉 집단적 정신의 의인화까지 추적한다. 마침내, 놀랍게도, 우리는 그 사람이 단지 집단적 정신의 가면이었다는 것을 깨달는다. 우리가 프로이트를 따르고 성욕에 대한 1차적 충동을 감소시키거나, 또는 아들러를 따르고 권력에 대한 기본적인 욕구를 감소시키든, 아니면 프로이트와 아들러 모두의 원리를 담고 있는 집단프시케(집단정신)의 일반적인 원리로 감소시키든, 우리는 같은 결과에 도달하게 된다. 즉, 개인에 대한 집단으로의 분해. 그러므로 충분히 멀리까지 계속되는 모든 분석에서, 앞서 말한 신-전능상태가 실현되어야 하는 순간이 도래한다. 이 상태는 종종 특이한 증상들에 의해 유발된다. 예를 들어 혜성처럼 우주를 날거나, 지구, 태양 또는 별이 되거나, 아니면 엄청나게 크거나 작거나, 죽었다는 등의 꿈에 의해. 신체적 감각은 또한 자신의 피부가 너무 커졌다는 느낌이나 너무 뚱뚱하다는 느낌, 또는 끝없이 가라앉거나 솟아오르는 감정, 몸의 확대나 어지럼증 같은 것들도 일어난다. 이 상태는 심리적으로 한 개인의 성격, 한 사람이 진정 어떤 사람인가에 대한 기이한 오리엔테이션의 상실에 의해 특징지어진다. 그렇지 않으면 개인은 그가 방금 그렇게 된 것에 대해 긍정적이지만 잘못된 생각을 가지고 있다. 옹졸함, 독단주의, 자만심, 자기 비하, "분석되지 않은" 동료들에 대한 경멸과 무시, 그리고 그들의 의견과 활동에대해서 또한 매우 자주 일어난다. 신체적 장애에 대한 증가된 기질은 때때로 관찰될 수도 있지만, 이것은 쾌락을 그 안에서 취해야만 일어나며, 따라서 이 단계를 과도하게 연장시킨다.

The wealth of the possibilities of the collective psyche is both confusing and dazzling. The dissolution of the persona results in the release of phantasy, which apparently is nothing else but the functioning of the collective psyche. This release brings materials into consciousness of whose existence we had no suspicion before. A rich mine of mythological thought and feeling is revealed. It is very hard to hold one's own against such an overwhelming impression. That is why this[459] phase must be reckoned one of the real dangers of analysis, a fact that should not be concealed.

집단 정신의 가능성의 풍요로움은 혼란스럽기도 하고 황홀하기도 하다. 페르소나(개인성)의 해체는 환상의 방출을 초래하는데, 이것은 명백히 집단 정신의 기능에 지나지 않는다. 이런 해방은 우리가 이전에 의심하지 않았던 존재에 대한 자료들을 의식으로 가져온다. 신화적 사고와 감정의 풍부한 광산이 드러난다. 그런 압도적인 인상에 맞서서 자기 자신을 지탱하는 것은 매우 어렵다. 그렇기 때문에 이러한 단계는 분석의 실제 위험 중 하나로 간주되어야 하며, 그것은 은폐되어서는 안 되는 사실이다.

As may easily be understood, this condition is hardly bearable, and one would like to put an end to it as soon as possible, for the analogy with a mental derangement is too close. The essence of the most frequent form of derangement—dementia praecox or schizophrenia—consists, as is well known, in the fact that the unconscious to a large extent ejects and replaces the conscious. The unconscious is given the value of reality, being substituted for the reality function. The unconscious thoughts become audible as voices, or visible as visions, or perceptible as physical hallucinations, or they become fixed ideas of a kind that supersede reality. In a similar, although not in the same way, by the resolution of the persona of the collective psyche, the unconscious is drawn into the conscious. The difference between this state of mind and that of mental derangement consists in the fact that the unconscious is brought up by the help of the conscious analysis; at least that is the case in the beginning of analysis, when there are still strong cultural resistances against the unconscious to be overcome. Later on, after the removal of the barriers erected by time and custom, the unconscious usually proceeds, so to say, in a peremptory manner, sometimes even discharging itself in torrents into the consciousness. In this phase the analogy with mental derangement is very close. But it would only be a real mental disorder should the content of the unconscious take the place of the conscious reality, that is, in other words, if the contents of the unconscious were believed absolutely and without reserve.

쉽게 이해될 수 있겠지만, 이러한 상태는 견디기 힘들며, 인간은 이러한 유추가 정신착란에 너무 가깝기 때문에 가능한 한 빨리 끝내고 싶어한다. 가장 빈번한 형태의 착란상태(조발성 치매 또는 정신분열증 또는 조현병)의 본질은 잘 알려진 바와 같이 무의식이 의식적인 것을 상당 부분 배출하고 대체한다는 점에서 일치한다. 무의식은 현실의 가치를 부여받으며, 현실의 기능을 대신한다. 무의식적인 생각은 목소리로 들리게 되거나, 환영으로 보이거나, 물리적 환각으로 감지되거나, 또는 현실을 대체하는 고정 관념이 된다. 이와 유사하게, 비록 같은 방식은 아니지만, 집단적 정신(집단프시케)의 인격(페르소나)의 과단성에 의해 무의식은 의식 속으로 빨려 들어간다. 이러한 정신상태와 정신착란 상태 사이의 차이는 의식분석의 도움에 의해 무의식이 제기된다는 사실에 있다. 적어도 극복해야 할 무의식에 대한 아직 강한 문화적 저항이 있을 때 분석의 시작에서 그러하다. 나중에 시간과 관습에 의해 세워진 장벽을 제거한 후에 무의식은 대개 진행되는데, 말하자면 위압적인 태도로 때로는 급류에 휩싸여 의식 속으로 방출하기도 한다. 이 단계에서는 정신착란과 그 유사성이 매우 가깝다. 그러나 무의식의 내용이 의식적인 현실의 장소로 가져와 지는것, 다시 말해서 무의식의 내용을 절대적으로, 그리고 거리낌없이 믿는다면 그것은 진정한 정신장애일 뿐이다.

IV.—The Endeavours to free the Individuality from the Collective Psyche[편집]

IV 집단프시케로부터 개인성을 해방하기위한 고군분투

1. The Regressive Restoration of the Persona.

1. 페로소나의 역행(퇴행)복원

The unbearableness of thus being identified with the collective psyche forces us to find a radical solution. There are two ways open. The first possibility is the regressive one of[460] trying to restore the persona to its former condition, by endeavouring to restrain the unconscious by the application of a reductive theory; for instance, by declaring it to be nothing but long-repressed and overdue infantile sexuality, for which it would really be best to substitute the normal sexual function. This solution is based upon the unmistakable sexualistic symbolism of the language of the unconscious, and upon the concretistic interpretation of the same. Or an attempt may be made to apply the power theory, by conceiving the God-Almightiness as a "virile protest," and as an infantile striving for power and self-preservation: a theory for which support is found in the unmistakable pretensions to power that the unconscious material contains. A further possibility would be to declare the unconscious to be the archaic collective psychology of primitive man, an explanation that would not only cover the sexualistic symbolism and the "God-Almighty" aiming for power of the unconscious content, but would also apparently do justice to the religious, philosophical, and mythological aspects and tendencies of the unconscious content. In every case the conclusion arrived at is the same, viz. that the unconscious is nothing but this or that, which has already been adequately recognised and acknowledged as infantile, useless, meaningless, impossible, and out of date. There is nothing to be done but to shrug one's shoulders and resign one's self to the inevitable.

이러한 집단적 정신으로 식별되는 참을수없는 존재감은 우리에게 근본적인 해결책을 찾도록 강요한다. 여기에 두 가지 방법이 있다. 첫 번째 가능성은 환원 이론의 적용에 의해 무의식을 억제하기 위해 노력함으로써 그 인격체를 이전의 상태로 되돌리려는 퇴행적인 것이다. 예를 들어, 그것은 오랫동안 억압되고 기한이 지난 유아적 성애에 불과하다고 선언함으로써, 정상적인 성적 기능을 대체하는 것이 가장 좋을 것이다. 이 해결책은 무의식의 언어에 대한 틀림없는 성적 상징주의, 그리고 같은 것에 대한 상호주의적 해석에 바탕을 두고 있다. 또는 신-전능을 '남성형 시위'로 간주하고, 권력과 자기보호를 위해 노력하는 유아적인, 즉 무의식적인 물질이 포함하고 있는 권력에 대한 틀림없는 가식에서 지지를 발견하는 이론으로 권력 이론을 적용하려는 시도가 이루어질 수도 있다. 더 나아가서는 무의식이 원시인의 태고적 집단심리학이라고 선언하는 것이 될 것이며, 무의식적인 내용의 힘을 목표로 하는 성적 상징과 '신-전능'을 포괄할 뿐만 아니라 분명히 종교적, 철학적, 신화적 측면과 그리고 무의식적인 내용의 경향에 관해서 정의를 행할 것이라는 설명일 것이다. 모든 경우에 도달한 결론은 동일하다. 즉 무의식은 이미 유아적이고, 쓸모없고, 무의미하고, 불가능하고, 시대에 뒤떨어진 것으로 충분히 인식되고 인정된 이것저것에 지나지 않는다. 어쩔 수 없는 일에 어깨를 으쓱하고 스스로 물러나는 수밖에 도리가 없다.

To the patient there seems to be no alternative, if one wishes to continue to live sensibly, but to restore in so far as is possible that extract of the collective psyche termed persona, to lay the fact of analysis silently aside, and do one's utmost to forget that one possesses an unconscious. We shall find support in Faust's words:—

환자에게는 계속해서 분별 있게 살기를 원한다면, 그러나 가능한 한 회복하고, 분석의 사실을 조용히 제쳐두고, 의식불명이라는 것을 잊기 위해 최선을 다하는 것은 대안이 없는 것처럼 보인다. 우리는 파우스트의 말에서 지지를 찾을 것이다.
"The sphere of earth is known enough to me;
The view beyond is barred immutably:
A fool, who there his blinking eyes directeth,
And o'er his clouds of peers a place expecteth!
Firm let him stand, and look around him well!
This world means something to the capable.
Why needs he through Eternity to wend?
He here acquires what he can apprehend. [461]
Thus let him wander down his earthly day;
When spirits haunt go quietly his way;
In marching onward, bliss and torment find,
Though every moment, with unsated mind!"
지구의 영역은 나에게 충분히 알려져 있다.
그 너머의 광경은 무조건 금지되어 있다.
그의 깜빡이는 눈이 방향을 잡는 바보,
그리고 그와같은 이들의 구름을 기대하는 곳!
단단히 서 있게 하고, 그를 잘 둘러봐라!
이 세상은 능력자에게 의미가 있다.
왜 그가 영원을 통과해 가야 하는거지?
그는 여기서 그가 이해할 수 있는 것을 얻는다.
이렇게해서 그가 이 세상에서 사는 나날을 헤매게 한다.
영혼들이 그의 뇌리에 나타나서는 조용히 그의 길을 갈 때,
앞으로 행진할 때, 행복과 고통은 찾아낸다.
매순간마다, 충족될수없는 마음으로!"

This would be a happy solution if one really could succeed in throwing off the unconscious to such an extent as to withdraw the libido from it, and so render it inoperative. But experience proves that energy cannot be withdrawn from the unconscious; it continues operative, for the unconscious contains and is indeed itself the source of libido, from which issue the primary psychic elements, thought-feelings, or feeling-thoughts—undifferentiated germs of idea and sentiment. It would therefore be a delusion to believe that by means of some, so to say, magical theory or method, the libido could be conclusively wrested from the unconscious, or that it could be to a certain extent disconnected. One may yield to this illusion for a time, but some day he will be obliged to declare with Faust:—

이것은 만약 누군가가 정말로 무의식적인 것을 그것으로부터 성욕을 철회할 정도로 벗어던지는데 성공할 수 있다면 행복한 해결책이 될 것이다. 그래서 그것을 작동하지 않게 할 수 있을 것이다. 그러나 경험은 에너지가 무의식으로부터 철회될 수 없다는 것을 증명한다. 그것은 계속해서 작동하며 왜냐하면 무의식적인 것은 성욕의 근원을 포함하고 있고 실제로 그 자체가 성욕의 근원이기 때문이다. 이로부터 근원적인 심리적 요소들, 생각으로부터의 감정, 또는 감정으로부터의 사고가 발생하기 때문이다.- 구별되지 않는 아이디어와 감정의 기원들, 그러므로 일부, 말하자면 마법의 이론이나 방법에 의해 성욕은 무의식과 단정적으로 씨름할 수 있다거나, 어느 정도 단절되어 있을 수 있다고 믿는 것은 망상이 될 것이다. 사람은 이 환상에서 잠시 양보할 수도 있겠지만, 언젠가는 파우스트와 함께 선언할 의무가 있을 것이다. -

"Now fills the air so many a haunting shape,That no one knows how best he may escape. What though one day with rational brightness beams,The night entangles us in webs of dreams. From our young fields of life we come, elate: There croaks a bird; what croaks he? Evil fate! By superstition constantly ensnared,It grows to us and warns and is declared. Intimidated thus we stand alone.— The portal jars, yet entrance is there none. Is any one here?

이제는 아주 많이 자주 마음속에 떠오르는 형체를 허공에 가득 채운다. 누구도 그 자신이 도망 갈 수있는 최선의 방법을 아는 이는 아무도 없다. 대낮은 이성의 밝은 광선으로, 밤은 우리를 꿈의 거미줄망에서 얽히게한다. 우리가 지내온 우리를 고무케하는 우리의 젊은 삶의 영역에서, 거기에서 새가 울부짖는다. 그가 무슨 소리를 내는냐? 악랄한 운명! 미신에 의해 끊임없이 포로된, 그것은 우리에게서 자라나고 경고하며 선언되어진다. 우리가 고립되도록 당신을 위협했던 이쪽과 저쪽을 연결하는 항아리, 입구는 아직 없다. 여기에 누가 있는가? [10]

Care: Yes! must be my reply.

걱정 : 그래! 나의 응답이 있어야만한다.

Faust: And, thou, who art thou, then?

파우스트 : 그래서 당신, 당신은 누구냐 그럼?

Care: Well—here am I.

걱정 : 이런 여기에 내가 있네.

Faust: Avaunt!

파우스트 : 꺼져!

Care: I am where I should be: Though no ear should choose to hear me, Yet the shrinking heart must fear me; Though transformed to mortal eyes, Grimmest power I exercise."

걱정 : 나는 어디에 있어야 하는가. 비록 귀는 내 말을 듣지 않아도되지만, 움추러드는 마음은 나를 두려워해야한다. 그래도 치명적인 눈으로 변해서, 완강한 힘을 나는 행사한다.

The unconscious cannot be "analysed" to a finish, and thus brought to a standstill. No one can wrest active force from it for any length of time. Therefore to act according to the method just described is only to deceive one's self, and is nothing but a new edition of an ordinary repression.[462]

무의식은 끝까지 '분석'될 수 없으며, 따라서 정지 상태에 이르게 된다. 아무도 그것으로부터 시간상으로 얼마가 됐든 그 활동적인 힘을 왜곡할 수 없다. 그러므로 방금 설명한 방법에 따라 행동하는 것은 자기 자신을 속이는 것일 뿐, 평범한 억압의 새로운 버전에 지나지 않는다.

2. The Identification with the Collective Psyche.

2. 집단프시케로부터의 본인 식별

The second way would be that of identification with the collective psyche. That would mean the symptom of "God-Almightiness" developed into a system; in other words, one would be the fortunate possessor of the absolute truth, that had yet to be discovered; of the conclusive knowledge, which would be the people's salvation. This attitude is not necessarily megalomania ("Grössenwahn") in a direct form, but the well-known milder form of having a prophetic mission. Weak minds which, as is so often the case, have correspondingly an undue share of vanity and misplaced naïveté at their disposal, run a considerable risk of succumbing to this temptation. The obtaining access to the collective psyche signifies a renewal of life for the individual, whether this renewal of life be felt as something pleasant or unpleasant. It would seem desirable to retain a hold upon this renewal: for one person, because it increases his feeling for life ("Lebensgefühl"); for another, because it promises a great accretion to his knowledge. Therefore both of them, not wishing to deprive themselves of the rich values that lie buried in the collective psyche, will endeavour by every means possible to retain their newly gained union with the primal cause of life. Identification appears to be the nearest way to it, for the merging of the persona in the collective psyche is a veritable lure to unite one's self with this "ocean of divinity," and, oblivious of the past, to become absorbed in it. This piece of mysticism belongs to every finer individual, just as the "yearning for the mother"—the looking back to the source whence one originated—is innate in every one.

두 번째 방법은 집단 정신으로부터의 본인 식별일 것이다. 그것은 '신-전능'의 증상이 하나의 시스템으로 발전했다는 것을 의미할 것이고, 다시 말해서 아직 발견되지 않은 절대적 진리의 운 좋은 소유자가 될 것이며, 결정적인 지식은 사람들의 구원이 될 것이다. 이러한 태도는 직접적 형태로는 반드시 과대망상증(영어megalomania,독어Grössenwahn)이 아니라 예언적 사명을 갖는 것으로 잘 알려진 온화한 형태다. 흔히 있는 일이지만, 그에 상응하여 허영심의 지나친 공유와 순진함을 자기 마음대로 잘못 배치하는 약한 마음들은 이 유혹에 굴복할 상당한 위험을 안고 있다. 집단적 정신에 대한 접근을 얻는 것은 이 삶의 갱신이 기분 좋은 것으로 느껴지든 불쾌한 것으로 느껴지든 개인에게 생명의 갱신을 의미한다. 이 갱신을 지속하는 것이 바람직해 보인다. 한 사람에게는 그것이 그의 삶(Lebensgefühl)에 대한 느낌을 증가시키기 때문이다. 또 다른 사람에게는 그의 지식에 큰 보탬이 되기 때문이다. 그러므로 그들 둘 다 집단적 정신 속에 묻혀 누워있는 풍부한 가치들을 스스로 박탈하기를 바라지 않고, 가능한 모든 수단을 동원하여 새로 얻은 결합을 생명의 근본적 원인과 유지하려고 노력할 것이다. 본인의 식별은 그것에 가장 가까운 방법으로 보여지는데, 집단적 정신에서 개인성의 합치는 이 '신성의 바다'와 자신을 결합시키고, 과거를 망각한 채, 그것에 몰두하기 위한 진정한 유혹이기 때문이다. 이 신비주의 의 한 조각은 모든 훌륭한 개인에게 속해 있는데, 마치 '어머니에 대한 갈망'(yearning for the mother) 즉, 그가 기원했던 근원을 되돌아보는 것이 모든 사람에게 태생적으로 내재되어 있는 것처럼 말이다.

As I have demonstrated explicitly before,[254] there is a special value and a special necessity hidden in the regressive longing—which, as is well-known, Freud conceives as "infantile fixation" or as "incest-wish." This necessity and longing is particularly emphasized in myths, where it is always the strongest and best of people, in other words, the hero, who[463] follows the regressive longing and deliberately runs into danger of letting himself be devoured by the monster of the maternal first cause. But he is a hero only because, instead of letting himself be finally devoured by the monster, he conquers it, and that not only once but several times. It is only through the conquest of the collective psyche that its true value can be attained, whether it be under the symbol of capture of treasure, of an invincible weapon, of a magical means of defence, or whatever else the myth devises as the most desirable possession. Hence whoever identifies himself with the collective psyche, also reaches the treasure which the dragon guards, but against his will and to his own great injury, by thus allowing himself (mythologically speaking) to be devoured by the monster and merged with it.

내가 전에 명백히 증명했듯이 퇴행적 갈망 속에는 특별한 가치와 특별한 필요성이 숨겨져 있다. 잘 알려진 바와 같이 프로이트는 "유아적 고정" 또는 "근친상간 -이끌림"으로 염두한다. 이러한 필요성과 갈망은 신화에서 특히 강조되는데, 그 신화에서는 언제나 가장 강하고 사람들중에 가장 뛰어나며, 다시 말해서 퇴행적인 갈망을 좇아 일부러 괴물에 의해 자신이 집어삼켜질 위험속으로 달려드는 영웅이며 정신적 제1원인이다. 그러나 그는 단지 영웅이다 왜냐하면, 마침내 괴물에 의해그 자신을 집어삼키게 하기 보다는, 그는 그것을 정복하고, 그것도 한 번뿐 아니라 여러 번 반복하기 때문이다. 그것이 보물의 포획의 , 무적의 무기로서, 또는 마법의 방어 수단으로서의 상징, 가장 바람직한 소유로 간주하는 그 밖의 어떤 신화의 장치로서의 형태이든지간에 그 진정한 가치는 집단적 정신의 정복을 통해서만 얻을 수 있다. 따라서 자신을 집단적 정신으로부터 집단적 정신과 함께 자신을 식별하는 자는 또한 용이 지키는 보물에 도달하겠지만,그러나 역시 그의 의지와 그 자신의 큰 상처에도 불구하고 이에 반하여, (신화적으로 표현하자면) 자신을 괴물에 의해 집어삼켜져 먹어치우게하고 그것과 합쳐진다.

Identification with the collective psyche is therefore a failure; this way ends just as disastrously as did the first, which led to the severance of the persona from the collective psyche.

따라서 집단적 정신과의 식별은 실패다. 이러한 방법은 첫 번째 것과 마찬가지로 비참하게 끝나며, 그것은 집단적 정신으로부터 인격(개인성)의 이탈을 가져왔다.

V.—Leading Principles for the Treatment of Collective Identity[편집]

V 집단정체성을 다루는 선도적 원칙들

In order to solve the problem how practical treatment can overcome the assimilation of the collective psyche, we must first of all make quite clear to ourselves what was the error of the two ways already described. We saw that neither the one way nor the other led to any appropriate result. The first way simply leads the patient back to the point of departure, having lost the vital values contained in the collective psyche. The second way leads him straight into the collective psyche, having lost that detached human existence which alone renders possible a bearable and satisfying life. There are on both sides values that should not be lost to the individual.

실제적인 치료가 집단 정신의 동화를 극복할 수 있는 문제를 해결하기 위해서는 우선 이미 서술된 두 가지 방법의 오류가 무엇이었는지 우리 자신에게 상당히 분명하게 해야 한다. 우리는 어느 한쪽의 길도 다른 한쪽의 길도 적절한 결과를 가져오지 않는다고 보았다. 첫 번째 방법은 집단 정신에 포함된 중요한 가치를 상실하면서 단순히 환자를 다시 출발점으로 이끈다. 두 번째 방법은 그를 집단적 정신으로 곧장 인도하는데, 그것은 홀로 견딜 수 있고 만족스러운 삶을 가능하게 하는 분리된 인간의 존재를 잃어버렸다. 거기에는 개인에게서 빼앗아서는 안 되는 양면가치가 있다.

The mistake is, therefore, neither in the collective psyche nor in the individual psyche, but in allowing the one to exclude the other. The monistic tendency assists this propensity, for it always suspects and looks for one principle everywhere. As[464] a general psychological tendency, monism is a peculiarity of differentiated feeling and thought, corresponding to the keen desire to make the one or the other function the supreme psychological principle. The introversion type only knows the thought principle, and the extroversion type only that of feeling. This psychological monism—or it would be better to say monotheism—has the advantage of simplicity, and the disadvantage of one-sidedness. On the one hand, it signifies the exclusion of the variety and true riches of life; whilst on the other, it means the practicability of realizing the ideals of the present day and of the near past. But it does not in itself signify any actual possibility of human progress.

그러므로 그 실수는 집단적 정신이나 개인의 정신에서가 아니라, 한 사람이 다른 한 사람을 배제하도록 하는 것이다. 일원론적 경향은 이러한 성향을 도와준다. 왜냐하면 그것은 항상 모든 곳에서 의심하고 하나의 원칙을 찾기 때문이다. 일반적인 심리학적 경향으로서, 일원론은 차별화된 느낌과 사고의 특성으로, 어떤 하나의 또는 다른 어떤 기능을 최고의 심리적 원리로 만들고자 하는 열열한 욕구에 해당한다. 내성적인 타입은 사고원리만 알고, 외향적인 타입은 감정의 그것만 안다.이러한 심리적인 일원론(또는 일신주의라고 표현하는것이 더 나을수도 있을것이다)은 단순성의 이점과 일면성의 단점을 가지고 있다. 한편으로는 삶의 다양성과 진정한 풍요의 배제를 의미하고, 다른 한편으로는 현재와 가까운 과거의 이상을 실현하는 실행가능성을 의미한다. 그러나 그것은 그 자체로 인간의 실제적인 진보 가능성을 의미하는 것은 아니다.

In the same way rationalism tends towards exclusiveness. Its essence is to exclude instantly whatever is opposed to its standpoint, whether it be intellectually logical or emotionally so. In regard to reason it is both monistic and autocratic. Special thanks are due to Bergson for having broken a lance for the right of the irrational to exist. Psychology will probably be obliged to acknowledge and to submit to a plurality of principles, in spite of the fact that this does not suit the scientific mind. Only so can psychology be saved from ship-wreck.

이와 마찬가지로 합리주의는 배타성을 지향하는 경향이 있다. 그것의 본질은 지적으로 논리적이든 감정적으로든 그것의 견해에 반대되는 것은 즉시 배제하는 것이다. 이성에 관한 한 그것은 일원론적이기도 하고 독재주의적이기도 하다. 존재하기위한 비이성적일수있는 권리를 위해 창을 꺽어버린 베르그송에게 특별한 감사를 표한다.심리학은 이것이 과학 정신에 맞지 않는다는 사실에도 불구하고 아마도 인정하고 다원리에 복종해야 할 의무가 있을 것이다. 그래야만 정신상태는 선박 난파로부터 구해질 수 있다.

But with regard to individual psychology science must waive its claims. For to speak of a scientific individual psychology is in itself a contradictio in adjecto. It is necessarily always only the collective part of an individual psychology that can be the subject of scientific study, for the individual is—according to definition—something unique and incomparable. A "scientific" individual psychology is a denial of individual psychology. It may justly be suspected that individual psychology is indeed a projection of the psychology of him who defines it. Every individual psychology must have its own text-book, for the universal text-book only contains collective psychology.

그러나 개인 심리학 과학에 관해서는 그 주장을 포기해야 한다. 과학적 개별적 심리학을 말하는 것 자체가 형용사에서는 모순되기 때문이다. 그것은 항상 과학적 연구의 대상이 될 수 있는 개인 심리학의 집합적인 부분일 뿐이다. 정의에 따르면 개인은 독특하고 비할 데 없는 것이기 때문이다. '과학적' 개인심리학이란 개인의 심리를 부정하는 것이다. 개인심리학은 정말이지 그것을 정의한 그 자신의 심리학의 투영이라고 의심받을 만도 하다. 보편적인 텍스트북(교과서)은 집단심리만을 포함하고 있기 때문에, 모든 개인심리학에는 반드시 개별적인 해당 텍스트북이 있어야 한다.

These remarks are intended to prepare for what has to be said about the treatment of the aforesaid problem. The fundamental error of both the afore-mentioned ways is simply that the subject is collectively identified with the one or the[465] other part of his psychology. His psychology is individual as well as collective, but not in such a manner as to merge the individual with what is collective, or the collective with what is individual. The persona must be strictly separated from the concept of the individual, in so far as the persona can be absolutely merged with the collective. But what is individual is just that which can never be absorbed in the collective, and is, too, never identical with the collective. Therefore, an identification with the collective or an arbitrary cutting-off from the collective is equivalent to illness; it is pathological.

이러한 발언은 전술한 문제의 처리에 대해 언급해야 할 것에 대비하기 위한 것이다. 앞에서 말한 두 가지 방법의 근본적인 오류는 단순히 그 대상이 개인의 심리의 한 부분 또는 다른 부분과 집합적으로 식별된다는 것이다. 그의 심리는 집단적일 뿐만 아니라 개인적이기도 하지만, 개인을 집단적인 것과 합치거나, 개개인적인 것과 합치려는 태도는 아니다. 인격체가 집단에 절대적으로 병합될 수 있는 한, 인격은 개인의 개념으로부터 엄격히 분리되어야 한다. 오직 개성이란것은 단지 집단에 결코 흡수될 수 없고, 또한 집단과 결코 동일하지 않다는 것이다. 그러므로 집단과 동일시하거나 집단으로부터 자의적으로 컷오프를 하는 것은 질병과 동등하며, 병적인 것이다.

As has already been indicated, what is individual appears at first as the particular selection of those elements of the collective psyche that contribute to the composition of the persona. As I said before, the components are not individual but collective. It is only their combination, or the selection as a model of particular groups that had already been combined, which is individual. That would be the individual nucleus which is concealed by the personal mask. By the particular differentiation of the persona, the resistance is shown of the individuality to the collective psyche. By analysing the persona, we transfer a greater value to the individuality, increasing thereby its conflict with collectivity. This conflict obviously is a psychological conflict in the individual. The dissolution of the compromise between the two halves of a pair of opposites increases the effectiveness of the contrast. This conflict does not exist within the sphere of purely unconscious natural life, although the purely physiological life of the individual also has to comply with collective demands.

이미 지적된 바와 같이, 개인이라는 것은 처음에는 인격의 구성에 기여하는 집단 정신의 그러한 요소들의 특정한 선택으로 나타난다. 앞에서도 말했듯이, 요소들은 개인적이 아니라 집단적이다. 그것은 단지 그들의 조합일 뿐, 또는 개인성인 이미 결합되어 있던 특정 집단의 모델로서의 선택일 뿐이다. 그것은 개인 마스크에서 감추어지는 개인 핵일 것이다. 인격의 특정한 분화에 의해, 집단 정신에서의 개성의 저항이 보여진다. 페르소나를 분석함으로써, 우리는 개성에 더 큰 가치를 이전하고, 그에 따라 집단적인것과의 충돌을 증가시킨다. 이 갈등은 분명히 개인의 심리적 갈등이다. 상반된 한 쌍의 두개의 절반의 충돌을 해소하는 것은 대조의 효과를 높인다. 이 갈등은 순수한 무의식적인 자연적 삶의 영역 내에는 존재하지 않겠지만 또한 개인의 순수한 생리적 삶 역시도 집단적인 요구에는 따라야 할것이다.

The natural unconscious attitude is harmonious; the body, with its capacities and needs, providing immediately indications and limitations, that prevent intemperance and lack of proportion. A differentiated psychological function, however, always inclines towards disproportion, on account of the one-sidedness which is cultivated by the conscious rationality of intention. What is called mental individuality, is, also, an expression of the individual corporeity, being, so to speak,[466] identical with it. This sentence might obviously also be reversed, a fact that does not materially alter the real psychological data concerning the intimate relation of the individuality to the body. At the same time, the body is also that which makes the subject resemble all others to a great extent, although it is the individual body that is differentiated from all others.

자연적인 무의식적인 태도는 조화롭다. 신체는 그 능력과 필요를 가지고 무절제와 비율의 부족을 방지하는 즉각적인 지시와 한계를 제공한다. 그러나 의도의 의식적 합리성에 의해 배양되는 일방적 성향 때문에 차별화된 심리적 기능은 항상 불균형을 향해 기울어진다. 정신적인 개성이라 불리는 것은, 말하자면 그것과 동일한 존재라는 개인의 형체적 존재의 표현이기도 하다. 이 문장은 분명히 뒤집힐 수도 있는데, 그것은 개성과 신체의 밀접한 관계에 관한 실제 심리 데이터를 육체적으로 변화시키지 않는다는 사실이다. 동시에, 몸은 비록 다른 모든 것과 구별되는 개별적인 몸이지만, 대상을 다른 모든 것과 엄청날 정도로 닮게 만드는 것이기도 하다.

Similarly the mental or moral individuality differs from all others, although in every respect it is so constituted as to place one person on an equality with all others. Every living creature that is able freely to develop itself individually without any coercion at all, will, through the perfecting of its individuality, soonest realize the ideal type of its species, and therefore, figuratively speaking, will have collective validity.

마찬가지로 정신적 또는 도덕적 개성은 모든 면에서 한 사람을 다른 모든 사람과 평등하게 할 정도로 구성되지만 다른 모든 개성과는 다르다. 어떠한 강요도 없이 자유롭게 개별적으로 발전할 수 있는 모든 생물들은 그 개성의 완성을 통해 곧 그 종의 이상형을 깨닫게 될 것이며, 따라서 비유적으로 말하면 집단적 타당성을 갖게 될 것이다.

The persona is always identical with a typical attitude, in which one pyschological function dominates, e.g. feeling, or thought, or intuition. This one-sidedness always causes the relative repression of the other functions. In consequence of this circumstance, the persona is hindering to the development of the individual. The dissolution of the persona is, therefore, an indispensable condition of individuation. It is, therefore, to some extent impossible to achieve individuation by means of conscious intention; for conscious intention leads to a conscious attitude, which excludes everything that "does not suit." But the assimilation of the unconscious contents leads, on the contrary, to a condition in which conscious intention is excluded, being replaced by a process of development that appears to us irrational. This process alone signifies individuation, its product being individuality as defined above, viz. as something individual that is at the same time universal. So long as the persona exists individuality is repressed, betraying itself at most by the particular selection of personal requisites, of what might be called the actor's costumes. Only when the unconscious is assimilated does the individuality become more prominent, and with it also that uniting psychological phenomenon between the ego and non-ego, expressed by the word attitude, is now no longer a typical attitude but an individual one.

인격은 하나의 심리적 기능이 지배하는 전형적인 태도와 항상 동일하다. 예를 들어 느낌이나 생각, 또는 직감. 이러한 일방성은 항상 다른 기능의 상대적 억제를 유발한다. 이러한 상황의 결과로, 그 인격은 개인의 발전을 방해하고 있다. 그러므로 인격의 해체는 개성 형성(개별화)의 불가결한 조건이다.그러므로 의식적인 의도의 수단을 통해 개성 형성을 달성하는 것은 어느 정도 불가능하다. 의식적인 의도는 의식적인 태도로 이어지기 때문에 "적합하지 않는" 모든 것을 배제한다. 그러나 무의식적인 내용의 동화는 반대로 의식적인 의도가 배제되어 우리에게 비이성적으로 보이는 발전과정에 의해 대체되는 상태로 이어진다. 이 과정만으로도 개성 형성을 의미하고, 그것의 생성물은 위에서 정의한 대로 즉 개성이며, 동시에 보편적인 어떤 개인을 의미한다. 인격이 존재하는 한 개성은 억압되고, 기껏해야 배우의 의상이라고 불릴 수 있는 개인적인 요구 사항들에 의해 그 자신을 배신한다. 무의식이 동화되어야 개성이 더욱 두드러지게 되고, 또한 그것과 더불어 자아(ego)와 비자아(non-ego) 사이의 심리적 현상으로, 그 말의 태도에 의해 표현되는 것이 이제는 더 이상 전형적인 태도가 아니라 개별적인 것이 된다.


What is paradoxical in these formulations arises from the same cause from which the conflict about the "universalia" formerly arose. The phrase "animal nullumque animal genus est" makes the fundamental paradox clearly comprehensible. What exists "really" is individual: that which is universal is existing psychologically, but being caused by the real-existing similarities of individual things. The individual is, therefore, the individual thing that has, to a greater or less extent, those attributes upon which the collective conception of "collectivity" rests; and the more individual he is, the more he develops those attributes that are the basis of a collective concept of human nature.

이러한 공식에서 역설적인 것은 '유니버설리아'(보편자)에 대한 갈등이 이전에 일어났던 동일한 원인에 기인한다는것이다. '동물들의 집합은 동물이 아니다.'라는 문구는 근본적인 역설들을 분명히 이해할 수 있게 한다. '현실적으로' 존재하는 것은 개인이다. 보편적인 것은 심리적으로 존재하지만 보편적인 존재는 개별 사물의 실제적인 존재들의 유사성에 의해 야기되는 것이다. 그러므로 개인은 '집단성'에 대한 집합적 개념이 자리잡은 그러한 속성을 가지는 개인이며, 개성이 높을수록 인간 본성의 집단적 개념의 기초가 되는 그러한 속성을 발전시킨다.

If a grotesque figure, suggested by the initial situation of our problem be permitted, it is Buridan's ass between the two bundles of hay. His questioning is obviously wrong: the question is not whether the hay-bundle on the right or the left be the better one, or whether he should begin to eat on the right or the left hand, but what he himself would like to do, what he is eager for—that is the point. He is thinking of the hay and not of himself, and therefore he does not know what he really wants.

만약 우리 문제의 초기 상황에 의해 제안된 기괴한 형상이 허용된다면, 건초 두 다발 사이에 있는 뷔리당의 당나귀와 같은 상황일 것이다. 그의 질문은 분명히 틀렸다. 문제는 오른쪽이나 왼쪽의 건초 번들이 더 나은 것인지, 오른쪽이나 왼쪽에서 먹기 시작해야 하는 것이 아니라, 그 자신이 하고 싶은 일, 그가 열망하는 일, 그것이 요점이다. 그는 자신이 아닌 건초를 생각하고 있기 때문에, 그가 진정으로 원하는 것이 무엇인지 알지 못한다.

The question is: what at this moment is the natural direction of the growth of this individual?

문제는 지금 이 순간 이 개인의 성장의 자연스러운 방향은 무엇인가 하는 것이다.

This question cannot be settled by any philosophy, religion or good advice, but solely by an unprejudiced review of the psychological germs of life which have resulted from the natural co-operation of the conscious and unconscious on the one hand, and of the individual and the collective on the other. One person looks for them in the conscious, and another in the unconscious. But the conscious is only one side, and the unconscious is only the other. For it should never be forgotten that dreams are compensatory or complementary to consciousness. Were this not the case, we should be obliged to regard dreams as a source of knowledge superior to the conscious. This view would undoubtedly carry us back to the mentality of the augur, and we should have to accept all the consequences of such a superstitious attitude, unless, indeed, we look upon dreams as valueless, as does the vulgar mind.

이 질문은 어떤 철학이나 종교나 좋은 조언에 의해서도 해결될 수 없고, 다만 오직 의식과 무의식의 자연스러운 협력에서 비롯되는 삶의 심리적 싹에 대한 편견 없는 재검토에 의해서만 해결될 수 있다. 한 사람은 의식 속에서, 또 다른 사람은 무의식 속에서 그들을 찾는다. 그러나 의식은 한쪽에 불과하고, 무의식은 다른 쪽에 불과하다. 꿈은 의식에 보상적이거나 보완적이라는 것을 결코 잊어서는 안 되기 때문이다. 그렇지 않다면, 우리는 꿈을 의식보다 우월한 지식의 원천으로 간주해야 할 의무가 있다. 이러한 견해는 의심할 여지 없이 우리를 전조의 사고방식으로 되돌리게 할 것이며, 그러한 미신적인 태도의 모든 결과를 받아들여야 할 것이다, 만일 정말로 우리가 강퍅한 마음처럼 꿈을 가치 없는 것으로 보지 않는다면 말이다.


We find the unifying function that we are seeking, in the phantasies in which everything that has any effectual determination is present. But phantasies have a bad reputation among psychologists. The psychoanalytical theories hitherto obtaining have treated them accordingly. For both Freud and Adler the phantasy is nothing but a so-called "symbolic" disguise of what both investigators suppose to be the primary propensities and aims. But in opposition to these views it should be emphasised—not for theoretical but for essentially practical reasons—that the phantasy may indeed be thus causally explained and depreciated, but that it nevertheless is the creative soil for everything that has ever brought development to humanity. The phantasy as a psychological function has a peculiar non-reducible value of its own, whose roots are in both the conscious and the unconscious contents, and in what is collective as well as in what is individual.

우리는 우리가 추구하고 있는 통일적 기능을 어떤 효과적인 결정을 하는 모든 것이 존재하는 환상에서 찾는다. 하지만 환상은 심리학자들 사이에서 나쁜 평판을 가지고 있다. 그 후 얻어진 정신분석학적 이론들은 그것들을 그에 따라 다루어 왔다. 프로이트와 아들러 둘 다에게 환상은 두 수사관이 주요한 경향과 목표로 추측하고 있는 소위 '상징적인' 변장에 지나지 않는다. 그러나 이러한 견해에 반대하여, 환상이 실제로 인과적으로 설명되고 평가절하될 수 있지만, 그럼에도 불구하고 인류에게 발전을 가져다 준 모든 것을 위한 창조적 토양이라는 점을 -이론적인 이유 때문이 아니라 본질적으로 실용적인 이유 때문에- 강조해야 한다. 심리적 기능으로서의 환상은 그 자체의 독특한 비환원적 가치를 지니고 있는데, 그 뿌리가 의식적인 내용과 무의식적인 내용, 그리고 개인적인 것뿐만 아니라 집단적인 것에 있다.

But whence comes the bad reputation of the phantasy? It owes that reputation chiefly to the circumstance that it ought not to be taken literally. It is worthless if understood concretistically. If we understand semiotically, as Freud does, it is interesting from the scientific standpoint. But if it be understood hermeneutically, as an actual symbol, it provides us with the cue that we need in order to develop our life in harmony with ourselves.

하지만 환상의 나쁜 평판은 언제 오는가? 그러한 평가는 문자 그대로 받아들여져서는 안 되는 상황의 주된 덕택이다. 만약 논리적으로 이해한다면 그것은 가치가 없다. 우리가 프로이트처럼 기호학적으로 이해한다면 과학적 견지에서 보면 흥미롭다. 그러나 그것이 해석학적으로 이해된다면, 실제의 상징으로서, 그것은 우리 자신과 조화를 이루며 우리의 삶을 발전시키기 위해 우리에게 필요한 단서를 제공한다.

For the significance of a symbol is not that it is a disguised indication of something that is generally known,[255] but that it is an endeavour to elucidate by analogy what is as yet completely unknown and only in process of formation.[256] The phantasy represents to us that which is just developing under the form of a more or less apposite analogy. By analytical reduction to something universally known, we destroy the actual value of the symbol; but it is appropriate to its value and meaning to give it an hermeneutical interpretation.

상징의 중요성은 일반적으로 알려진 것에 대한 위장된 표시라는 점이 아니라, 아직 완전히 알려지지 않은 것을 유추하여 형성의 과정으로 설명하려는 시도라는 점이다. 환상은 우리에게 조금 더 적절한 비유의 형태로 발전하고 있는 것을 보여준다. 일반적으로 알려진 어떤 것으로의 분석적 축소에 의해, 우리는 상징의 실제 가치를 파괴한다. 그러나 그것은 그 가치와 의미에서 그것이 해석학적으로 설명을 주기에 적절하다는것이다.

The essence of hermeneutics—an art that was formerly much practised—consists in adding more analogies to that[469] already given by the symbol: in the first place, subjective analogies given by the patient as they occur to him; and in the second place, objective analogies provided by the analyst out of his general knowledge. The initial symbol is much enlarged and enriched by this procedure, the result being a highly complex and many-sided picture, which may now be reduced to tertia comparationis. Thence result certain psychological lines of development of an individual as well as collective nature. No science upon earth could prove the accuracy of these lines; on the contrary, rationalism could very easily prove that they are wrong. But these lines vindicate their validity by their value for life. The chief thing in practical treatment is that people should get a hold of their own life, not that the principle of their life should be provable or "right."

분석(해석학)의 본질(이전에는 많이 행해졌던 예술)은 기호가 이미 부여한 것에 더 많은 유사성을 추가하는데 있어 동의한다. 첫째, 환자에의해 그들에게 일어난 것에대한 주관적인 유사성을 부여하고 둘째, 분석가가 일반적인 지식에서 제공하는 객관적 유사성이다. 초기 기호는 이 절차에 의해 크게 확대되고 풍부하게 표시되며, 그 결과는 매우 복잡하고 다면적인 그림으로, 이제 세번째 비교로 축소 정리될 수 있다. 거기에서 집단적 성질과 개인적 성질의 발달사이의 분명한 심리적 선들을 그어보자. 지구상의 어떤 과학도 이 선들의 정확성을 증명할 수 없었다. 반대로 합리주의는 그들이 틀렸다는 것을 아주 쉽게 증명할 수 있었다. 그리고 이 선들은 그들의 삶의 가치에 의해 타당성을 증명한다. 실질적인 치료의 주요한 핵심은 사람들이 자신의 삶을 파악해야 한다는 것이지, 자신의 삶의 원리가 입증되어야 한다거나 "옳다"는 것을 보이는것이 아니다.

Of course, true to the spirit of scientific superstition suggestion will be mooted. But it should long ago have been realised that a suggestion is only accepted by one it suits. Beyond that there is no suggestion, otherwise the treatment of neurosis would be extremely simple, for we should only need to suggest health. This pseudo-scientific talk about suggestion is based upon the unconscious superstition that suggestion actually possesses some real magic power. No one succumbs to suggestion unless from the very bottom of his heart he be willing to co-operate.

물론, 과학적 미신이 암시하는 바가 사실인지는 고려할 가치가 없다. 그러나 암시가 단지 그것에 맞는 것에 의해서만 받아들여진다는 것을 오래 전에 깨달아야한다. 암시는 없다는 것을 넘어선다면 그렇지못한것과는 다르게 노이로제에 대한 치료는 극히 간단할 것이다. 왜냐하면 우리는 건강만을 제안하면 되기 때문이다. 암시에 관한 이 사이비 과학적인 이야기는 암시가 실제로 어떤 진정한 마법의 힘을 가지고 있다는 무의식적인 미신에 바탕을 두고 있다. 그가 진심으로 협력할 의사가 없는 한 누구도 암시에 굴복하지 않는다.

By means of the hermeneutical treatment of the phantasies we arrive at the synthesis of the individual with the collective psyche, put theoretically, that is, but practically, one indispensable condition is yet lacking. For it belongs to the regressive disposition of the neurotic—a disposition in which he has been confirmed in the course of his illness—to take neither himself nor the world seriously, but always to rely on this or that method or circumstance to effect a cure, quite apart from his own serious co-operation. "But you can't wash the dog without getting his skin wet." No cure can be effected without unlimited willingness and absolute seriousness on the part of the patient. There are no magical cures for neurosis. Just as soon as we begin to elaborate the symbolic outlines of the[470] path, the patient must begin to walk thereon. If he delude himself and shirk it, no cure can result. He must really work and live according to what he has seen and recognised as the direction for the time being of his individual life-line, and must continue thereon until a distinct reaction of his unconscious shows him that he is beginning in good faith to go a wrong way.

환상에 대한 분석된 치료를 통해 우리는 집단적 정신으로 개인을 통합하는 데 도달하는데, 이론적으로는, 그러고 실제로는 아직 없어서는 안 될 하나의 조건이 결여되어 있다. 왜냐하면 그것은 신경증 환자의 퇴행적 성향, 즉 그가 병을 앓는 과정에서 확인된 성질에 속하기 때문에, 자신과 세상을 심각하게 받아들이지 않고, 자신의 심각한 협력과는 전혀 별개로 항상 치료법이 효과를 내기 위한 이런저런 방법이나 상황에 의존하기 때문이다. '그렇지만 당신은 당신 개의 털가죽을 적시지 않고는 그 개를 씻길 수 없다.' 환자측의 무한한 의지와 절대적인 심각성이 없이는 어떤 치료법도 효과를 낼 수 없다. 노이로제에 대한 마법의 치료법은 없다. 우리가 그 길의 상징적인 윤곽을 설명하기 시작하자마자, 환자는 그 길로 걷기 시작해야 한다. 만약 그가 자신을 속이고 그것을 피한다면, 어떤 치료도 이루어질 수 없다. 그는 정말로 자신의 개별적인 생명선의 방향을 보고 인식한 것에 따라 일하고 살아야 하며, 그의 무의식의 뚜렷한 반응이 그가 잘못된 길로 가도록 선의에서 시작되고 있다는 것을 보여줄 때까지 그 일을 계속해야 한다.

He who does not possess this moral function of faithfulness to himself will never get rid of his neurosis; but he who has this faithfulness can find the way out.

자기 자신에 대한 충실함의 이러한 도덕적 기능을 가지고 있지 않은 사람은 결코 노이로제를 없애지 못할 것이다. 그러나 그런 충실함을 가진 사람은 출구를 찾을 수 있다.

Neither physician nor patient must yield to the delusion that "being analysed" is in itself sufficient to remove a neurosis. That would be deception and self-delusion. Ultimately it is infallibly the moral factor that decides between health and illness.

의사도 환자도 "분석되고 있다"는 망상에 굴복해서는 안 된다. 그것은 속임수와 자기 기만일 것이다. 궁극적으로 건강과 질병 사이에서 결정되는 도덕적 요인이다.

By the construction of the individual's life-line the ever-varying trends and tendencies of his libido are made conscious. These life-lines are not identical with the "directing fictions" discovered by Adler, which are none other than arbitrary attempts to cut the persona off from the collective psyche, and to give it independence. It might rather be said that the "directing fiction" is an unsuccessful attempt to construct a life-line. The unsuitability of the "directing fiction" is also proved by the fact that the lines are tenaciously retained for much too long a time. The hermeneutically constructed life-line is short, for life follows no straight lines that indicate the future long beforehand, for, as Nietzsche says, "All truth is crooked." Life-lines are therefore neither principles nor ideals of universal validity, but points of view and adaptations of ephemeral validity. An abatement of vital intensity, a perceptible loss of libido, or an excessive passion or ecstasy—all show that one such line is left, and that a new line begins, or rather should begin. Sometimes it is enough to leave the revealing of the new line to the unconscious; but this course should indeed not be recommended to the neurotic under all circumstances, though there are cases where what is needed is to learn to trust to so-called chance. However, it is not advisable to let one's self drift for any length[471] of time; a watchful eye should at least be kept upon the reactions of the unconscious, that is to say, upon the dreams: these indicate like a barometer the one-sidedness of our attitude.[257] Therefore, I consider it necessary, in contrast to some other analysts, for the patient after analysis to remain in contact with the unconscious, if he would avoid a relapse. That is why I am convinced that the real end of analysis is reached when the patient has acquired adequate knowledge of the method to remain in contact with the unconscious, and sufficient psychological knowledge to be able to understand approximately his ever-changing life-line; otherwise he is not in a position to follow the direction of the libido currents in the unconscious, and thereby to gain conscious support in the development of his individuality. Every serious case of neurosis needs this weapon in order to maintain the cure.

개인의 생명선 건설에 의해 그의 리비도(libido)의 끊임없이 변화하는 경향과 기질을 의식하게 된다. 이러한 생명줄은 다름 아닌 집단적 정신에서 인격체를 잘라내고, 독립성을 주기 위한 자의적인 시도인 아들러가 발견한 '디렉터링 픽션'(소설 연출권)과 동일하지 않다. 차라리 '디렉팅 픽션'은 생명선을 구축하려는 실패한 시도라고 할 수 있을 것이다. '디렉터링 픽션'의 부적응성은 그 선들이 너무 오랫동안 끈질기게 유지되고 있다는 사실에서도 증명된다. '모든 진리는 비뚤어져 있다'고 니체가 말하는 것처럼, 인생은 미래를 미리 나타내는 직선을 따르지 않기 때문에, 은연중에 만들어진 생명선은 짧다. 그러므로 생명선은 보편적 타당성의 원칙도 이상도 아니고, 덧없는 유효성의 관점과 적응이다. 활력강도의 감소, 성욕의 지각할 수 있는 상실, 또는 지나친 열정이나 황홀감 - 모두 그러한 선 하나가 남았고, 새로운 선이 시작되거나, 오히려 시작되어야 한다는 것을 보여준다. 때로는 새로운 선에 대한 노출을 무의식에 맡기는 것으로 충분할 때도 있다. 그러나 필요한 것이 소위 가능성을 신뢰하는 법을 배우는 것일지라도, 이 과정은 모든 상황에서 신경증 환자에게 실제로 추천되어서는 안 된다.그러나, 어떤 시간 동안이라도 자기 자신을 표류하게 하는 것은 바람직하지 않다. 최소한 조심하는 눈은 무의식적인 것, 즉 꿈에 대한 반응에 머물러 있어야 한다. 이것들은 우리의 태도의 한면을 바로미터처럼 나타낸다. 그러므로 나는 다른 분석가들과는 달리, 만약 환자가 재발하는 것을 피할 수 있다면, 분석 후에 환자가 무의식적인 것과 계속 접촉하는 것이 필요하다고 생각한다. 그렇기 때문에 나는 환자가 무의식과 계속 접촉할 수 있는 방법에 대한 적절한 지식을 습득하고, 끊임없이 변화하는 그의 생활상을 대략 이해할 수 있는 충분한 심리적 지식을 습득했을 때 진정한 분석의 종말에 도달한다고 확신한다. 그렇지 않으면 그는 무의식의 리비도의 조류의 방향을 따르고, 따라서 그의 개성의 발달에 있어서 의식적인 지지를 얻을 수 있는 위치에 있지 않게된다. 모든 심각한 신경증 환자는 치료를 유지하기 위해 그 무기를 필요로 한다.

In this sense analysis is not a method that is a medical monopoly, but rather an art or technique or science of psychological life, which he who has been cured must continue to foster, for the sake of his own welfare and that of his environment. If he understands this aright he will not pose as a psychoanalytical prophet nor as a public reformer, but truly understanding the common weal, he will first himself reap the benefit of the self-knowledge acquired in his[472] treatment, and then he will let the example of his life work what good it can, rather than indulge in aggressive talk and missionary propaganda.

이런 의미에서 분석은 의학적인 독점적이라고 할 수 있는 방법이 아니라, 치료받은 사람이 자신의 복지와 환경을 위해서 계속 육성해야 하는 심리 생활의 예술이나 기술이나 과학이다. 만약 그가 이 격렬함을 이해한다면 그는 정신분석적 예언자로서나 공적인 개혁가로서 입장을 취하는 것이 아니라, 먼저 그의 치료에서 습득한 자기 지식의 이익을 취하게 될 것이고, 그 다음에는 공격적인 대화와 선동적 선전에 빠져들기보다는 자신의 삶을 본보기로 그것이 할 수 있는 대로 잘 작동하게 할 것이다.[11]


A. Psychological Material must be divided into Conscious and Unconscious Contents.

1. The conscious contents are partly personal, in so far as their universal validity is not recognised; and partly impersonal, that is, collective, in so far as their universal validity is recognised.

2. The unconscious contents are partly personal, in so far as they concern solely repressed materials of a personal nature, that have once been relatively conscious and whose universal validity is therefore not recognised when they are made conscious; partly impersonal, in so far as the materials concerned are recognised as impersonal and of purely universal validity, of whose earlier even relative consciousness we have no means of proof.

B. The Composition of the Persona.

1. The conscious personal contents constitute the conscious personality, the conscious ego.

2. The unconscious personal contents constitute the self, the unconscious or subconscious ego.

3. The conscious and unconscious contents of a personal nature constitute the persona.

C. The Composition of the Collective Psyche.

1. The conscious and unconscious contents of an impersonal or collective nature compose the psychological non-ego, the image of the object. These materials can appear analytically as projections of feeling or of opinion, but they are a priori[473] collectively identical with the object-imago, that is they appear as qualities of the object, and are only a posteriori recognised as subjective psychological qualities.

2. The persona is that grouping of conscious and unconscious contents which is opposed as ego to the non-ego. The general comparison of personal contents of different individuals establishes their far-reaching similarity, extending even to identity, by which the individual nature of personal contents, and therewith of the persona, is for the most part suspended. To this extent the persona must be considered an excerpt of the collective psyche, and also a component of the collective psyche.

3. The collective psyche is therefore composed of the object-imago and the persona.

D. What is Individual.

1. What is individual appears partly as the principle that decides the selection and limitation of the contents that are accepted as personal.

2. What is individual is the principle by which an increasing differentiation from the collective psyche is made possible and enforced.

3. What is individual manifests itself partly as an impediment to collective accomplishment, and as a resistance against collective thinking and feeling.

4. What is individual is the uniqueness of the combination of universal (collective) psychological elements.

E. We must divide the Conscious and Unconscious Contents into Individualistic and Collectivistic.

1. A content is individualistic whose developing tendency is directed towards the differentiation from the collective.

2. A content is collectivistic whose developing tendency aims at universal validity.

3. There are insufficient criteria by which to designate a given content as simply individual or collective, for uniqueness[474] is very difficult to prove, although it is a perpetually and universally recurrent phenomenon.

4. The life-line of an individual is the resultant of the individualistic and collectivistic tendency of the psychological process at any given moment.



Aberrations of Marriage (Michaelis), 365 Abreaction, 242 Absolute unconscious, 430-36 Abstract feelings, 405 " idea, 438, 448 Abstraction, 293 Accidentalness, 398 Accoucheur, the analyst as, 268, 374 Acts, symptomatic (Freud), 281 Adaptation to father, 127, 160, 175 " mother, 125, 159, 171, 232 Adapted function, 405 Adler, viii, ix, 191, 223, 260-61, 290, 297-98, 330, 340, 343-44, 349, 352, 384-85, 390-91, 404, 458, 470 Alcohol, influence of, 12 Altruism, 269 Ambitendency, 200 Ambivalency, 200, 269 Amnesia of Ivenes, 68 " periodic, 9 Amnesic disturbances, 66-7 Anæsthesia, systematic, 68 Analysis not a reasoning method, 208 " prejudices against, 206-07 " sexualistic conception of, vii " v. interpretation, 219 Analyst as accoucheur, 268, 374 " must be analysed, 244 Analytical material compared with poet's material, 214 " psychology, moral effect of, 375-76 Anamnesis not psychoanalysis, 207 Anna, little, 132-54 Antithesis, regulating function of, 415 Anxiety dreams, 160, 372 Apollo, Introversion, 295 Archaic view of life, x "Arrangements" (Adler), 297, 390 Aschaffenburg, 352 Ass, Buridan's, 467 Assimilation by analogy, 223 Assimilation of unconscious, 449[476] Association, co-ordinance to father, 157 " familiar, 120-32, 159 " method, 80 Association-concordance (Kerner), 92 " test, calculation in, 109 " " guilt complex, 107 Attack, hysterical (Ivenes) ætiology of, 74 Attention, dispersion of, 46-8 Attitudes passionelles, 18 Augur, medical, 244, 467 Authority, faith in, 277 Autochthonous myths, 451 Auto-hypnosis, 77, 240 Automatic personalities (Ivenes), 82 " table movements, 49, 53, 57 " writing, 27, 49, 54, 57 Automatism, motor cryptomnesia, 91 " as hypnotist, 79 Automatisms, 13, 47, 49, 54 " of S. W., 20 Autonomous complexes, 375 Auto-suggestion, 51, 53, 61 " " (objective), 79 Azam, case of Albert X., 9 " " Felida, 66 Babel, tower of, 416 Baptism, the rite analysed, 215 Bayle, 315 Bergson, 231, 274, 293, 315, 348, 357, 464 Bernheim, 237 Binet, 2, 12, 47, 56, 59, 60, 85, 289, 353 Binet's definition of somnambulism, 49 Biological duties, 274 Bircher, 250 Birth, theories of child, 134 Bleuler, 5, 14, 201, 312, 354 Bleuler's theory of negativism, 201 Boileau's case, 9 Bonamaison's case, 76 Bourne, Ansel, case of, 9 Bourru and Burot, 66 Brains, similarity of, 451 Bresler's case, 89 Breuer, 236, 241 Breuer's case, 356-358 Brill, 175 Burgholzi, cases of mental disease analysed, 316 " " dementia præcox, 322, 328-35 Buridan's ass, 467 Calculation in association test, 109[477] Camuset, 66 Case, Azam's, 9, 66 " Boileau's, 9 " Bonamaison's, 76 " Bresler's, 89 " Breuer's, 356-58 " Dyce's, 84 " Flournoy's, 69 " Hoefelt's, 66 " Janet's, 55 " Kalk's, 65 " Macnish's, 11 " Mesnet's, 10-11 " Naef's, 8 " Pronst's, 9, 11 " Renaudin's, 67 " Schreber's, 343-46 " Weir Mitchell's, 64-5, 84 Case of Albert X. (Azam), 9 " American business man, 399 " Christ, 394 " Elise K., 3-7 " Felida (Azam), 66 " Helen Smith (Flournoy), 69 " little Anna, 132-54 " little Hans, 132 " Lucie (Janet), 55 " Mary Reynolds (Weir-Mitchell), 64-5, 84 " S. W., 16-45 Cases of dementia præcox, 322, 328-35 " mental disease analysed (Burgholzi's), 316 Catalepsy (Ivenes), 28 Catharsis, 374 Catholic Church, 271 Causal principle in science, 339 " view (Freud), 261 Cellini, Benvenuto, 63 Censor, Freud, 305 Change in character (Azam's case), 66 " " (Hoefelt's case), 66 " " (Ivenes), 84 " " (Kalk's case), 65 " " (Mary Reynolds), 64 " " (S. W.), 69 Charcot, 8, 356, 361 " classification of somnambulic states, 8 " trauma theory, 361 Chevreul, 50 Christ, religion of, 366 Christian science, 126, 207, 244, 249 Civilisation and neurosis, 224, 374[478] Claparède, 188, 232, 348 " (footnote), 287 Clark lectures, 94-156 Classification of dreams, 310 Co-function in unconscious, 405 Collective psyche, 431-32, 455-59, 472 " " identification with, 459, 462 " " treatment of, 463 " mind and soul, 451 " vices and virtues, 453 Comparison of dream-symbols with somnambulic personalities, 59 Compensation, unconscious, 201, 236, 280, 284, 285, 467 Complex, concealment, 117 " Electra, 228 " incompatibility, 202 " Kern, 228 " Œdipus, 228, 232 " resistance, 201 " sensibility, 203 Complexes, autonomous, 377 " function, 426 " physicians' own, 216, 243, 257 Comprehension by analogy, 223 Conflict moral, 225, 242, 247, 251 Content, manifest and latent of dream, 372 Conscious invention v. dream, 178 " material, use of in analysis, 216 Consciousness alternating, 11 " double, 1 Conservation of energy, 231, 411 Constellation, parental, 160-75 Constellations, familiar, 119-132 Converted libido, 141 Cook, Miss Florence, 37 Correspondence of Jung and Loÿ, 236-77 Counterparts of virtues, 389 Creative work of unconscious, additional, 85 Crucial points in Psychoanalysis, 236-77 Cryptomnesia, 78, 86, 87, 199 " Nietzsche example, 87 Cryptomnesic hallucinations, 91 " motor-automatism, 91 Darkness, effect of, on suggestibility, 59 Dawson Williams, Dr., 278 Deception, Ivenes' wilful, 44 " of doctor by patient, 260, 266-67 "Deep" Psychology, 354 Defence mechanism, 424 Deficiency, emotional, 2 Deficiency, intellectual, 2[479] " mental, 2 " neurasthenic, 14 " psychopathic, 3, 13 Definition of libido, 156, 288 Delbruck, 70 Delirium, hysterical, 7 Dementia præcox, 129, 143, 149, 151, 182, 201, 283, 312-18 Depreciation by introverted type, 289 Depressions of puberty, 127 Dessoir, 85 Diagnosis of facts, 106-13 Diehl, 14 Differentiation of what is individual, 456 Dionysus, 183 " extraversion, 295 Dionysian orgies, 366 "Disposable" energy, 401 Distortion produced by resistances, 285 Dogma, 224 Dominants of unconscious, 432-33 Double consciousness, 1, 84 Dragon, symbol of collective psyche, 463 Dream-analysis the real instrument of the unconscious, 209, 373 Dreams, anxiety, 160, 372 " as myth, 436 " association method, 302 " classification of, 310 " compensatory character of, 278-286, 467 " conception of differing from Freud, 222 " content, manifest and latent, 372 " Freud's conception of, 222 " instances of analysed, 147, 193, 217, 219, 303 " many-sided, 217 " moral function of, 309, 471 " no arbitrary interpretation, 218 " no fixed symbols, 218, 221, 265, 308 " number, 191, 193, 197 " objective interpretation of, 421 " of crab analysed, 418 " St. Augustine's, 307 " subjective interpretation of, 421 " symbolism of, 308 " typical themes of, 310 Dualism in Ivenes' subconscious personalities, 79 Dubois, 208, 243, 255 Duplication of attributes, 182 Duty to children, parental, 153 Duties biological, 274 Ecce Homo, 381-84, 417 Eccentricities pre-exist illness, 282, 289[480] Ecstasy, 15, 20 " (Bettina Brentano), 75 Ego-complex, 80, 86 " " (Ivenes), 83 " function, 416 " instinct, 383 " powerlessness of, 450 " psychological, 434 Ego, second (Dessoir), 85 " somnambulic (Ivenes), 76 Elan vital, 231 Electra-complex, 228 Emotional type, Fourneau Jordan, 402 Empiricism, 291, 301 Enantiodromia, 415-17 Energic view point, 231 Energy as Melungu, 413 " conservation of, 411 " "disposable," 401 " primordial image of, 412 " psychic, 401 " transformation of, 413 Entoptic phenomena, 61 Enuresis nocturna, 170, 237, 239, 246 Epilepsy, 1 Epileptoid attacks, 14 Erler, 71 Erotic conflict, 364-65, 370 Esquirol, 315 Etat second, 8 Etiological moment of neurosis, 405 Exhaustive states, 13 Experiments by Dr. Fürst, 157-58 Extroversion, 288, 347, 391, 401-6, 437 " regressive, 288 Familial associations, 120-32, 159 " constellations, influence of, 127 Fanaticism, 283 Fascination, 425-27 Father, adaptation to, 127, 160, 175 Father-complex, 270 Faust analysed, 338-41, 384, 460-61 Fear of unconscious, 434 Fechner, 352 Feeling-thoughts, 461 Feelings of extrovert, 403-5 " introvert, 403-5 Felida, case of, 84 Féré, 12 Feuerbach, 346[481] Final view (Adler), 261 Finck (types), 296 Fixation, Freud's view of, 227 " infantile, 228, 462 Flournoy, 60, 78, 199, 345-46 " case of Helen Smith, 69 Folie circulaire, 67 Forel, 70, 261 Forel, The Sexual Question, 365 Frank, 236, 245, 249 Frazer, 413 Freud, 59, 73, 82, 104, 132-33, 156, 170, 191, 227, 241, 281, 297-98, 305-08, 319, 343-44, 349, 354-55, 359, 371, 373, 381, 404, 409, 445, 458 Freudian investigations, 133 Freud's case of paranoid dementia, 336-37 " conception of dreams, 222 " method, 339 " psychology of dreams, 300 " publications, opposition to, 355 " theory, 261 " " of infantile sexuality, 172 Frobenius, 310, 436 Function, adapted, 405 " co-, 405 " complexes, 426 " transcendental, 417, 436, 441, 468 Fürst's experiments, 119, 157-58 Future character (Felida), 84 " " (Mary Reynolds), 84 Gall, 315 Genesis of dreams, 212 Genius, 1 Gley, 50 Glossolalia, 89-91 " instances of, 28 God-Almightiness, 450, 457, 462 " " physical symptoms of, 458 God's existence, 415 " idea, 451 " primitive concept of, 434 " projection of, 432 Goethe, 12, 339, 384, 460-61 " psychic stimulation of, 75 Gottähnlichkeit, 450 Grandfathers I. and II. (Ivenes), 80 Grebelskaja, 337 Gross, 348 " (types), 296-97 Guilt complex, association test, 107[482] Guinon and Waltke, experiment of, 10, 47 Hallucination, cryptomnesia, 91 " hypnosis in production of, 58 Hallucination téléologique, 84 Hallucinations, 11, 15, 49, 58, 282 " Helen Smith's, 63, 64 " hypnagogic, 13, 23, 62 " hypnopompic, 23, 62 " in somnambulism, 60 " intuitive, 64 " negative, 68 Hallucinatory persons, why separated, 83 Hans, little, 132 Haôma, 413 Hecker, 64 Hedonism, viii Hegel, 290 Heim, 412 Heimarmenê, 413 Herd-animal, man a, 263 " -soul, 455 Hermeneutics, 468-69 Hero, the, 462 " myth, 438 Hiawatha, 436 Hoch, 289 Hoche, 355 Hoefelt, spontaneous somnambulism, 66 Homunculus, 404 Homosexual tendencies, 165, 172, 420 Hypermnesia (footnote), 86 Hypnagogic activities, 23, 71, 204 " flashes, 22 Hypnopompical dreams, 23 Hypnosis in production of hallucination, 58 Hypnotic treatment, 6, 237 " " diametrically opposed to psychoanalysis, 207 Hypnotism, essential character of, 243 " in automatic writing, 54, 56 Hysteria, 1, 7 " case of, 385 " and extroversion, 406 Hysteric, extreme sensibility of, 85 Hysterical attack (Ivenes), ætiology of, 74 " " induced by automatism, 79 " deafness and paralysis (Breuer), 356 " delirium, 71 " dissociation, 81, 287 " forgetfulness, 72 Hysterical identification, 71[483] " somnambulism (case of Elise K.), 3 Hystero-epilepsy (Janet), 81 Hystero-epileptic attacks, 81 Hystero-hypnosis (Ivenes), 79 Idea, abstract, 438, 448 Identification with collective psyche, 420-25, 462-65 " " God, 337 " " reason, 416 Images, primordial, 410, 448 " psychic, 438 Imitation, 456 Imperialism, 399 Impersonal unconscious, 437 Importance of the unconscious, 278 " " types, 348 Incest-barrier, 230 " -wish, 462 Individual, the, a changing identity, ix " metaphysical needs of, 223 Individuality, 473, 457, 465 Individuation, 440, 456 Infantile fixation, 228, 462 " milieu, influence of, 131 " transference, 298 Infantility in primitive people, 230 Inferiority, moral, 449 Inspiration, 15 Instances of dreams analysed, 217, 219 Instinct-ego, 383 Intelligence-complex, 114 Interpolations in dreams, 176 " in rumour, 176 " v. analysis, 219 Interpretation, causal reductive, 419 " objective, 421 " subjective, 421 " synthetic, 417 Interpretation of Viennese school, one-sided, 217 Introjection, 414 Introversion, 137, 140, 288, 347, 391, 437, 401-3 " neurosis in child, 140 Intuitive hallucinations, 64 Itten, 337 Ivenes, 33-34, 68-84 " journeys on other side, 34 " mystic character, 69 " oracular sayings, 36 " race-motherhood, 39 James, William, 290-92, 401[484] " " pragmatism, 348 Janet, 46, 74, 81, 104, 232, 234, 452 " automatic writing (case of Lucie), 55 " Lucie and Léonie, 66 " Léonie, 69 Janus face, 174 Jeanne d'Arc, 63, 84 " " visions of, 63 Jonah, 436 Jung, correspondence with Loÿ, 236-277 K., Miss Elise, case of, 15 Kadi, the, 390 Kalk's case, 65 Kant, 278, 303, 339 Katatonic dementia præcox, 324 " negativism, 202 Kern-complex, 228 Kerner, 87, 88 Kerner's book, 27, 35, 93 " Prophetess of Prevorst, 27, 69 Kræpelin, 352 Kraepelin-Aschaffenburg scheme, 157 Kraft-Ebing, 7 Lapses (case of S. W.), 20-23 Laughter, symptomatic, 388 Lebensgefühl, 462 Legrand du Saulle, 66 Lehmann, 50, 51 Leibniz, 278 Lethargy hysterical (Ivenes), 74 " " (Loewenfeld), 76 Let-instinct-live theory, 379 Libido, 231, 347-48, 407, 471 " animal rôle of, 423-26 " canalisation of, 260, 274 " defined, 156, 288 " emanates from unconscious, 461 " stored-up, 234 Life, archaic view of, x Life-lines psychological, 470, 474 Literature of psychoanalysis, 154-55 Little Anna, 132-54 Little Hans, 132 Loewenfeld, 74-76 Longfellow, 436 Loÿ's correspondence with Jung, 236-77 Lumpf-theory, 147 Lying, pathological, 15, 70, 71 Macario, 64[485] Macnish's case, 11 Maeder, 337, 447 Man a herd animal, 263, 269 " hylic, etc., 405 Martian language (Helen Smith), 90 Masculinity, unconscious, 420, 427 Masochism, 165 Materia medica of filth, 243-44 Maury, 62 Mayer, Robert, 231, 411 Medical augur, 244 Medium, S. W. as, 18 Megalomania, 462 Megarian school of philosophy, 402 Melungu, 413 Memory, bad, due to repression, 446 Mental balance, 282 Mental deficiency (neurasthenic), 14 Mesnet's case, 10-11 Metaphysical needs of individual, 223 Metempsychosis, 413 Method of association, 370 Meynert, 316 Mind the, a Becoming, 341 " collective, 451 Mirror-writing, 54 Misreading, 17, 46, 48 Misunderstanding between types, 404 Mithras, religion of, 366 Moment, etiological, of neurosis, 405 Monism psychological, 464 Moral conflict, 225, 242, 247, 251 Moral effect of analytical psychology, 375-76 Mörchen, 14 Mother, adaptation to, 125, 159, 171, 232 Myers, automatic writing, 54 Mysticism, 462 Mystic science, S. W., 40-44 Myth, the, 436 " unanimity of autochthonous forms, forms of, 451 Mythology, 226 Naef's case, 8 Naïve and sentimental types, 294 Nancy school, 356 Nebuchadnezzar's dream discussed, 281 Necessity, vital, ix, 375 Negativism, 200-201 " causes of (Bleuler), 202 " katatonic, 202 Negativism, schizophrenic, 200[486] Nelken, 337 Neumann, 353 Neurasthenia, 1, 129 Neurosis, 256, 370, 375 " ætiology of, 234 " and civilisation, 224, 374 " cause of, 232, 404 " " outbreak of, 229 " counter-argument against husband, 129-31 " failure in adaptation, 234 " Freud's theory of, 227 " good effect of, 395 " introversion in child, 140 " no magical cures of, 470 " psychogenic in essence, 356 " sexual ætiology of, too narrow, 231 " the cause in present, 232 " used for power effects, 388 Neurotic, a bearer of social ideals, 271, 277 " regressive tendency of, 469 Neurotic's faith in authority, 268 " special task, 233 Nietzsche, 87, 88, 295-96, 310, 326, 343, 378, 381, 393, 414, 417, 470 Nominalism, 402 Non-ego, 416, 434 Nucleus-complex, 228 Number dreams, 292 Objective interpretation on plane of, 421 Occultism's premature conclusions, 85 Occultist literature, gnostic systems, 93 Œdipus-complex, 228, 232 Opposition to Freud's publications, 355 Ostwald, 292, 398, 402 Pairs of opposites, 417, 452 Paranoia, 128, 313 Paranoid dementia, Freud's case, 336-37 Parental duty to children, 153 " constellation, 160-75 Parties supérieures (Janet), 232, 452 Pathological cheat, psychology of, 70 " dreaming of saints, 70 Patient and doctor, personal relation, 216-219 Patients' resistances, 117, 202-05, 216 Perseveration, 106, 111 Personality of doctor, 238, 243, 259 Personal unconscious, 437, 448 Persona, 457-66, 472 Persuasion methods, 237 Perversion, sexual, 447[487] Phales, 183 Phantasies, release of, 458, 447 " sexual, 228 " unifying function of, 468 Phenomena, entoptic, 61 " of double consciousness as character formations, 84 Philosophy world, 350 Physical sensations as evidence of unconscious feelings, 405 Physician as "father," 408 Physician's own complexes, 243, 257 Pick, 70, 71 Pinel, 315 Platonic school, 402 Power, evaluation, 274 " " (Adler), 340, 394 Power standpoint, Adler on, viii, ix Predicate type, 125 Predisposition to neurosis, 233, 359 Press of ideas, 203 Preyer, 51 Primitive non-differentiation, 453 Primordial images, 410, 414, 448 Prism, parable of, 252 Problems of the day, sexual, 276, 367-77 Projection, 427-33 " on doctor, 273, 407-8 " of phantasies on to parents, 409 " to religions, 435 Prophetess of Prevorst, 27, 37, 69, 91-93 Proust's case, 9-11 Prudishness, 154 " case of, 119 Pseudologia phantastica, 72 Pseudological representation, 71 Psyche, collective, 431, 455, 458, 472 Psychic images, 438 " life of child, 132-56 " material unconscious, 279 Psychoanalysis a high moral task, 235 " defined, 206, 256 " literature of, 154-55 " prejudices against, 206-07 " technique of, 257 Psychoanalyst, education of, 244, 258, 266 Psychocatharsis, 237 Psychographic communications, 25 Psychological disturbances, new theory of, 404 " ego and non-ego, 434 " realities, consolation of, 435 Psychological types, study of, 287-98, 391 Psychology, deep (Bleuler), 354[488] " of dreams, 299-311 " of individual, 464 " of pathological cheat, 70 " of rumour, 176 Puberty, changes in character at, 67 " dreams of, 74, 178 " of psychopathic, 68 " somnambulic attacks at, 84 " want of balance at, 45 Race-motherhood (Ivenes), 39 Rapport effective with hysterics, 81, 287 Rationalism, 431, 464 " antithesis of, 416 Reaction-times, 98-102 " -type, 157 " " hysterical, 97 " " normal, 96 Realism, 402 Reasoning method of Dubois, 208 Reconstruction of life, 236 Reflection, power of, 397 Regression, 230, 232, 469 Regressive extroversion, 288 " introversion, 289 Reincarnation (Ivenes), 37-9 Renaudin's case, Folie circulaire, 67 Repressed contents to be retained in consciousness, 447 " thoughts, independent growth of, 82 Repression, 446 " new edition of, 461 Reproduction experiment, 116 Resistances, patients', 117, 202-05, 216 " productive of distortion, 285 Revenge, unconscious, 190 Revolution, French, 431 Reynolds, Mary, case of (change of character), 65 Ribot, 66 Richer, 66 Richet, 92 " definition of somnambulism, 49 Rieger, 66 Riegl, 293 Riklin, 149 Rumour, case of, 176 " interpolations in, 176 " not conscious invention, 178 S. W., case of, 16-45 Saints, pathological dreaming of, 70 Sallust, 231[489] Schiller, 294 Schisms, 453 Schizophrenia, 201, 312, 447, 459 " Bleuler's summary, 203 Schizophrenic introversion, 204 " splitting, 201 Scholasticism, 340, 352, 373 School, Megarian v. Platonic, 402 " the Nancy, 356 " " Valentinian, 405 " " Zürich, 355 Schoolmaster view, 264 Schopenhauer, 295, 368, 447-48 Schreber case, 337, 343, 346, 440 Schüle, 61 Semiotics, vii, 468 Semi-somnambulic states, 23 Semi-somnambulism (S. W.), 23, 37, 48-9 Sexual enlightenment of children, 152, 247 " morality, 380 " perversion, 447 " phantasies, 228 " problems of the day, 277, 367-77 Sexual question, Forel, 365 Sexual surrogates, 172 Sexuality, importance of infantile, 172 " primitive man's view of, 306 Sexualisation of thought, 204 Significance of the father, 156 " " " case 1 160 " " " " 2 162 " " " " 3 165 " " " " 4 170 " of number dreams, 191 Slips of tongue, 179 Smith, Helen, case of, 61, 63-64, 72, 91 Socrates, 332, 374 Somnambulic attacks, S. W., 28 " " origin of, 75 " dialogues, 18 " personalities, 30-33 Somnambulism, 2, 8, 16, 18, 240 Somnambulist's suggestibility, 92 " thought in plastic images, 60 Spielrein, 337 Standpoint, causal, final, viii Stanley Hall, Dr., 94 Star-dwellers, 35, 36 Stekel, 191, 259, 261 Stereotypic acts, 282 Stimulus word, 101[490] " " repetition of, 105 Study of psychological types, 287-98, 391-403 Subconscious personality, how constructed, 55 " personalities, Grandfather I. and II., 80 Subjective interpretation of dreams, 421 " roots of dreams, 73 Sublimation, 140, 397-99 Sucking as sexual act, 231 Suggestibility, influence of darkness on, 59 " somnambulist's, 92 Suggestion, analysis not a method of, 207 " by analyst, 261, 265, 266, 456, 469 Superman, 414 Super-personal unconscious, 426 Superstition, scientific dread of, 211 " unconscious, 280 Swedenborg, 37 " visions of, 63 Symbol interpreted semiotically, vii, 468 " not fixed, 218, 221, 265, 308 " psychological, two aspects of, viii " value of religious, xi Symbolic meaning of sexual phantasies, 222 Symbolism, 198, 224, 337 " an experience, 222 " book of Tobias, 174 " chestnuts, meaning of, 183 " God and devil, 174 " of dreams, 59, 218, 308 " value of religious, 224 Sympathy (extraversion), 293 Symptomatic acts, 46, 179, 281 " laughter, 388 Synesius, 417 Synthetic procedure, 417 Systematic anæsthesia, 68 Table movements, 85 Table-turning, 17, 24, 50 Tachypnœa (case of S. W.), 19 Taylor, 413 Teleology, meaning in double consciousness, 84 Telepathic thought-reading, 266 Tender-minded and tough-minded, 290, 402 Theories new, as caustics, 394 " " of psychogenic disturbances, 404 " " reductive, 394 Thought of extroverts, 403 Thought-feelings, 411, 461 Thought-pressure, 204 Thought-reading, 85-92[491] Thought, somnambulic, in plastic images, 60 " transference, 24, 51, 56 Till Eulenspiegel, 387 Tongue, slips of, 179 Tower of Babel, 446 Transcendental function, 417, 436, 441 Transference, 245-46, 270, 289, 407-13, 429, 435 " infantile, 298 " positive and negative, 270-72 Trauma, sexual, 227, 242, 358, 361-62 " theory (Charcot), 361 Trumbull Ladd, 62 Truth, what is it, 252, 256 Twilight states, 71, 81 Type, complex, 114 " definition, 114 " extroverted, 288, 391, 439, 401 " introverted, 288, 391, 439, 401 " objective, 11 " predicate, 115 Types (Finck), 296 " (Gross), 296-97 " importance of, 348 " marriages between, 402 " naïve and sentimental, 294 " psychological, 287, 391, 439, 401 Tough and tender-minded, 290 Typical themes of dreams, 310 Unconscious, absolute, 435 " analysable to a finish, 461 " an extension of the individual, vi " assimilation of, 449 " compensation, 284 " cannot be emptied, 447 " cause of neurosis, 404 " feelings as physical sensations, 405 " homosexuality, 420 " impersonal, 437, 472 " importance of the, 278 " personal, 437, 448, 456, 472 " personalities (Ivenes), 77 " prospective aspect of, 442 " psychic material, 279 " source of libido, 461 " " " wisdom, 442 " superstition, 280 " uprush of, 459 Understanding, prospective, 338, 442 Understanding, retrospective, 338[492] Unifying function of phantasies, 468 Value of religious symbolism, 224 "Values," 392, 396, 404 Viennese school, one-sided interpretations of, 217 Vices and virtues, collective, 453 Virtues, unconscious counterparts, 389 Vischer, 348-49 Visions, Benvenuto Cellini, 63 " hypnagogic, 63, 71 " of Jeanne d'Arc, 63 " of S. W., 21 " of Swedenborg, 63 Visual images, 60 " v. auditory hallucinations, 61 "Vital necessity," ix Voisin, 66 Volitional meaning of dreams, 222 Wagner, 383 Wandering impulse, cases of, 9 War, vi, xi, 398, 399, 416 Warringer, 293-94 Washing mania, 246 Wernicke, 316 Westphal, 13 Will, 397-99 " to power, 381, 388, 458 Wisdom of unconscious, 442 Wish-phantasies, 447 Witch-sleep, 75 Word predicate, type defined, 158 Word-presentation, 53 Works of the Zürich school, 345-46 World-philosophy, 350 Wundt, 352 Zarathustra, 381 Zagreus, 417 Zschokke, 92 Zürich school, 355 " " works of, 345-46 THE END

Baillière, Tindall & Cox, 8, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, W.C.

FOOTNOTES: [1] Thesis published in 1902. Translator, M. D. Eder, M.D.

[2] Arch. f. Psych., XXXIII. p. 928.

[3] Richer, "Études cliniques sur l'hystéro-épilepsie," p. 483.

[4] Idem, l.c., p. 487; cp. also Erler, Allg. Zeitschrift f. Psychiatrie, XXXV. p. 28; also Culerre, Allg. Zeit. f. Psych., XLVI., Litteraturbericht 356.

[5] Charcot and Guinon, "Progrès méd.," 1891.

[6] "Somnambulism must be conceived as systematised partial waking, in which a limited, connected presentation-complex takes place. Contrary presentations do not occur, at the same time the mental activity is carried on with increased energy within the limited sphere of the waking" (Lowenfeld, "Hypnotism," 1901, p. 289).

[7] Azam, "Hypnotisme—Double conscience," etc., Paris, 1887. For similar cases, cf. Forbes Winslow, "On Obscure Diseases," p. 335.

[8] Trib. méd., March, 1890.

[9] Annal. méd. psychol., Jan., Feb., 1892.

[10] "Principles of Psychology," p. 391.

[11] Mesnet, "De l'automatisme de la mémoire et du souvenir dans le somnambulisme pathologique." Union médicale, Juillet, 1874. Cf. Binet, "Les Altérations de la personnalité," p. 37. Cf. also Mesnet, "Somnambulisme spontané dans ses rapports avec l'hystérie," Arch. de Neurol., Nr. 69, 1892.

[12] Arch. de Neur., Mai, 1891.

[13] "Philosophy of Sleep," 1830. Cf. Binet, "Les Altérations," etc.

[14] Goethe: Zur Naturwissenschaft in Allgemeinen. "I was able, when I closed my eyes and bent my head, to conjure the imaginary picture of a flower. This flower did not retain its first shape for a single instant, but unfolded out of itself new flowers composed of coloured petals and green leaves. They were not natural flowers, but phantastic ones. They were as regular in shape as a sculptor's rosettes. It was impossible to fix the creation which sprang up, nevertheless the dream-image lasted as long as I desired it to last; it neither faded nor grew stronger."

[15] C. Westphal, "Die Agoraphobie," Arch. f. Psych., III. p. 158.

[16] Pick, Arch. f. Psych., XV. p. 202.

[17] Allgem. Zeitschr. f. Psych., XXI. p. 78.

[18] "Neurasthenische Krisen," Münch. Med. Wochenschr., März, 1902, "When the patients first describe their crises they generally give a picture that makes us think of epileptic depression. I have often been deceived in this way."

[19] Mörchen, "Ueber Dämmerzustände," Marburg, 1901, Fall. 32, p. 75.

[20] It must be noted that a frequent guest in S. W.'s home was a gentleman who spoke high German.

[21] Ivenes is the mystical name of the medium's somnambulic self.

[22] "The Major Symptoms of Hysteria." New York: The Macmillan Company.

[23] See page 17.

[24] Binet, "Les altérations de la personnalité."

[25] Richet, Rev. Phil., 1884, II. p. 650.

[26] Binet, "Les altérations de la personnalité," p. 139.

[27] Complete references in Binet, "Les altérations," p. 197, footnote.

[28] As is known, during the waking-state the hands and arms are never quite still, but are constantly subjected to fine tremors. Preyer, Lehmann, and others have proved that these movements are influenced in a high degree by the predominant presentations. Preyer shows that the outstretched hand drew small, more or less faithful, copies of figures which were vividly presented. These purposeful tremors can be demonstrated in a very simple way by experiments with the pendulum.

[29] Cf. Preyer, "Die Erklärung des Gedankenlesens," Leipzig, 1886.

[30] Analogous to certain hypnotic experiments in the waking state. Cf. Janet's experiment when by a whispered suggestion he induced a patient to lie flat on the ground without being aware of it ("L'Automatisme").

[31] Charcot's scheme of word-picture combination: 1, Auditory image. 2, Visual image. 3, Motor image., Speech image., Writing image. In Gilbert Ballet, "Die innerliche Sprache," Leipzig and Wien, 1890.

[32] Bain says, "Thought is a suppressed word or a suppressed act" ("The Senses and the Intellect").

[33] Proceedings of S.P.R., 1885. "Automatic writing."

[34] Pierre Janet, "L'Automatisme Psychologique," p. 317, Paris, 1889.

[35] "Les Altérations," p. 132.

[36] "Une fois baptisé, le personnage inconscient est plus déterminé et plus net, il montre mieux ses caractères psychologiques" (Janet, "L'Automatisme," p. 318).

[37] Cf. the corresponding experiments of Binet and Féré. See Binet, "Les Altérations."

[38] Cf. Corresponding tests by Flournoy: "Des Indes à la planète Mara. Etude sur un cas de somnambulisme avec glossolalie." Paris and Genève, 1900.

[39] Cf. Hagen, "Zur Theorie des Hallucinationen," Allg. Zeitschrift f. Psych., XXV. 10.

[40] Binet, "Les Altérations," p. 157.

[41] "Die Traumdeutung," 1900. ["The Interpretation of Dreams," translated by Dr. A. A. Brill. London: Allen & Unwin, 1918.]

[42] Flournoy, l.c., p. 55.

[43] Schüle, "Handbuch," p. 134.

[44] J. Müller, quoted Allg. Zeit. f. Psych., XXV. 41.

[45] Spinoza hypnopompically saw a "nigrum et scabiosum Brasilianum."—J. Müller, l.c.

In Goethe's "The Elective Affinities," at times in the half darkness Ottilie saw the figure of Edward in a dimly-lit spot. Compare also Cardanus, "imagines videbam ab imo lecti, quasi e parvulis annulis arcisque constantes, arborum, belluarum, hominum, oppidorum, instructarum acierum, bellicorum et musicorum instrumentorum aliorumque huius generis adscendentes, vicissimque descendentes, aliis atque aliis succedentibus" (Hieronymus Cardanus, "De subtilitate rerum").

[46] "Le sommeil et les rêves," p. 134.

[47] G. Trumbull Ladd, "Contribution to the Psychology of Visual Dreams," Mind, April, 1892.

[48] Hecker says of the same condition, "There is a simple elemental vision, even without sense presentation, through over-excitation of mental activity, not leading to phantastic imagery, that is the vision of light free from form, a manifestation of the visual organs stimulated from within" ("Ueber Visionen," Berlin, 1848).

[49] Jules Quicherat, "Procès de condamnation et de réhabilitation de Jeanne d'Arc, dite La Pucelle," etc.

[50] Hagen, l.c., p. 57.

[51] Goethe, "Benvenuto Cellini."

[52] Flournoy, l.c., p. 32 ff.

[53] Flournoy, l.c., p. 51.

[54] Allg. Zeit. f. Psych., IV. 139.

[55] Ibid., VI. 285.

[56] Coll. Physicians of Philadelphia, April 4, 1888. Also Harper's Magazine, 1869. Abstracted in extenso in William James's "Principles of Psychology," 1891, p. 391 ff.

[57] Cf. Emminghaus, "Allg. Psychopathologie," p. 129, Ogier Ward's case.

[58] Schroeder von der Kalk, "Pathologie und Therapie der Geisteskrankheiten," p. 31: Braunschweig, 1863. Quoted in Allg. Zeit. f. Psych., XXII., p. 405.

[59] Cf. Donath, "Ueber Suggestibilität," Wiener mediz. Presse, 1832, No. 31. Quoted Arch. f. Psych., XXXII., p. 335.

[60] Hoefelt. Allg. Zeit. f. Psych., XLIX., p. 200.

[61] Azam, "Hypnotisme, Double Conscience," etc.

[62] Bourru et Burot, "Changements de Personnnalité," 1888.

[63] Moll, "Zeit. f. Hypn.," I., 306.

[64] Rieger, "Der Hypnotismus," 1884, p. 190 ff.

[65] Morton Prince, "An Experimental Study of Visions," Brain, 1898.

[66] Quoted by Ribot, "Die Persönlichkeit."

[67] Ibid., p. 69.

[68] Flournoy, l.c., p. 59.

[69] "Les rêves somnambuliques, sortes de romans de l'imagination subliminale, analogues à ces histoires continues, que tant de gens se racontent à eux-mêmes et dont ils sont généralement les héros dans leurs moments de far niente ou d'occupations routinières qui n'offrent qu'un faible obstacle aux rêveries intérieures. Constructions fantaisistes, millefois reprises et poursuivies, rarement achevées, où la folle du logis se donne libre carrière et prend sa revanche du terne et plat terre à terre des réalités quotidiennes." (Flournoy, l.c., p. 8).

[70] Delbruck, "Die Pathologische Lüge."

[71] Forel, "Hypnotisme."

[72] Pick, "Ueber Path. Träumerei und ihre Beziehung zur Hysterie," Jahr. f. Psych. und Neur., XIV., p. 280.

[73] Bohn, "Ein Fall von doppelten Bewusstsein Diss." Breslau, 1898.

[74] Görres, l.c.

[75] Cf. Behr, Allg. Zeit. f. Psych., LVI., 918, and Ballet, l.c., p. 44.

[76] Cf. Redlich, Allg. Zeit. f. Psych., LVII., 66.

[77] Erler, Allg. Zeit. f. Psych., XXXV., 21.

[78] Binet, "Les hystériques ne sont pas pour nous que des sujets d'élection agrandissant des phénomènes qu'on doit nécessairement retrouver à quelque degré chez une foule d'autres personnes qui ne sont ni atteintes ni même effleurées par la nêvrose hystérique". ("Les altérations," p. 29)

[79] Delbrück, l.c., and Redlich, l.c. Cf. the development of delusions in epileptic stupor mentioned by Mörchen, "Essay on Stupor," pp. 51 and 59, 1901.

[80] Cf. Flournoy's very interesting supposition as to the origin of the Hindu cycle of H.S.: "Je ne serais pas étonné que la remarque de Martes sur la beauté des femmes du Kanara ait été le clou, l'atome crochu, qui a piqué l'attention subliminale et l'a très naturellement rivée sur cette unique passage avec les deux ou trois lignes consécutives, à l'exclusion de tout le contexte environnant beaucoup moins intérressant" (L.c., p. 285).

[81] Janet says, "From forgetfulness there arises frequently, even if not invariably, the so-called lying of hysteria. The same explanation holds good of a hysteric's whims, changes of mood, ingratitude—in a word, of his inconstancy. The link between the past and present, which gives to the whole personality its seriousness and poise, depends to a large extent upon memory" ("Mental States," etc., p. 67).

[82] Freud, "The Interpretation of Dreams," p. 469.

[83] Binet, l.c., p. 84.

[84] "Une autre considération rapproche encore ces deux états, c'est que les actes subconscients ont un effet en quelque sorte hypnotisant et contribuant par eux-mêmes à amener le somnambulisme" ("L'Automatisme," p. 329).

[85] Janet, l.c., p. 329.

[86] In literature Gustave Flaubert has made use of a similar falling asleep at the moment of extreme excitement in his novel "Salambo." When the hero, after many struggles, has at last captured Salambo, he suddenly falls asleep just as he touches her virginal bosom.

[87] Perhaps the cases of paralysis of the emotions also belong here. Cf. Baetz, Allg. Zeitsch. f. Psych., LVIII., p. 717.

[88] Allg. Zeitsch. f. Psych., XXX., p. 17.

[89] Arch. f. Psych., XXIII., p. 59.

[90] Cf. here Flournoy, l.c., 65.

[91] Arch. f. Psych., XXII., p. 737.

[92] Ibid., 734.

[93] Bonamaison, "Un cas remarquable d'Hypnose spontanée," etc.—Rev. de l'Hypnotisme, Fév. 1890, p. 234.

[94] Arch. f. Psych., XXII., 737.

[95] Ibid.

[96] Ibid., XXIII., p. 59 ff.

[97] Cf. Lehman's investigations of involuntary whispering, "Aberglaube und Zauberei," 1898, p. 385 ff.

[98] Thus Flournoy writes, "Dans un premier essai Léopold (H.S.'s control-spirit) ne réussit qu'à donner ses intimations et sa pronunciation à Helen: après une séance où elle avait vivement souffert dans la bouche et le cou comme si on lui travaillait ou lui enlevait les organes vocaux, elle se mit à causer très naturellement."

[99] Loewenfeld, Arch. f. Psych., XXIII., 60.

[100] This behaviour recalls Flournoy's observations: "Whilst H.S. as a somnambule speaks as Marie Antoinette, the arms of H.S. do not belong to the somnambulic personality, but to the automatism Leopold, who converses by gestures with the observer" (Flournoy, l.c., p. 125).

[101] Dessoir, "Das Doppel-Ich," II. Aufl., 1896, p. 29.

[102] Janet, "L'anesthésie hystérique," Arch. d'Neur., 69, 1892.

[103] Graeter, Zeit. f. Hypnotismus, VIII., p. 129.

[104] The hysterical attack is not a purely psychical process. By the psychic processes only a pre-formed mechanism is set free, which has nothing to do with psychic processes in and for themselves (Karplus, Jahr. f. Psych., XVII.).

[105] Carl Hauptmann, in his drama "Die Bergschmiede," has made use of the objectivation of certain linked association-complexes. In this play the treasure-seeker is met on a gloomy night by a hallucination of his entire better self.

[106] Freud, "The Interpretation of Dreams." See also Breuer and Freud's "Studies on Hysteria," 1895.

[107] Pelman, Allg. Zeit. f. Psych., XXI., p. 74.

[108] Allg. Zeit. f. Psych., XXII., p. 407.

[109] Flournoy, l.c., p. 28.

[110] Binet, "Les Altérations," p. 125. Cf. also Loewenfeld's statements on the subject in "Hypnotismus," 1901.

[111] Cryptomnesia must not be regarded as synonymous with Hypermnesia; by the latter term is meant the abnormal quickening of the power of recollection which reproduces the memory-pictures as such.

[112] "Has any one at the end of the nineteenth century any clear conception of what the poets in vigorous ages called inspiration? If not, I will describe it. The slight remnant of superstition by itself would scarcely have sufficed to reject the idea of being merely incarnation, merely mouthpiece, merely the medium of superior forces. The concept revelation in the sense that quite suddenly, with ineffable certainty and delicacy, something is seen, something is heard, something convulsing and breaking into one's inmost self, does but describe the fact. You hear—you do not seek; you accept—asking not who is the giver. Like lightning, flashes the thought, compelling without hesitation as to form—I have had no choice" (Nietzsche's "Works," vol. III., p. 482.).

[113] "There is an ecstasy so great that the immense strain of it is sometimes relaxed by a flood of tears, during which one's steps now involuntarily rush, and anon involuntarily lag. There is the feeling that one is utterly out of hand, with the very distinct consciousness of an endless number of fine thrills and titillations descending to one's very toes;—there is a depth of happiness in which the most painful and gloomy parts do not act as antitheses to the rest, but are produced and required as necessary shades of colour in such an overflow of light" (Nietzsche, "Ecce Homo," vol. XVII. of English translation, by A. M. Ludovici, p. 103).

[114] Eckermann, "Conversations with Goethe," vol. III.

[115] Cf. Goerres, "Die christliche Mystik."

[116] Bresler, "Kulturhistorischer Beitrag zur Hysterie," Allg. Zeits. f. Psych. LIII., p. 333.

[117] Zündel, "Biographie Blumhardt's."

[118] "Le baragouin rapide et confus dont on ne peut jamais obtenir la signification, probablement parce qu'il n'en a en effet aucune, n'est qu'un pseudo-langage (p. 193) analogue au baragouinage par lequel les enfants se donnent parfois dans leurs jeux l'illusion qu'ils parlent chinois, indien ou 'sauvage'" (p. 152, Flournoy, l.c.).

[119] See p. 63.

[120] Flournoy, l.c., p. 378.

[121] For a case of this kind see Krafft Ebing, "Lehrbuch," 4th edition, p. 578.

[122] The limitation of the associative processes and the concentration of attention upon a definite sphere of presentation can also lead to the development of new ideas, which no effort of will in the waking state would have been able to accomplish (Loewenfeld, "Hypnotismus," p. 289).

[123] Zschokke, "Eine Selbstschau," III., Aufl. Aarau, 1843, p. 227 ff.

[124] Gilles de la Tourette says, "We have seen somnambulic girls, poor, uneducated, quite stupid in the waking state, whose whole appearance altered so soon as they were sent to sleep. Whilst previously they were boring, now they are lively, alert, sometimes even witty" (Cf. Loewenfeld, l.c., p. 132).

[125] Lectures delivered at the celebration of the twentieth anniversary of the opening of Clark University, September, 1909; translated from the German by Dr. A. A. Brill, of New York. Reprinted by kind permission of Dr. Stanley Hall.

[126] The selection of these stimulus words was naturally made for the German language only, and would probably have to be considerably changed for the English language.

[127] Denotes misunderstanding.

[128] Denotes repetition of the stimulus words.

[129] Denotes repetition of the stimulus words.

[130] + denotes Reproduced unchanged.

[131] Denotes misunderstanding.

[132] Denotes repetition of the stimulus words.

[133] Denotes misunderstanding.

[134] Denotes repetition of the stimulus words.

[135] Denotes repetition of the stimulus words.

[136] Denotes repetition of the stimulus words.

[137] Denotes repetition of the stimulus words.

[138] Denotes repetition of the stimulus words.

[139] Reaction times are always given in fifths of a second.

[140] "Studies in Word Association," in course of publication.

[141] "Jahrbuch für Psychoanalytische und Psychopathologische Forschungen," Band I. Deuticke, Wien, 1902.

[142] This lecture was originally published in the "Jahrbuch für Psychoanalytische und Psychopathologische Forschungen," Band II.

[143] "Jahrbuch für Psychoanalytische und Psychopathologische Forschungen," Band I. Deuticke, Wien, 1902.

[144] Jung: "The Psychology of Dementia Præcox," translated by Peterson and Brill. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, Monograph Series, No. 3.

[145] This wish to sit up with the father and mother until late at night often plays a great part later in a neurosis.

[146] A doll from Punch and Judy.

[147] See analysis of a five-year-old boy, Jahrbuch f. Psychoanalytische u. Psychopathologische Forschungen, vol. I.

[148] Franz Riklin, "Fulfilment of Wishes and Symbolism in Fairy Tales."

[149] Jahrbuch für Psychoanalytische und Psychopathologische Forschungen, vol. I., 1909. Translator, Dr. M. D. Eder.

[150] Freud, especially "The Interpretation of Dreams."

[151] Libido is what earlier psychologists called "will" or "tendency." The Freudian expression is denominatio a potiori. Jahrbuch, vol. I., p. 155, 1909.

[152] Sommer, "Familienforschung und Vererbungslehre." Barth, Leipzig, 1907. Joerger, "Die Familie, Zero," Arch. für Rassen u. Gesellschaftsbiologie, 1905. M. Ziermer (pseudonym), "Genealogische Studien über die Vererbung geistiger Eigenschaften," ibid., 1908.

[153] For the importance of the mother, see "The Psychology of the Unconscious." C. G. Jung. Moffart, Yard and Co., New York.

[154] E. Fürst, "Statistische Untersuchungen über Wortassoziationen und über familiäre Übereinstimmung im Reaktionstypus bei Ungebildeten. Beitrag der diagnostischen Assoziationsstudien herausgegeben von Dr. C. G. Jung," Journal für Psychologie und Neurologie, Bd. II., 1907. (Reprinted in volume two of the Joint Reports.)

[155] By this type I understand reactions where the response to the stimulus-word is a predicate subjectively accentuated instead of an objective relation, e.g., Flower, pleasant; frog, horrible; piano, terrible; salt, bad; singing, sweet; cooking, useful (see p. 124).

[156] Cf. Vigouroux et Jaqueliers, "La contagion mentale," Chapitre VI. Doin, Paris, 1905.

[157] Between whiles we believe ourselves masters of our acts at any given moment. But when we look back along our life's path and fix our eyes chiefly upon our unfortunate steps and their consequences, often we cannot understand how we came to do this and leave that undone, and it seems as if some power outside ourselves had directed our steps. Shakespeare says;

"Fate show thy force: ourselves we do not owe; What is decreed must be, and be this so!" Schopenhauer, "Ueber die anscheinende Absichtlichkeit im Schicksale des Einzelnen. Parerga und Paralipomena."

[158] This was seen in the Amsterdam Congress of 1907, where a prominent French savant assured us that the Freudian theory was but "une plaisanterie." This gentleman has demonstrably neither read Freud's latest works nor mine, he knows less about the subject than a little child. This opinion, so admirably grounded, ended with the applause of a well-known German professor. One can but bow before such thoroughness. At the same Congress another well-known German neurologist immortalised his name with the following intellectual reasoning: "If hysteria on Freud's conception does indeed rest on repressed affects, then the whole German army must be hysterical."

[159] Cf. Freud, "Zeitschrift für Religionspsychologie," 1907.

[160] Journal of Abnormal Psychology, vol. III., p. 219, 1908.

[161] "Zentralblatt für Psychoanalyse," 1911, vol. I., p. 81.

[162] Author's italics.

[163] This also holds good for any objects that are repeated.

[164] See "The Association Method," Lecture III.

[165] "Zentralblatt für Psychoanalyse," 1911, p. 567. Translator, Dr. M. D. Eder.

[166] The husband's principal conflict is a pronounced mother-complex.

[167] Flournoy, "Des Indes à la Planète Mars." Idem: "Nouvelles observations sur un cas de somnambulisme," Arch. de Pyschol., vol. I.

[168] See chapter I, p. 86.

[169] "Jahrbuch für psychoanalytische und psychopathologische Forschungen," vol. III. 1912. Translator, Dr. M. D. Eder.

[170] Autism (Bleuler) = Auto-erotism (Freud). For some time I have employed the concept of introversion for this condition.

[171] Hence the replacing of the complex by its corresponding symbol.

[172] See "Psychology of Dementia Præcox," chapters iv. and v.

[173] Reprinted from the Transactions of the Psycho-Medical Society, August 5th, 1913.

[174] See "Psychology of the Unconscious."

[175] Paper given before the 17th International Medical Congress, London, 1913.

[176] Translated by Mrs. Edith Eder.

[177] "Psychoanalysis." Nervous and Mental Disease, No. 19. Monograph series.

[178] See Author's preface to "The Psychology of Dementia Præcox."

[179] Thus a patient, who had been treated by a young colleague without very much result, once said to me: "Certainly I made great progress with him, and I am much better than I was. He tried to analyse my dreams. It's true he never understood them, but he took so much trouble over them. He is really a good doctor."

[180] Defined in the Freudian sense, as the transference to the doctor of infantile and sexual phantasies. A more advanced conception of the transference perceives in it the important process of emotional approach [Einfühlung] which at first makes use of infantile and sexual analogies.

[181] "Selected Papers on Hysteria and other Psychoneuroses." Monograph Series, No. 4, last edition.

[182] Paper given before the Section of Neurology and Psychological Medicine, Aberdeen, 1914. Reprinted from the British Medical Journal, by kind permission of the Editor, Dr. Dawson Williams.

[183] Delivered at the Psychoanalytical Congress, Munich, 1913. Translated from Archives de Psychologie, by kind permission of the Editor, Dr. Claparède. Translator, C. E. Long.

[184] "The concept of energy is that which comes nearest to the concept of libido. Libido can perhaps be described as "effect," or "capacity for effect." It is capable of transformation from one form to another. The metamorphosis can be sudden, as when one function replaces another in a moment of danger; or it can be gradual, as we see it in the process of sublimation, where the libido is led over a long and difficult path through a variety of forms into a different function."—Mary Moltzer.

[185] "Pragmatism," Chapter I.

[186] "Pragmatism," ch. i., p. 14.

[187] W. Ostwald "Grosse Männer," Leipzig, 1910 (11th Lecture, "Classics and Romanticists"). See also his contribution, "A propos de la Biologie du Savant," Bibliothèque Universelle, Oct., 1910.

[188] Nietzsche, "The Birth of Tragedy," trans. Wm. A. Haussmann.

[189] Finck, "Der deutsche Sprachbon als Aus druck, deutscher Weltanschauung." Marburg, 1899.

[190] Gross, "Die zerebrale Sekundärfonktion." Leipsig, 1902.

[191] Adler, "Über den nervösen Charakter." Wiesbaden, 1912.

[192] This lecture was prepared for the Berne Medical Congress, 1914, postponed on the outbreak of war. Translator, Dora Hecht.

[193] "The Psychology of the Unconscious" ("Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido"). Moffat, Yard & Co.

[194] First Edition, 1908 = Part I. (unaltered); Second Edition, 1914 = Part II. Translator, M. D. Eder.

[195] "The Psychology of Dementia Præcox," translated by Brill and Peterson, Monograph Series of the Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, New York.

[196] Bresler, "Kulturhistorischer Beitrag zur Hysterie." Allg. Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Bd. LIII., p. 333. Zündel, "Biographie Blumhardts."

[197] Central Asylum and University Psychiatric Clinic in Zürich.

[198] In psychiatry "inadequate" is employed to denote disproportion between feeling and idea whether in excess or the reverse.

[199] I am indebted for this example to my colleague Dr. Abraham of Berlin.

[200] As one might say in England, "a Bond Street dressmaker."

[201] This is an addition to the second edition, 1914.

[202] "The Psychology of Dementia Præcox."

[203] Jahrbuch für psychoanalytische Forschung, vol. III. pp. 9 and 558.

[204] Comp. also Ferenczi: "Über die Rolle der Homosexualität in der Pathogenese der Paranoia," Jahrb., III., p. 101.

[205] Maeder: "Psychologische Untersuchungen an Dementia præcox Kranken," Jahrbuch f. psychoanalyt. Forsch., II., p. 185.

[206] Spielrein: "Über den psychologischen Inhalt eines Falles von Schizophrene," l.c., III., p. 329 ff.

[207] Nelken: "Analytische Beobachtungen über Phantasien eines Schizophrenen," l.c., IV., p. 505 ff.

[208] Grebelskaja: "Psychologische Analyse eines Paranoiden," l.c., IV., p. 116 ff.

[209] Itten: "Beiträge zur Psychologie der Dementia præcox," l.c., p. V., 1 ff.

[210] Nietzsche, "Thus spake Zarathustra."

[211] "Quelques faits d'imagination créatrice subconsciente," Miss Miller, vol. V., p. 36.

[212] Here "objective" understanding is not identical with causal understanding.

[213] This energy may also be designated as hormé. Hormé is a Greek word [Greek: hormê]—force, attack, press, impetuosity, violence, urgency, zeal. It is related to Bergson's "élan vital." The concept hormé is an energic expression for psychological values.

[214] See p. 287.

[215] "Die zerebrale Sekundärfunktion." Leipzig, 1902.

[216] New Edition, 1917. Translated by Miss Dora Hecht.

[217] Bleuler, "Die Psychoanalyse Freuds." Jahrbuch für psychoanalytische Forschungen, vol. II., 1910.

[218] Breuer and Freud, "Selected Papers on Hysteria and other Psychoneuroses." "Nervous and Mental Disease," Monograph series, No. 4.

[219] Freud, "Sammlung kleiner Schriften zur Neurosenlehre." Deuticke: Wien.

[220] Freud, "The Interpretation of Dreams," George Allen.

[221] Freud, "Three Contributions to the Sexual Theory." Monograph Series.

[222] Cp. Breuer and Freud, "Selected Papers on Hysteria."

[223] Breuer and Freud, "Selected Papers on Hysteria and other Psychoneuroses."

[224] For further particulars of this case see Jung, "The Theory of Psychoanalysis."

[225] We may still apply to love the saying: "The heaven above, the heaven below, The sky above, the sky below, All things above, all things below, Succeed and prosper" (Old Mystic). Mephistopheles expresses the idea when he describes himself as "Part of that power which still produceth good, whilst ever scheming ill."

[226] "Love" is used in that larger sense of the word, which indeed belongs to it by right; it does not mean "mere sexuality."

[227] Compare Jung, "Diagnostiche Associationsstudien." Leipzig: J. A. Barth. 2 volumes.

[228] The theory of "Complexes" is set out in "Psychology of Dementia præcox," Jung.

[229] Freud, "The Interpretation of Dreams." James Allen.

[230] The rules of dream-analysis, the laws of the structure of the dream and its symbolism, form almost a science; this is one of the most important chapters of the psychology of the unconscious whose comprehension requires very arduous study.

[231] Compare Jung, "The Psychology of the Unconscious."

[232] Thus spake Zarathustra, p. 40.

[233] The German "Auslebetheorie."

[234] "Ueber den nervösen Charakter."

[235] For a preliminary communication upon the subject see page 287.

[236] "The Philosophy of Values."

[237] "Pragmatism."

[238] "Grosse Männer" ("Great Men").

[239] Furneaux Jordan: "Character as seen in Body and Parentage." London, 1896.

[240] I purposely describe only the two types here. Obviously, the possibility of the existence of other types is not thereby excluded. Other possibilities are known to us. I refrain from mentioning them, with a view to limiting the material.

[241] The Monist, vol. xvi. p. 363.

[242] The German name for crab (Krebs) is the same as that for cancer.

[243] A parallel conception of the two kinds of interpretation is found in a commendable book by Silberer: "Probleme der Mystik und ihrer Symbolik" ("Problems of Mysticism and their Symbolism").

[244] "Halb zog sie ihn, halb sank er hin," etc.

[245] I have also termed this procedure the "hermeneutic method." See page 468-9.

[246] "Das Zeitalter des Sonnengottes" ("The Age of the Sun-god").

[247] I have treated the parallels of hero-myths in great detail in "The Psychology of the Unconscious."

[248] "Denkwürdigkeiten eines Nervenkranken" ("Memoirs of a Neurasthenic Patient").

[249] Lecture given before the Zürich School for Analytical Psychology, 1916.

[250] In a certain sense the "likeness to God" is always a priori present even before analysis, not only in the neurotic, but also in the normal individual, with the difference only that the normal individual is effectively separated from the perception of the unconscious, whilst this separation becomes increasingly impossible to the neurotic. In consequence of his special sensitiveness, the neurotic is a priori more closely affected by the processes of the unconscious than is the normal person, wherefore the God-Almightiness becomes more distinct in him than in the normal individual. By means of the knowledge of the unconscious acquired through analysis the "God-likeness" is increased.

[251] Pp. 69 and 95.

[252] The collective mind represents collective thought, the collective soul represents collective feeling, and the collective psyche represents the general collective psychological function.

[253] I should here observe that I am intentionally refraining from discussing our problem from the standpoint of the psychology of types. A specialised and somewhat complicated investigation was necessary in order to discover formulations appropriate to the types. For instance, "person" means something totally different to the extrovert from what it does to the introvert. I must content myself here with pointing out the difficulties such a task would involve. In the types, the conscious and real adapted function in childhood is collective, but soon acquires a personal character, and may retain this to the end, unless the individual feels impelled to develop his type to the uttermost. If this happens, the conscious real adapted function attains a degree of perfection which may claim universal validity and therefore bears a collectivistic character, in contrast to its originally collective character. According to this mode of expression collective psyche would be identical with "herd soul" in the individual; but the collectivistic psychology would be a highly differentiated adaptation to society. For the introvert the conscious real adapted function is thinking, which in the lower stages of development is entirely personal, but has a tendency to acquire a universal character of a collectivistic kind; his feeling remains distinctly personal so far as it is conscious, and collective-archaic in so far as it has remained unconscious or is repressed. The opposite applies to the feeling and thought of the extrovert. The introvert is always concerned with the endeavour to preserve the integrity of his ego, which results in a different attitude towards his own person from that of the extrovert, whose adaptation is made through his feelings, even at the cost of his own person. These few sentences indicate into what an extraordinarily difficult situation we should have been led had we considered our problem from the standpoint of the types.

[254] "Psychology of the Unconscious."

[255] That is, of a universal primary propensity or a universal primal aim.

[256] Cp. Silberer: "Probleme der Mystic und ihrer Symbolik." Wien, 1914. ("Problems of Mysticism and its Symbolism.")

[257] It should be borne in mind that no moral function is to be sought in this conception of dreams, nor do I look for it there. This function is just as little "teleological" in the sense of a philosophical teleology, that is to say of a set aim or purpose. It is in the first place compensatory, because it presents a subliminal picture of the actual situation. The phenomenon should first of all be understood from a purely causal standpoint. But it would be unjust to the essence of what is psychological if one were to consider it purely causally. For it does not only tolerate, but also demand, a final point of view. In other words, the question arises, what is the use of bringing just this material to constellation? This is not to assert that the final meaning of a phenomenon had already existed as an a priori given purpose in the preparatory stages of the phenomenon. It would not be permissible, according to the theory of cognition, to presuppose some pre-existing purpose from the unmistakable final meaning of biological mechanisms. But it would be narrow-minded if, with the justifiable omission of the teleological conclusion, one wished also to give up the point of view of finality. The utmost that can be said is, it is as if there were some pre-existing purpose present. In psychology one must be on one's guard against exclusive reliance either upon causality or upon teleology.

Transcriber notes:

P.XXI. 'C. C.' changed to 'C. G.'.

P.22. 'Occasionlly' typo for 'Occasionally', changed.

P.23. 'third kind of taste' changed 'taste' to 'state'.

P.72. 'Our patent develops', 'patent' changed to 'patient'.

P.103. added '+ denotes' in footnote 9 for multiple footnote.

P.201. 'Pyschology' typo for 'Psychology', changed.

P.217. 'unnecessary' typo for 'unnecessary', changed.

P.305. 'casuality' typo for 'causality', changed.

P.340. 'beween' typo for 'between', changed.

P.345. Placed footnote anchor after 'mythological formations', but could be elsewhere on the page. It may be an independant reference to the whole section.

P.384. 'castastrophe' typo for 'catastrophe', changed.

P.451. 'colective' typo for 'collective', changed.

P.471. 'devolopment' typo for 'development' changed.

P.482. in index, 'Hommunculus' is 'Homunculus' in the book, changed.

Fixed various punctuation.

Collected Papers on Analytical Psychology, by C. G. Jung [END][12]


  1. (성경-창세기3:5)너희가 그것을 먹는 날에는 너희 눈이 밝아 하나님과 같이 되어 선악을 알 줄을 하나님이 아심이니라.
  2. (파우스트 1부(The Tragedy) Scene IV The Study-메피스토펠레스(악마)와 학생과의 대화 장면 )https://ko.wikisource.org/wiki/%ED%8C%8C%EC%9A%B0%EC%8A%A4%ED%8A%B8#IV._THE_STUDY_%28The_Compact%29
  3. (구글북- Faust: A Tragedy, Part 1 Scene IV(원서)Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (영문)Bayard taylor 1872)https://books.google.co.kr/books?id=oa8XAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA73&lpg=PA73&dq=Follow+the+ancient+text+and+the+snake+thou+wast+ordered+to+trample!+With+all+thy+likeness+to+God,+thou&source=bl&ots=uU9I2KsLwf&sig=ACfU3U00vYJ8gjKRHwsY3JzLHqQHRoLmXg&hl=ko&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiCgcPR57XjAhUDfd4KHVz5Bk8Q6AEwA3oECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=Follow%20the%20ancient%20text%20and%20the%20snake%20thou%20wast%20ordered%20to%20trample!%20With%20all%20thy%20likeness%20to%20God%2C%20thou&f=false)"Follow the ancient text and the snake thou wast ordered to trample! With all thy likeness to God, thou'lt yet be a sorry example."(MEPHISTOPHELES)
  4. (위키문헌-파우스트 파트1 The Tragedy 씬4-메피스토펠레스)https://ko.wikisource.org/wiki/%ED%8C%8C%EC%9A%B0%EC%8A%A4%ED%8A%B8#IV._THE_STUDY_%28The_Compact%29
  5. (아카이브 - Psychology of the Unconscious )https://archive.org/details/psychologyuncon00junggoog/page/n10
  6. (모노스코프-Psychology of the Unconscious)https://monoskop.org/images/8/8e/Jung_Gustav_Jung_Psychology_of_the_Unconscious_1916.pdf
  7. (위키문헌-무의식의 심리학 ,칼 융)https://ko.wikisource.org/wiki/%EB%AC%B4%EC%9D%98%EC%8B%9D%EC%9D%98_%EC%8B%AC%EB%A6%AC%ED%95%99
  8. (위키낱말사전 -Psyche) 정신, 프시케-https://ko.wiktionary.org/wiki/%ED%94%84%EC%8B%9C%EC%BC%80
  9. (위키낱말사전-페르소나)https://ko.wiktionary.org/wiki/persona
  10. (위키문헌 파우스트2부 ACT 5 Scene 5 Midnight)https://ko.wikisource.org/wiki/%ED%8C%8C%EC%9A%B0%EC%8A%A4%ED%8A%B8/2%EB%B6%80#MIDNIGHT. (Part II 315,316)
  11. 한편 윌리엄 제임스는 '심리적 표현을 하기때문에 심리적 감정을 경험한다'고 하는 제임스-랑게 이론(James-Lange 理論,James-Lange theory)을 주장함으로써 '의지나 행동이 성격과 정서에 결정적인 영향을 끼칠수있다'는 그의 견해 또는 '삶의 결정적인 계기를 통해 삶의 전환점이 되는 심적 변화를 격는다'는 그의 견해를 그의 저서 '심리학의 원리'에서 뿐만아니라 '우리 세대의 가장 위대한 발견은 인간이 마음가짐에서 태도를 바꿔 자신의 삶을 바꿀 수 있다는 것이다.'(The greatest discovery of my generation is that a human being can alter his life by altering his attitudes of mind) 라는 그의 언급을 통해 표현한바있다.
  12. (End of the Project Gutenberg EBook of Collected Papers on Analytical Psychology, by C. G. Jung ) - http://www.gutenberg.org/files/48225/48225-h/48225-h.htm
            • This file should be named 48225-h.htm or 48225-h.zip *****
    This and all associated files of various formats will be found in: http://www.gutenberg.org/4/8/2/2/48225/ Produced by Sami Sieranoja, Jane Robins and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net (This file was produced from images generously made available by The Internet Archive) Updated editions will replace the previous one--the old editions will be renamed. Creating the works from print editions not protected by U.S. copyright law means that no one owns a United States copyright in these works, so the Foundation (and you!) can copy and distribute it in the United States without permission and without paying copyright royalties. Special rules, set forth in the General Terms of Use part of this license, apply to copying and distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works to protect the PROJECT GUTENBERG-tm concept and trademark. Project Gutenberg is a registered trademark, and may not be used if you charge for the eBooks, unless you receive specific permission. If you do not charge anything for copies of this eBook, complying with the rules is very easy. You may use this eBook for nearly any purpose such as creation of derivative works, reports, performances and research. They may be modified and printed and given away--you may do practically ANYTHING in the United States with eBooks not protected by U.S. copyright law. Redistribution is subject to the trademark license, especially commercial redistribution. START: FULL LICENSE THE FULL PROJECT GUTENBERG LICENSE PLEASE READ THIS BEFORE YOU DISTRIBUTE OR USE THIS WORK To protect the Project Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting the free distribution of electronic works, by using or distributing this work (or any other work associated in any way with the phrase "Project Gutenberg"), you agree to comply with all the terms of the Full Project Gutenberg-tm License available with this file or online at www.gutenberg.org/license. Section 1. General Terms of Use and Redistributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works 1.A. By reading or using any part of this Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work, you indicate that you have read, understand, agree to and accept all the terms of this license and intellectual property (trademark/copyright) agreement. If you do not agree to abide by all the terms of this agreement, you must cease using and return or destroy all copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in your possession. If you paid a fee for obtaining a copy of or access to a Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work and you do not agree to be bound by the terms of this agreement, you may obtain a refund from the person or entity to whom you paid the fee as set forth in paragraph 1.E.8. 1.B. "Project Gutenberg" is a registered trademark. It may only be used on or associated in any way with an electronic work by people who agree to be bound by the terms of this agreement. There are a few things that you can do with most Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works even without complying with the full terms of this agreement. See paragraph 1.C below. There are a lot of things you can do with Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works if you follow the terms of this agreement and help preserve free future access to Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works. See paragraph 1.E below. 1.C. The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation ("the Foundation" or PGLAF), owns a compilation copyright in the collection of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works. Nearly all the individual works in the collection are in the public domain in the United States. If an individual work is unprotected by copyright law in the United States and you are located in the United States, we do not claim a right to prevent you from copying, distributing, performing, displaying or creating derivative works based on the work as long as all references to Project Gutenberg are removed. Of course, we hope that you will support the Project Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting free access to electronic works by freely sharing Project Gutenberg-tm works in compliance with the terms of this agreement for keeping the Project Gutenberg-tm name associated with the work. You can easily comply with the terms of this agreement by keeping this work in the same format with its attached full Project Gutenberg-tm License when you share it without charge with others. 1.D. The copyright laws of the place where you are located also govern what you can do with this work. Copyright laws in most countries are in a constant state of change. If you are outside the United States, check the laws of your country in addition to the terms of this agreement before downloading, copying, displaying, performing, distributing or creating derivative works based on this work or any other Project Gutenberg-tm work. The Foundation makes no representations concerning the copyright status of any work in any country outside the United States. 1.E. Unless you have removed all references to Project Gutenberg: 1.E.1. The following sentence, with active links to, or other immediate access to, the full Project Gutenberg-tm License must appear prominently whenever any copy of a Project Gutenberg-tm work (any work on which the phrase "Project Gutenberg" appears, or with which the phrase "Project Gutenberg" is associated) is accessed, displayed, performed, viewed, copied or distributed: This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere in the United States and most other parts of the world at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org. If you are not located in the United States, you'll have to check the laws of the country where you are located before using this ebook. 1.E.2. If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is derived from texts not protected by U.S. copyright law (does not contain a notice indicating that it is posted with permission of the copyright holder), the work can be copied and distributed to anyone in the United States without paying any fees or charges. If you are redistributing or providing access to a work with the phrase "Project Gutenberg" associated with or appearing on the work, you must comply either with the requirements of paragraphs 1.E.1 through 1.E.7 or obtain permission for the use of the work and the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark as set forth in paragraphs 1.E.8 or 1.E.9. 1.E.3. If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is posted with the permission of the copyright holder, your use and distribution must comply with both paragraphs 1.E.1 through 1.E.7 and any additional terms imposed by the copyright holder. Additional terms will be linked to the Project Gutenberg-tm License for all works posted with the permission of the copyright holder found at the beginning of this work. 1.E.4. Do not unlink or detach or remove the full Project Gutenberg-tm License terms from this work, or any files containing a part of this work or any other work associated with Project Gutenberg-tm. 1.E.5. Do not copy, display, perform, distribute or redistribute this electronic work, or any part of this electronic work, without prominently displaying the sentence set forth in paragraph 1.E.1 with active links or immediate access to the full terms of the Project Gutenberg-tm License. 1.E.6. You may convert to and distribute this work in any binary, compressed, marked up, nonproprietary or proprietary form, including any word processing or hypertext form. However, if you provide access to or distribute copies of a Project Gutenberg-tm work in a format other than "Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other format used in the official version posted on the official Project Gutenberg-tm web site (www.gutenberg.org), you must, at no additional cost, fee or expense to the user, provide a copy, a means of exporting a copy, or a means of obtaining a copy upon request, of the work in its original "Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other form. Any alternate format must include the full Project Gutenberg-tm License as specified in paragraph 1.E.1. 1.E.7. Do not charge a fee for access to, viewing, displaying, performing, copying or distributing any Project Gutenberg-tm works unless you comply with paragraph 1.E.8 or 1.E.9. 1.E.8. You may charge a reasonable fee for copies of or providing access to or distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works provided that
    • You pay a royalty fee of 20% of the gross profits you derive from
    the use of Project Gutenberg-tm works calculated using the method you already use to calculate your applicable taxes. The fee is owed to the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark, but he has agreed to donate royalties under this paragraph to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation. Royalty payments must be paid within 60 days following each date on which you prepare (or are legally required to prepare) your periodic tax returns. Royalty payments should be clearly marked as such and sent to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation at the address specified in Section 4, "Information about donations to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation."
    • You provide a full refund of any money paid by a user who notifies
    you in writing (or by e-mail) within 30 days of receipt that s/he does not agree to the terms of the full Project Gutenberg-tm License. You must require such a user to return or destroy all copies of the works possessed in a physical medium and discontinue all use of and all access to other copies of Project Gutenberg-tm works.
    • You provide, in accordance with paragraph 1.F.3, a full refund of
    any money paid for a work or a replacement copy, if a defect in the electronic work is discovered and reported to you within 90 days of receipt of the work.
    • You comply with all other terms of this agreement for free
    distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm works. 1.E.9. If you wish to charge a fee or distribute a Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work or group of works on different terms than are set forth in this agreement, you must obtain permission in writing from both the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation and The Project Gutenberg Trademark LLC, the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark. Contact the Foundation as set forth in Section 3 below. 1.F. 1.F.1. Project Gutenberg volunteers and employees expend considerable effort to identify, do copyright research on, transcribe and proofread works not protected by U.S. copyright law in creating the Project Gutenberg-tm collection. Despite these efforts, Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works, and the medium on which they may be stored, may contain "Defects," such as, but not limited to, incomplete, inaccurate or corrupt data, transcription errors, a copyright or other intellectual property infringement, a defective or damaged disk or other medium, a computer virus, or computer codes that damage or cannot be read by your equipment. 1.F.2. LIMITED WARRANTY, DISCLAIMER OF DAMAGES - Except for the "Right of Replacement or Refund" described in paragraph 1.F.3, the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark, and any other party distributing a Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work under this agreement, disclaim all liability to you for damages, costs and expenses, including legal fees. YOU AGREE THAT YOU HAVE NO REMEDIES FOR NEGLIGENCE, STRICT LIABILITY, BREACH OF WARRANTY OR BREACH OF CONTRACT EXCEPT THOSE PROVIDED IN PARAGRAPH 1.F.3. YOU AGREE THAT THE FOUNDATION, THE TRADEMARK OWNER, AND ANY DISTRIBUTOR UNDER THIS AGREEMENT WILL NOT BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR ACTUAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, CONSEQUENTIAL, PUNITIVE OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES EVEN IF YOU GIVE NOTICE OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. 1.F.3. LIMITED RIGHT OF REPLACEMENT OR REFUND - If you discover a defect in this electronic work within 90 days of receiving it, you can receive a refund of the money (if any) you paid for it by sending a written explanation to the person you received the work from. If you received the work on a physical medium, you must return the medium with your written explanation. The person or entity that provided you with the defective work may elect to provide a replacement copy in lieu of a refund. If you received the work electronically, the person or entity providing it to you may choose to give you a second opportunity to receive the work electronically in lieu of a refund. If the second copy is also defective, you may demand a refund in writing without further opportunities to fix the problem. 1.F.4. Except for the limited right of replacement or refund set forth in paragraph 1.F.3, this work is provided to you 'AS-IS', WITH NO OTHER WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PURPOSE. 1.F.5. Some states do not allow disclaimers of certain implied warranties or the exclusion or limitation of certain types of damages. If any disclaimer or limitation set forth in this agreement violates the law of the state applicable to this agreement, the agreement shall be interpreted to make the maximum disclaimer or limitation permitted by the applicable state law. The invalidity or unenforceability of any provision of this agreement shall not void the remaining provisions. 1.F.6. INDEMNITY - You agree to indemnify and hold the Foundation, the trademark owner, any agent or employee of the Foundation, anyone providing copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in accordance with this agreement, and any volunteers associated with the production, promotion and distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works, harmless from all liability, costs and expenses, including legal fees, that arise directly or indirectly from any of the following which you do or cause to occur: (a) distribution of this or any Project Gutenberg-tm work, (b) alteration, modification, or additions or deletions to any Project Gutenberg-tm work, and (c) any Defect you cause. Section 2. Information about the Mission of Project Gutenberg-tm Project Gutenberg-tm is synonymous with the free distribution of electronic works in formats readable by the widest variety of computers including obsolete, old, middle-aged and new computers. It exists because of the efforts of hundreds of volunteers and donations from people in all walks of life. Volunteers and financial support to provide volunteers with the assistance they need are critical to reaching Project Gutenberg-tm's goals and ensuring that the Project Gutenberg-tm collection will remain freely available for generations to come. In 2001, the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation was created to provide a secure and permanent future for Project Gutenberg-tm and future generations. To learn more about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation and how your efforts and donations can help, see Sections 3 and 4 and the Foundation information page at www.gutenberg.org Section 3. Information about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation is a non profit 501(c)(3) educational corporation organized under the laws of the state of Mississippi and granted tax exempt status by the Internal Revenue Service. The Foundation's EIN or federal tax identification number is 64-6221541. Contributions to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation are tax deductible to the full extent permitted by U.S. federal laws and your state's laws. The Foundation's principal office is in Fairbanks, Alaska, with the mailing address: PO Box 750175, Fairbanks, AK 99775, but its volunteers and employees are scattered throughout numerous locations. Its business office is located at 809 North 1500 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84116, (801) 596-1887. Email contact links and up to date contact information can be found at the Foundation's web site and official page at www.gutenberg.org/contact For additional contact information: Dr. Gregory B. Newby Chief Executive and Director gbnewby@pglaf.org Section 4. Information about Donations to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation Project Gutenberg-tm depends upon and cannot survive without wide spread public support and donations to carry out its mission of increasing the number of public domain and licensed works that can be freely distributed in machine readable form accessible by the widest array of equipment including outdated equipment. Many small donations ($1 to $5,000) are particularly important to maintaining tax exempt status with the IRS. The Foundation is committed to complying with the laws regulating charities and charitable donations in all 50 states of the United States. Compliance requirements are not uniform and it takes a considerable effort, much paperwork and many fees to meet and keep up with these requirements. We do not solicit donations in locations where we have not received written confirmation of compliance. To SEND DONATIONS or determine the status of compliance for any particular state visit www.gutenberg.org/donate While we cannot and do not solicit contributions from states where we have not met the solicitation requirements, we know of no prohibition against accepting unsolicited donations from donors in such states who approach us with offers to donate. International donations are gratefully accepted, but we cannot make any statements concerning tax treatment of donations received from outside the United States. U.S. laws alone swamp our small staff. Please check the Project Gutenberg Web pages for current donation methods and addresses. Donations are accepted in a number of other ways including checks, online payments and credit card donations. To donate, please visit: www.gutenberg.org/donate Section 5. General Information About Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works. Professor Michael S. Hart was the originator of the Project Gutenberg-tm concept of a library of electronic works that could be freely shared with anyone. For forty years, he produced and distributed Project Gutenberg-tm eBooks with only a loose network of volunteer support. Project Gutenberg-tm eBooks are often created from several printed editions, all of which are confirmed as not protected by copyright in the U.S. unless a copyright notice is included. Thus, we do not necessarily keep eBooks in compliance with any particular paper edition. Most people start at our Web site which has the main PG search facility: www.gutenberg.org This Web site includes information about Project Gutenberg-tm, including how to make donations to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, how to help produce our new eBooks, and how to subscribe to our email newsletter to hear about new eBooks.